ILLNESSOPEDIA

Free Online Database Of Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments

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3977 results found for "I"



  • 11 Beta Hydroxylase Deficiency
    It is important to understand what congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is before the nature of 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency can be fully explained. CAH refers to any one of the many autosomal recessive illnesses that result from flaws in cortisol synthesis steps done by the adrenal glands. All of the types of CAH have either overproduction or malfunctioning of sex steroids. 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency is just one of the types of CAH and is a result of mutation in the gene called CYP11B1. This type is next only to 21-hydroxylase deficiency when it comes to its prevalence, comprising only 5-8% of the entire number of cases. [read more]

  • 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency
    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency also known as (11beta-HSD2) is one of the most common causes of retention of sodium and serious cases of hypertension. This happens when glucocorticoids are admitted to the mineralocorticosteroid receptors which are non-selective. [read more]

  • 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency
    17 Alpha hydroxylase deficiency syndrome is a very rare disorder of the genes (specifically on steroid biosynthesis) which causes reduced production of sex steroids and glucocorticoids while the mineralocorticoid precursors are observed to have increased synthesis. It is, therefore, an autosomal recessive condition. The absence or deficiency of 17 hydroxylase results into many sexual malformations and illnesses. [read more]

  • 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    The hormones estrogen and androgen play critical roles in the development of sexual organs. 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozyme (17?-HSD) acts as a catalyst between the biologically inactive and active types of hormones. Any deviation from this normal process results into various abnormal conditions. [read more]

  • 1p36 Deletion Syndrome, rare (NIH)
    1p36 deletion syndrome also known as monosomy 1p36 is a disorder of the chromosomes in which chromosome 1 loses the end part of its short arm. This disorder was first depicted during the late 90's and the early parts of 2000's. FISH testing is often required to be able to confirm a diagnosis. This condition can occur as a ‘pure' case or it can occur together with other imbalances of the chromosome. [read more]

  • 21 hydroxylase deficiency
    21-hydroxylase deficiency is also called as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and is a disorder that is often inherited. This disorder affects the adrenal glands which are located above the kidneys and these glands produce hormones that are responsible for regulating many important human body functions. The two hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are produced by an enzyme called the 21-hydroxylase. Patients that have 21-hydroxylase deficiency lack the 21-hydroxylase enzyme which then affects the cholesterol conversion to aldosterone and cortisol. When the precursors of these two hormones are stored excessively in the adrenal glands, they are changed into androgens (which are male sex hormones). Whether the patient is male or female, growth development could be hampered because of this deficiency. [read more]

  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, rare (NIH)
    The disorder known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by the deficiency or deletion of a tiny piece of chromosome 22. This deletion happens near the midsection of a chromosome located at q 11.2. [read more]

  • 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3B HSD) is a very rare disorder of the genes involving steroid biosynthesis. This deficiency results into the decrease on the production of adrenal steroid groups which are inclusive of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and the sex steroids. A decrease on the secretion of mineralocorticoid would result into various salt wasting degrees in males and females. And for the 46 XY males, a deficiency in androgen would result into ambiguous genitals (the females are seen with enlarged clitoris). [read more]

  • 3 methylglutaconyl coa hydratase deficiency
    The enzyme called 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase is involved in amino acid (Leucine) metabolism. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria together with other enzymes of catabolic leucine. When an individual has a deficiency of 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase, 3-methylglutaconic acid is excreted massively and the impaired leucine breaks down. Very few patients have been reported with this type of deficiency but its occurrence is a reality, nonetheless. There a few severe clinical cases that have been reported which resulted because of this deficiency. Some patients have developed severe cardiopulmonary manifestations as soon as they were born; others have been reported to have psychomotor retardation; other cases include hypotonia, seizures, spasticity and thriving failure. Carnitine levels are at their lowest with this deficiency occurs. There are also rare cases of recurrent acidosis (seen in cases of fasting that has been prolonged). There was also a reported case of speech retardation. [read more]

  • 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency
    LCHAD or the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of the components of the trifunctional protein of mitochondria. When a person becomes deficient of LCHAD activity, he will soon show various manifestations of his inherited condition. [read more]

  • 3-methyl crotonyl-coa carboxylase deficiency
    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency is known by many names. It is also called as 3MCC deficiency, Methylcrotonylglycinuria type 1, or BMCC. This is a disorder that can be inherited where the human body becomes incapable of properly processing some proteins. Those who suffer from this deficiency have an insufficient supply of leucine-breaking enzyme. Leucine is an amino acid which is a protein base. [read more]

  • 3-methyl glutaconic aciduria
    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria also known as MGA is a term that is used to depict at least 5 varying disorders which makes the body incapable of creating mitochondrial energy. Due to this impairment, 3-methylglutaric acid and 3-methylglutaconic acid create a buildup and their presence can be detected in the patient's urine. 3-Methylglutaconic acid, by classification, is an organic acid. The potency of this acid is made possible by the roles of the double carboxylic acids. The acid function makes the 3-methylglutaconic acid detectable. [read more]

  • 3C Syndrome
    3C syndrome is also known as cranio-cerebello cardiac (CCC dysplasia) or Ritscher-Schinzel (named after Ritscher and Schinzel who discovered the illness) and is a very rare case of disease. This syndrome is characterized by heart defects or heart malformations and other symptoms that involve the brain. As of 2006, a Kuwaiti medical journal showed that only 30 cases have been reported worldwide and these cases were discovered in Europe and North America. Due to the limited number of cases reported, this disease was classified as a rare type of illness. The molecular basis for this syndrome is still unknown. [read more]

  • 3M Syndrome
    3M syndrome is known by many names. It can also be called as Three M syndrome or dolicospondylic dysplasia; le Merrer syndrome or gloomy syndrome (because prevalent symptoms show malformities on the patients' faces). This is a very rare illness where only 32 patients have been reported to have acquired it. Its name originated from the names of the authors who first described the characteristics of the illness. The authors' names were Miller, J.D., Malvaux P. and the third is McKusick, V.A. No mental retardation has been mentioned as a result of 3M. This disorder is known as an autosomal recessive trait of the genes and can be inherited. [read more]

  • 46,xx gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid
    46 Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid can be best described as a female in her adolescent period that experiences no changes even during this age of puberty. This is because this disorder is a type of female hypogonadism. When this disorder is acquired, the ovaries do not develop and function to perform their duties. With this type of disorder, female patients experience a deficiency in their supply of estrogen while the LH and FSH levels are at their peak. It is advisable to give the patient hormonal treatments such as the introduction of estrogen and progesterone to the body. [read more]

  • 47 XXY Syndrome
    47 XXY syndrome is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome, or simply, the XXY syndrome. Chromosome aneuploidy causes the occurrence of this condition. The male patients develop an extra X chromosome. Typically, males should have one each of the X and the Y chromosomes. Patients who suffer from this condition have smaller testicles when compared to their normal male counterparts and thus, they acquire problems on infertility. There are very few symptoms to this syndrome and the cases vary among boys and men. The term for this illness was named after an endocrinologist, Harry Klinefelter. 1942 was the year when he first described the XXY syndrome. The patients who suffer with XXY syndrome are called XXY males or 47,XXY males. [read more]

  • 47 XYY Syndrome
    The XYY syndrome should never be interchanged with the XXY syndrome which is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome. XYY syndrome is a condition when a male patient acquires an extra Y chromosome in addition to the normal one X and one Y chromosomes. It is often argued whether the term ‘syndrome' should be used in connection to the XYY condition since the patients' phenotypes are normal and they do not have knowledge of their karyotype. [read more]

  • 48,XXXX Syndrome
    48 XXXX syndrome is a very rare disorder of the chromosomes where the normal XX combination becomes a quadruple X grouping. This condition is also called tetrasomy X, 48, XXXX or quadruple X and is only seen among females as there is no Y chromosome involved. The first occurrence of this disorder was discovered in 1961 and since then, there are about 100 reported cases globally. [read more]

  • 48,XXYY Syndrome
    Previously known to be a variant or type of the Klinefelter's syndrome, this condition is an anomaly of the sex chromosome. The features usually include gynecomastia (having enlarged male breasts), ulcers of the skin, deformed craniofacial features, and being unusually tall. It is also believed to affect 1 in every 17,000 male babies that are born. XXYY is just one of the many variations of chromosomal defects which include the following: 47 xxy, xy, xxxxy, and xxxy; also the xyy. These syndromes affect males whereas female counterparts include the Turner syndrome and other varieties with added X chromosomes. [read more]

  • 49 XXXXX Syndrome
    The 49 XXXXX syndrome (also called as Penta X or pentasomy X) is a chromosomal condition that affects females. In a normal setup, females have only two X chromosomes and anything beyond this is abnormal. In the case of Penta X syndrome, there are an additional three X chromosomes which now totals five. The three additional X chromosomes are the ones that cause multiple problems. These extra X chromosomes are formed together with the two healthy chromosomes inside the nucleus of the human body cells. [read more]

  • Aagenaes syndrome
    Aagenaes syndrome is a condition which is characterized by inborn hypoplasia of the lymph vessels. This eventually causes recurring cholestasis on the formative years lymphedema on the legs. This could develop into hepatic cirrhosis and giant cell hepatitis (which could occur with portal tract fibrosis). The name of Aagenaes syndrome was derived from a pediatrician in Norway named Oystein Aagenaes. The name was finalized in 1968 when the condition was first described by Aagenaes. It is sometimes called cholestasis-lymphedema syndrome or simply CLS. [read more]

  • Aarskog Ose Pande Syndrome
    Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is a rare type of medical disorder where the main symptoms include lipodystrophy on the buttocks and face. Since this is an adipose tissue defect, the loss of body fat in the body could get severe and this state could progress extensively. There are three kinds of lipodystrophy: localized lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and total lipodystrophy. One other symptom is Rieger anomaly. This anomaly is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of teeth (it could also mean the delay of tooth eruption) and some abnormalities of the eyes and face. Having sparse hair is also a common sign. This does not only mean hair on one's head but also body hairs. Other defects include retardation of bone age and abnormal motion of the joints (which could eventually lead to dislocation). This syndrome could begin to affect the patient as early as the fetal stage. It could ruin the growth of the fetus in the uterus by slowing its development. When this happens, many other systems are affected. Development of the patient's skills on speech could also be delayed when this disorder is acquired. This and all other symptoms are similar to characteristics of many other diseases that is why the physician should perform a thorough checkup of the patient to be able to diagnose the real condition. Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is also considered as a variant of Short syndrome. This symptom does not only mean having a short stature but also having low weight at birth and fat losses on the skin. [read more]

  • Aarskog Syndrome
    Aarskog syndrome is an inherited disorder that is often characterized by abnormalities of the face, short stature, genital abnormalities and mucoloskeletal anomalies. [read more]

  • Aase Smith syndrome (or Aase syndrome)
    Aase Smith syndrome also known as Aase syndrome is a very rare disorder that can be inherited. It is often characterized by skeletal and joint defects. Aase syndrome is known as an autosomal dominant condition. The genetic origin of the illness is still not known. Anemia which results from this syndrome is often caused by the underdevelopment of bone marrows. These bone marrows are where formation of blood cells takes place. The syndrome was named after two pediatricians who were David Weyhe Smith and Jon Morton Aase. [read more]

  • Aase Syndrome
    Aase syndrome is a rare congenital defect characterized by anemia accompanied with certain skeletal deformities. [read more]

  • Aaviophobia
    Aaviophobia is a fear of being on a plane while in flight. Other names include aviatophobia, aerophobia, and pteromerhanophobia. The condition is considered more of a symptom rather than a disease. When fear of flying reaches a level that can significantly interfere with a person's ability to travel by plane, it will then be classified as fear of flying. [read more]

  • Abasia
    Abasia is a condition where the patient is unable to walk due to impaired muscle synchronization. This means that the patient lacks motor synchronization in walking. With this condition, the foundation of gait (this is the distance of the two feet when measured sideways) is not constant or cannot be measured. This often leads the patient to sway from side to side or in any other direction, nearly falls, only to recover in the end. There are many other medical conditions that are connected to this disorder: choreic abasia (brought about by chorea of the leg); paralytic abasia (this is a paralysis of the muscles in the legs); spastic abasia (a condition where the leg muscles stiffen because they do not coordinate properly); ataxic abasia (legs become ataxic); paroxysmal trepidant abasia (a condition where the legs become spastic); trembling abasia (by its name, it means trembling legs). Abasia often comes with astasis (this is the state of being unable to stand). This condition is also referred to as astasia-abasia. [read more]

  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be diagnosed on anyone but the most viable candidates are men aged over 60. Couple this range of age with some of the common risk factors and the patient is on his way to developing this condition. This disorder happens when a blood vessel enlarges abnormally or causes a protrusion. The abdominal aorta, which is a huge blood vessel, is the one responsible in supplying blood to the abdomen, the legs and the pelvic area. When this abdominal aortic aneurysm raptures, is truly becomes life-threatening and should be attended to immediately. [read more]

  • Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma
    Cystic lymphangioma is a very rare tumor (comprises just about 6% of tumors that are benign in children) which is often located in the axillary or cervical regions. Sometimes, there are exceptional cases where it is situated in the abdomen. When it is situated in the abdomen, it becomes a rare type of benign tumor which often appears in infants and some children under the age of 5. Boys are more vulnerable to this disease. Abdominal cystic lymphangioma happens when there is an inborn defect in the link of central connecting structure and the primary lymphatic channel. This manifests in abdominal tumors which could occur even without any compression from structures that are adjacent to that part. When clinically tested, these cysts appear as pseudo appendices or pseudo-ascites syndrome. [read more]

  • Abdominal Defects
    Defects of the abdominal wall are comparatively common fetal abnormalities. It occurs in about 1 in every 2,000 births. Majority of these defects of the abdominal wall cannot be detected early on in pregnancy. When a defect is detected, it is necessary to pinpoint what type of defect it is so that proper medication and treatments can be done. There are many types of abdominal wall disorders. Some examples include: gastroschisis, omphalocele, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia. [read more]

  • Abdominal Migraine
    Abdominal migraine is a kind of migraine commonly experienced by children. It is characterized by abdominal pain, vomiting and nausea. These migraines are thought to be present in the child's family members as well. [read more]

  • Abdominal Pain
    Abdominal pain is is a medical condition that is characterized by the occurrence of the pain felt in the abdomen. [read more]

  • Abercrombie Syndrome
    Abercrombie syndrome, also known as amyloid degeneration, is a progressive decay of the organ tissues due to the excessive amyloid infiltration that eats up the tissue fibers. It is sometimes known as waxy degeneration. [read more]

  • Aberrant subclavian artery
    Aberrant subclavian artery is also known as the aberrant subclavian artery syndrome. This condition is a rare anatomical variety of the source of the left or the right subclavian artery. This abnormality has the most number of cases when it comes to the anomaly of inborn vascular aortic arch. The aberrant artery commonly occurs just distal on the left portion of the subclavian artery. It then passes later to the mediastinum when it is on its way to the upper right extremities. This course may be the root cause of a vascular ring about the mediastinal makeup. [read more]

  • Abetalipoproteinemia
    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare hereditary disorder that hinders regular absorption of fact from digested food. Patients with the disease lack the vitamins A, D, E and K. [read more]

  • Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome or AMS is a very uncommon genetic disorder that can be inherited. This syndrome is characterized by various physical defects which usually affect areas of the face, fingers, skin, and the genitalia (penis symptoms and some defects on the testes). Patients of AMS could also have other malformations on their abdominal walls or on their nipples. Other traits include having underdeveloped eyelids (or Ablepharon); the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes; mouths that look like that of a fish's (also known as Macrostomia); cracked skin; ears that appear to be low-set (also known as pinnae). The eye defects could appear due to ablepharon. Some people with AMS could also have very thin or sparse hair (alopecia); their skin appears to be wrinkled, dry, coarse, or thick; their fingers could also be webbed and with inadequate extension; the genitalia could have external malformations. In very few cases of Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome, the patient could have little or no nipples at all (having small nipples is known as hypoplastic nipples). One of the worst characteristics could be the protrusion of some parts of the large intestine through a dilated portion of the abdominal wall (this condition is called ventral or abdominal hernia). Infants and children who suffer from AMS may have some delays on the development of their language skills. Some of them may manifest signs of mild retardation of the mind while others may grow up to be normal. A disorder that appears to have the same features as Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is the Barber-say syndrome. The latter is characterized by laxity of the skin; ablepharon; hypertelorism, macrostomia, telecanthus, acute hirsutism, and helix agenesis of the pair of ears. Less common signs of AMS include undescended testes and hernia on the umbilicus. [read more]

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
    Abnormal uterine bleeding refers to the excessive flow of blood during menstruation. The common symptoms of this condition are a massive menstrual discharge accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen. [read more]

  • Abscess
    Abscess is a collection of pus or dead neutrophils that has mount up in a cavity made by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process or other foreign materials. [read more]

  • Abscess Bartholin
    Abscess, bartholin (Bartholin's abscess) is characterized by the accumulation of pus that results in the formation of a lump or swelling in one of the Batholin glands, which are located on each side of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Absence Seizure
    Absence seizure is more commonly known as the petit mal seizure that involves some a brief episodes or some sudden lapse of conscious activity. This occurs most often in children. Absence seizure may often look like the individual is only staring into space for a several seconds. This means in comparison to the regular epileptic seizures, the petit mal is very mild. However, some people may suffer from hundreds of episodes a day, which interrupts ordinary activities. [read more]

  • Absent T lymphocytes
    The deficiency or absence of T lymphocytes is a rare immuno-deficiency condition which is characterized by the lack of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the absence or depression of the function of the T cell. A mutation of the gene for ZAP-70 (tyrosine kinase which has notable effects on indicating through the T cell receptor) has been associated with this syndrome. T cells are cells that belong to a cluster of white blood cells which are known as the lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are responsible in cell-mediated immunity. They are distinguished from the other types of lymphocytes (the NK cells and the B cells) through the presence of a specific receptor on the surface of these cells. This receptor is called as T cell receptor or the TCR. The T abbreviation in T cell refers to thymus which is the primary organ in the development of the T cell. [read more]

  • Abt-Letterer-Siwe Disease
    The Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease is a rare but rapidly progressive form of hystiocytosis. This condition is brought about by excessively high levels of hystiocytesin the bone marrow. This disease is difficult to treat, and is associated with diabetes insipidius. [read more]

  • Acanthamoeba Infection
    Acanthamoeba refers to the microscopic and free-living ameba that is relatively found to be quite common in the environment. This ameba can cause a number of infections that affects human beings called acanthamoeba infection. [read more]

  • Acanthocheilonemiasis
    Acanthocheilonemiasis is an uncommon tropical infectious illness which is caused by Acanthocheilonema perstans, a parasite. This parasite causes rashes of the skin, chest and abdominal pains, joint and muscle pains, lumps on the skin and also neurologic defects. This disease is often transmitted when small flies bite the victim and the bite has the parasite with it. The scientific name of the fly that transmits the ‘infectious bite' is A.Coliroides. Studies manifest that the white blood cell levels at elevated when the parasite is present in the human body. Acanthocheilonemiasis belongs to the parasitic diseases group which is called nematode or filarial diseases. This disease is often found in Africa only because the parasite is found abundantly on this region. Uganda, specifically, has had a lot of reported cases. A handful of patients were found in South America. Other names for this disease are Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans, Dipetalonema perstans, Mansonella perstans, and Dipetalonemiasis. [read more]

  • Acanthocheilonemiasis Perstans
    Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans is a tropical contagious illness characterized by purities, pain in the chest and abdomen an enlarged spleen. This is a rare disease caused by the bit of flies known as A. coliroides that can be found in Africa. The disease can be treated by antibiotics and is diagnosed by laboratory tests showing elevated amounts of white blood cells. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis
    Acanthocytosis is a phenotype of the red cell which can be found in different fundamental conditions. Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome or Abetalipoproteinemia; and an acute disease of the liver (spur cell hemolytic anemia) are the most common conditions that can be associated with acanthocytosis. Acantha is a Greek word for thorn and it is fitting that it is given to name the spur cells that have projections of different sizes which are the acanthocytes. These cells appear to be contracted, irregular, and dense. The formation of these cells depends on the alteration of the fat composition and the fluidity of red cell's membrane. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis chorea
    The mean age of the start of chorea-acanthocystosis or ChAc is approximately at age 35. There are a few cases, though, where it can occur as early as the initial decade or it can be as late as the 70th year of life. It runs a persistent progressive course and it may end up as a major disability in just a few years. Some patients become dependent on wheelchairs or become bedridden just on the third decade. It is certain that the individual's life expectancy will be reduced; there are even cases of unexplained or sudden deaths when the patient goes through an epileptic seizure. The range of the patients' ages at death is at 28-61 years. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis-Neurologic Disorder
    Acanthocytosis-Neurologic disorder, also known as neuroacanthocytosis, is a rare automsomal recessive disorder. This disease is characterized by muscle degeneration due to uncontrolled muscle movements and dysfunctional red blood cells. This disease usually begins during early adulthood. [read more]

  • Acanthosis nigricans
    Acanthosis Nigricans is a dermatological condition where the skin appears to be brown to black in color. It also appears to be poorly defined, often velvety and is considered to be a state of hyperpigmentation. This is usually present in the lateral and posterior folds of the groin, the neck, the axilla, the umbilicus, and also some other areas. The changes on the skin's pigment are the sole signs of acanthosis nigricans. It can be noticed that it appears very slowly (sometimes it can take months or years). It is very rare that the affected areas may itch. This condition can begin at any age but it is more evident among darker-skinned individuals. [read more]

  • Acanthotic Nevus
    Acanthotic nevus is an alternate name for seborrheic keratosis. It is a rare skin disease that consists of discolored lesions that appear to be oily. Since these lesions seem to be stuck on the epidermis, they are sometimes mistaken for cancerous growths. Acanthotic nevus develops usually on people who are above the age of 40. Among the symptoms of this disease is itching, swelling of lesions as well as irritability. Surgical treatment may be needed to remove the lesions. [read more]

  • Accessory pancreas
    Accessory pancreas is a medical condition that is rare and in which there are little clusters of pancreatic cells that are distinct from the pancreas. This condition could occur in the mesentery of small intestines, duodenal walls, the upper portion of the jejunum or, in its rarest form—in the stomach walls, spleen, ileum or gallbladder. Accessory pancreas was first observed and described in 1859 by Klob. [read more]

  • Accutane Embryopathy
    Accutane embryopathy is a set of congenital defects incurred by an infant due to the mother's intake of the drug accutane. An infant with accutane embryopathy is borne with malformations in the face and internal organs and abnormalities in the central nervous system. Pregnant women are likewise advised not to take accutane during pregnancy, and as well consume vitamin A-rich foods to maintain healthy skin. [read more]

  • Achalasia
    Achalasia also called esophageal achalasia; cardiospasm, achalasia cardiae; dyssynergia esophagus or esophageal aperistalsis; is an esophageal motility disease. This disorder manifests an impaired peristalsis of the smooth muscle level of the esophagus. Peristalsis is the term used to describe the muscular capability of the esophagus to make the food move down to the stomach). Also, a patient with achalasia has a lower esophageal sphincter or LES that cannot relax which is its normal response to swallowing. The most common form of this disorder is primary achalasia. This form has no recorded underlying cause. Esophageal cancer (Chagas disease in South America) could be a result of achalasia. [read more]

  • Achard-Thiers syndrome
    The Achard Thiers syndrome, also called the Diabetic Bearded Woman syndrome or diabete des femmes a barbe, is a rare disease which occurs commonly among women who are in their postmenopausal stage. Its name was derived from the combination of the names of Joseph Thiers and Emile Achard. This is characterized by insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (an example is glucosuria) and also indications of excess in androgen. This syndrome has the combined features of Cushing syndrome and Adrenogenital syndrome. It is a form of virilizing disease which is adrenocortical in origin. And since androgen is excessive on this disease, the common manifestations are masculinization (the voice pitch is lowered) and menstrual disorders (the menstrual flow can be sparse or non-existent). There are also cases of growth of ‘manly hair' all over the body. The most common complication of this disorder is hirsutism. [read more]

  • Acheiropodia
    Acheiropodia is a disorder that is autosomal recessive in nature and which results into hemimelia (or the lack of distal extremities formation). This is an inborn defect consisting of aplasia of the patient's feet and hands and also distal lower and upper extremities bilateral amputations. This disease is found almost solely in Brazil. Other terms for this disorder include Acheiropody, Horn Kolb syndrome and Aleijadinhos (the Brazilian kind). [read more]

  • Achilles Tendinitis
    Achilles Tendinitis is inflammation ans irritation of the Achilles tendon usually resulting due to sudden increase in the intensity or frequency of exercise. [read more]

  • Achilles Tendon Rupture
    The Achilles tendon rupture is the damage of the large and fibrous cord that naturally connects the lower leg to the heel bone. The person may initially hear a snap followed by a sharp pain at the back of the ankle as well as in the lower leg. Such injuries may be improved with home treatment. However, more often than not, a surgical repair is required. [read more]

  • Acholuric Jaundice
    Acholuric jaundice is a form of jaundice in which there is no bile in the urine. This is hereditary disorder in which bililrubin was not able to produce bile pigments causing now yellowish color on the organs and the skin. [read more]

  • Achondrogenesis
    Marco Fraccaro was the very first person to observe and record the description of achondrogenesis in the year 1952. Fraccaro used this name in description of a stillborn female who was afflicted with acute micromelia and apparent changes on her histological cartilage. This term was then coined to characterize many more acute kinds of chondrodysplasia among humans. The conditions were invariably lethal on pre and post births. When the 70's came, researchers have concluded that the disorder is a part of a heterogenous cluster of chondrodysplasias that are fatal to neonates. Histological and radiological measures have distinguished the achondrogenesis type 1 (which is the Fraccaro-Houston-Harris kind) and the type 2 (or the Langer-Saldino kind). 1983 marked a new radiological category of the disease (Types 1-4). This was done by Gorlin and Whitley and was adapted by the McKusick catalog. This classification describes types 1 and 2 as having similar femoral cylinder indeces (or Clfemur which is calculated as the length of the femur bone divided by the range of the width of the same bone. Both kinds have stellate elongated bones and crenated ilia. Both types 1 and 2 are characterized by several rib fractures. Type 3 has ribs that are non-fractured, mushroom-stemmed elongated bones, halberd ilia, and a Clfemur 2.8 to 4.9. The last type (type 4) has sculpted ilia, long bones that are well-developed, non-fractured ribs and Clfemur measured at 4.9 to 8.0. The late 80's was the time when mutations on the collagen II structure were depicted to cause achondrogenesis type 3 (which might also correspond to type 2). At present, only 3 variants of the disorder have been identified and they are type IA or the Houston-Harris type; type IB (or the Parenti-Fraccaro type); and type II (or the Langer-Saldino type). [read more]

  • Achondroplasia
    Achondroplasia is a kind of autosomal disorder of the dominant genes which commonly causes dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs are short in stature and their average height when they reach adulthood is at 123 centimeters (about 4 feet and 0.6 inches) for females and 131 centimeters (about 4 feet and 3.8 inches) for males. [read more]

  • Achondroplastic Dwarfism
    Achondroplastic Dwarfism is a medical condition characterized by the occurrence of the disturbance of the growth of the bones. [read more]

  • Achromatopsia
    Achromatopsia or ACHM is a condition where the patient is unable to perceive color. Although this name may also be used to refer to acquired defects such as cerebral achromatopsia or color agnosia, it normally refers to a congenital disorder of the vision which is autosomal recessive in nature. It can also be called rod monochromacy or total inborn color blindness. Patients with this kind of disorder manifest total absence of the cone cell activity through electroretinography. At least 4 causes are listed as congenital ACHM: ACHM2 and ACHM3; the third type is a cone photoreceptor transducin called GNAT2, ACHM4; the last cause is still unknown. [read more]

  • Acid Beta-Glucosidase Deficiency
    Acid Beta-glucosidase deficiency is a rare genetic biochemical defect characterized by the lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme in the body. This is usually presented by a greater tendency to form bruises, fatigue, femoral head necrosis and an enlarged abdomen. It is sometimes called Gaucher's disease. [read more]

  • Acid Ceramidase Deficiency
    Acid Ceramidase deficiency, also known as Farber's disease, is a rare infantile disease that is characterized by multiple ceramide containing nodules underneath the skin. These nodules can cause swelling in the abdominal area, painful swelling of arteries and psychomotor retardation. No specific treatment is yet discovered to treat the disease. [read more]

  • Acid maltase deficiency
    Acid maltase deficiency or AMD is a type of autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by an extreme buildup of glycogen contained by vacuoles (in almost all cell types) that are lysosome-derived. Quantities of free extralysosomal glycogen that are in excess have also been depicted. AMD was first observed and described by JC Pompe in 1932 at Amsterdam. He reported a case of a baby girl, aged 7 months, who became chronically ill from what they believed to be pneumonia. The autopsy that was done later showed an uncommonly engorged heart but with normal valves. This condition was called cardiomegalia glycogenica diffusa by Pompe. He considered it as a disorder that is analogous to the von Gierke syndrome. This very first article was soon followed by reports that seemed similar. The two other authors described the children as afflicted with cardiomegaly and acute muscle weakness. They died in their early infancy. Their disease was linked to an excess in the deposition of glycogen in numerous tissues. This disorder was then named the Pompe disease and by the year 1957, it was typified as type 2 glycogenosis by GT Cori. [read more]

  • Acid Reflux
    Acid reflux is a result of the inflammation of the esophagus due to the presence of gastric acid coming from the stomach. It is commonly known as heartburn. Acid reflux can be treated by weight loss management and medications that help reduce gastric acid production, as well as surgical procedures. [read more]

  • Acidemia, isovaleric
    Isovaleric Acidemia or isovaleric aciduria is an autosomal metabolic illness which prevents or disturbs the normal metabolism of branched-chain amino acid leucine. It is a traditional form of organic academia. [read more]

  • Acidemia, propionic
    Propionic acidemia also known as propionic aciduria or ketotic glycinemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder which is characterized by the deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase (an enzyme that is involved in breaking down the amino acids). It is categorized as branched-chain organic acidemia which often presents symptoms early on in the neonatal period which comes with progressive encephalopathy. [read more]

  • Acinetobacter Infection
    Acinetobacter refers to a particular group of bacteria that is commonly found in soil as well as in water. It can also thrive in the healthy skins of people, especially among healthcare personnel, causing all types of diseases. The acinetobacter infection is mostly contracted inside a healthcare facility. [read more]

  • ACL Injury
    Athletes are more likely to suffer from anterior cruciate ligament injury or ACL, but quite uncommon for the general public who are not subjected to strenuous physical activities. An anterior cruciate is one of the two ligaments that crosses in the middle of the knee, connecting the thighbone and the shinbone. Hard twisting or some sudden stop while landing, running or a direct blow to the knee can injure the ACL. [read more]

  • Acne
    Acne vulgaris or just acne is a common skin disease which is caused by changes on the pilosebaceous units (structures of the skin which consist of sebaceous gland and a hair follicle). The severe cases of acne are often inflamed but it can also show up as non-inflamed. Lesions are common and they are called spots, zits or pimples. This condition is common during the stage of puberty (affecting about 85% of teeners) while some cases carry on to adulthood. Most acne cases diminish and then disappear over time and this begins during the early twenties of an individual's life. There are no means of predicting when the disease will totally disappear because some cases continue even when the person is already in his thirties or forties. Acne is an altered form of the Greek word akun (or skin eruption). The vernacular name bakne or bacne is used often to specify acne that is found at the back of a person. [read more]

  • Acne Cystic
    Acne Cystic otherwise known as the nodulocystic acne or the pseudo scars, is a medical condition that refers to an acne that usually developed into a small cysts. [read more]

  • Acne Excori
    Acne excori?e is another type of acne and is more commonly known as picker's acne since it primarily occurs when the individual picks at the acne lesions. This type of acne is quite common among girls. Emotional problems such as anxiety and depression often accompanies this skin condition. [read more]

  • Acne Keloidalis Nuchae
    Acne keloidalis nuchae typically develops and affects the back of the head as well as the nape. This is caused by the hairs that grow into skin causing an inflammation and scarring. This condition has been found to be most common among people with curly and stiff hairs. [read more]

  • Acne rosacea
    Acne rosacea or simply Rosacea is a very common condition which affects over 45 million people all over the world. Although common, it is a misunderstood condition. This often affects white-skinned individuals who are of northwestern European descent. This has been nicknamed as the ‘Celtic curse' by some Irish people. This often begins as mere redness and flushing (erythema) right on the center of the face, also the cheeks, forehead and the nose. It can also affect the chest and the neck. As this disorder progresses, other signs come up such as erythema that is semi-permanent; telangiectasia (or the opening of the surface facial blood vessels); small bumps or domed pustules; reddish gritty eyes, stinging or burning sensations, and the most advanced cases manifest rhinophyma or lobulated nose. This disorder is often confused with seborrheic dermatitis or acne vulgaris. It can co-exist with these two conditions and it can affect both sexes (with females thrice more vulnerable). This peaks on the age of 30 to 60. the primary diagnosis of this disease is mainly facial and when the ears or the scalp become involved, it is a suggestion of a different illness. [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma also known as a vestibular schwannoma is a primary intracranial tumor that is benign. This is a tumor of the cells that form myelin of the CN VIII or vestibulocochlear nerve. Neuroma is a derivation of a Greek word which means ‘tumor of the nerve'. The name ‘acoustic' is a misnomer because the tumor hardly occurs from the cochlear or acoustic part of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The precise medical name is vestibular schwannoma. This is because it engages the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve and it occurs from schwann cells (the cells that are responsible for the peripheral nervous system myelin sheath). [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma is a medical condition that is characterized by the growth of a tumor that usually develops in nerves near the ear. is a benign, usually slow-growing tumor that develops from certain nerves in the inner ear. No one knows exactly what causes acoustic neuroma. As an acoustic neuroma develops, it presses against the nerves related to balance and hearing, causing early symptoms such as: one-sided or high-tone hearing loss, ringing in the ear, dizziness, and problems with balance. Once a diagnosis of acustic neuroma is made, the doctor can describe the available treatment options. [read more]

  • Acquired Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis is an inherited disorder of the skin. This disorder is an extreme type of ichthyosis which can afflict both sexes all over the world. When this disease is acquired because of a causal disorder, although, it is very rare; it is still not known how this occurs. But there are studies that claim that it can result from mutations of the genes. The mutated genes can be passed from one generation onto the next. The mutation is believed to cause the abnormality in the skin's standard lifecycle. Normal people shed dead skin cells unnoticed but patients of ichthyosis produce new cells of the skin at a rate where their rate of shedding could not cope. This way, there is a dead skin cell buildup and the patient's skin would then appear to be dry or scaly. Acquired ichthyosis often occurs in adulthood. It could occur before or after a systemic condition diagnosis. [read more]

  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome also termed as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a compilation infections and symptoms that result from a specific damage to an individual's immune system. This is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (or HIV) and other similar viruses such as SIV or FIV. The late phase of HIV and AIDS exist to slow down the viral progression. Currently, there is still no cure for this illness. AIDS can be transmitted through direct contacts of the bloodstream or of a mucous membrane with any of the body fluids such as semen, blood, vaginal fluid, breast milk, or preseminal fluid. The modes of transmission could be sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, oral sex, anal sex, or a contact with hypodermic needles that are contaminated with the virus. Another unfortunate means of getting the virus is the exchange of fluids between the baby and its mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Acquired Syphilis
    Syphilis is a venereal medical condition which is and which comes in two categories: acquired or congenital. Acquired syphilis is further divided into sub-categories which are early and late. The early stage consists of the primary, secondary and the early latent less than two years of being infected. The late sub-category is described as late latent greater than two years, tertiary which includes gummatous, neurological and cardiovascular involvement, the two latter forms are also termed as quartenary syphilis. [read more]

  • Acrocephaly
    Acrocephaly is a rare congenital syndrome which is often characterized by a narrowing of the pulmonary valve, retardation of the patient's mental development, and a pointy skull (or the skull's loftiness). More often than not, the head of the patient appears cone-like. A term that is similar to acrocephaly is oxycephaly. Oxycephaly has features that are similar to acrocephaly such as the coronal sutre and other sutures that close prematurely. Oxycephaly is the most severe type of of all craniostenoses. [read more]

  • Acrochordon
    Small growths of skin that develop in some people on the neck, face, groin and armpits are called skin tags or acrochordons. These skin tags do not become cancerous or malignant since they are harmless. [read more]

  • Acrocyanosis
    Acrocyanosis refers to a condition where the hands, feet or even the face persistently appear to have cyanotic or blue discoloration. The bluish color is caused by the lowered oxygen levels on the patient's extremities (some areas that can also be affected are the nipples, just the nose, or lips). The condition may not only manifest the pallor on the extremities but this discoloration could be accompanied by feelings of numbness, pins and needles sensation, soreness or even pain. The toes or fingers could also appear to be shiny and the tight-skinned. Acrocyanosis could also cause vasomotor disturbance (such as in the case of Raynaud's disease). This is a disease of the arterioles of the hands and feet that are exposed which also involves unusual contraction of the arteriolar walls which are magnified by exposing the areas to cold. This exposure results into the blue, mottled skin, sweating of the feet or hands, and chilling. It has been observed that patients who suffer from acrocyanosis may have acquired this condition because of the occurrence of other conditions before it such as emotional or mental disturbance. Neurocirculatory asthenia could also be an underlying cause. This condition can be subdivided into two forms: acrocyanosis (non-benign) with a sign which could allude to a more chronic medical concern; and acrocyanosis (benign) which is the more common condition which requires very little, if any, medical treatment. Females who are in their 20's are more vulnerable to the illness. The good thing about this condition is, it can improve as the patient ages. [read more]

  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive disease which affects zinc metabolism. This is characterized by periorificial (in the region of natural orifices) and in the limbs (acral dermatitis), loss of hair (also known as alopecia), and diarrhea. Having acquired zinc deficiency is somewhat similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica because it, too, can be congenital. The other known terms for acrodermatitis enteropathica are: Brandt syndrome, congenital zinc deficiency, and Danbolt-cross syndrome. [read more]

  • Acrodysostosis
    Acrodysostosis also known as acrodysplasia, Arkless-Graham, or Maroteaux-Malamut is defined as a very rare inborn skeletal illness which is marked by defects on the bones of feet, hands, and the nose. Retardation of the patient's learning and mental development is a common occurrence. [read more]

  • Acrodysplasia
    Acrodysplasia or acrocephalosyndactyly is an uncommon medical condition which is often characterized by a bulbous nose, bony growths, and loose extra skin throughout infancy. This is also a very rare genetic disease. A synonymous word is acrocephalosyndactyly. [read more]

  • Acrodystrophic Neuropathy
    Acrodystrophic neuropathy, also known as Morvan disease, is a rare autoimmune defect characterized by muscle malignancies, severe cramps, myotonia, delirium and insomnia. There are only about 14 recorded cases of the illness disease since it was first discovered. [read more]

  • Acrofacial dysostosis, Nager type
    Acrofacial dysostosis or Nager syndrome is a term that was coined by Nager and DeReynier in 1948. This condition is described as a syndrome which involves the upper limbs and skull. The most ordinary type of acrofacial dysostosis is the Nager Type (NAFD) of the so-called pre-axial acrofacial dysostosis. Generally, the effects of Nager type acrofacial dysostosis are palpebral fissures that are down-slanted; micrognathia; coloboma of the lower eyelids; and absent or hypoplastic radii or thumbs. [read more]

  • Acromegaly
    Acromegaly was derived from the Greek word ‘akros' meaning ‘extremities' or ‘extreme' and ‘megalos' which means ‘large'. This is a syndrome which results as the pituitary gland has an overproduction of hGH or growth hormone following the closure of the epiphyseal plate. There are several disorders that could cause the pituitary gland to come up with this circumstance. Most of these conditions involve a tumor that produces GH which is derived from a distinctive cell type (called somatotrophs) and named pituitary adenoma. [read more]

  • Acromicric Dysplasia
    Acromicric dysplasia is a very rare inherited illness that is often characterized by unusually short feet and hands, retardation of the patient's growth and delays on bone maturation which lead to short stature, and mild abnormalities of the face. The face often appears with a happy or ‘smiling' expression thus the descriptive word geleophysic which is derived from the Greek word ‘gelios' which means ‘laughing' and ‘phylis' meaning ‘nature'. Most of the number of cases for this illness has occurred in random for no obvious reason (sporadic). It has not been ruled out, though, that this is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. The disease database clearly indicates that acromicric dysplasia is similar to Geleophysic dwarfism (also known as Geleophysic dysplasia) and Focal mucopolysaccharidosis. [read more]

  • Acromicric Skeletal Dysplasia
    Acromicric skeletal dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder that features unusually short hands and feet. Patients with this disease may suffer from slow development and delayed bone growth that often leads to a short stature with facial deformities. No treatments yet are found for this disorder. [read more]

  • Acrophobia
    Acrophobia is derived from the Greek word ‘akpoc' which means ‘summit'. This phobia is described as the irrational dread of high places. This belongs to a certain category of phobias which are called motion and space discomfort (these two share like etiology and choices of treatment). This phobia could become very dangerous because those who suffer from it could experience attacks of panic when on a high place. As a result, they could become so agitated and they would have troubles getting themselves down to the ground safely. Vertigo is often associated or link with acrophobia and it is sometimes misconstrued as the phobia itself. The former is a feeling of nausea which is correctly described as a sensation of being spun. Vertigo can be caused by acrophobia when the person gets to a high place and then experience nausea. This type of vertigo that is triggered by heights is referred to as height vertigo. [read more]

  • ACTH Deficiency
    ACTH deficiency or isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency is a disorder which arises from a decrease or absence of the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (also known as ACTH hormone). The pituitary gland is the one which produces this hormone. A decrease on the concentration of adrenocorticotropic in a person's blood would lead to reduced adrenal hormone secretions. This reduction of secretion of adrenal hormones could result into hypoadrenalism or adrenal deficiency. Adrenal insufficiency would then lead to loss of weight, a lack of appetite or anorexia nervosa (which is also a psychological disorder), nausea, weakness, vomiting, and hypotension or low blood pressure. Other uncommon symptoms include the lack or absence of pubic hair in some female patients; the lack or absence armpit hairs; having pale skin. These symptoms can be so general that is why proper diagnosis is often totally missed or delayed. For this reason, some physicians tend to believe that the disorder could be more common than had been previously thought. [read more]

  • Actinic Cheilitis
    Sometimes known as “sailor's lip” or “farmer's lip,” actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition related to cumulative lifetime sun exposure. People with this disorder often complain of cracking of the lips and persistent dryness where the lower lip is most often affected. [read more]

  • Actinic Keratosis
    Actinic keratosis also known as solar keratosis, even AK is a premalignant condition of the skin where the signs include crusty, scaly, thick patches. This disorder is common among fair-skinned individuals who are often exposed under the sun (white people have less protection from their skin's pigment). This condition is often accompanied by damage made by the sun. Since a few of these are pre-cancer carcinomas, they should be attended to immediately. When a person's skin is exposed under the sun, the signs such as crustiness and thickness begin to appear. These bumps are often rough and dry and they start out as flat areas but soon develop into something tough which often resembles a wart. Actinic keratosis is about 2.0-6.0 mm. in range and they can be light or dark, pink or tan, it can even be red in color or it can be a combination of all the mentioned colors. It could appear on the areas that are exposed under the sun such as the chest, back, ears, neck, face, scalp, forearms, hands, and lips. [read more]

  • Actinomycetales Infection
    Actinomycetales infection is an infection which is bacterial in nature. This comes from the order of actinobacteria. The alternate names for this type of infection are: actinomycete infection; actinomycetales infection; or actinomycte infection. [read more]

  • Actinomycosis
    Actinomycosis (pronounced ak-tuh-nuh-my-KOH-sihs) is a rare and infectious bacterial disease among humans. This is generally caused by Propionibacterium propionicus and actinoyces israelii, A.gerencseriae. This condition is unlikely a polymicrobial infection. Actinomycosis is a sub-acute to chronic bacterial disease which is caused by the filamentous, anaerobic to microaerophilic, and gram positive bacteria that are non-acid fast. [read more]

  • Activated Protein C Resistance
    Activated protein C resistance is a hemostatic disease which is characterized by a reduced anticoagulant response to APC or activated protein C. The result is a heightened risk of venous thrombosis. The activated protein C resistance or APCr was first studied and reported by Dahlback in 1993. Activated protein C with protein S as its co-factor degrades Factor VIIIa and Factor Va. Activated protein C resistance is the failure of protein C to cleave Factor VIIIa and/or Factor Va. This permits for a longer extent of thrombin generation and could proceed to the hypercoabulable phase. The most common form of hereditary resistance to activated protein C is Factor V Leiden. Acquired types occur together with elevated concentrations of Factor VIII. It has been evaluated that up to 64% of people who are afflicted with venous thromboembolism could also have activated protein C resistance. [read more]

  • Acutane Embryopathy
    Acutane embryopathy is a rare disease that is caused by exposure of the fetus to retinoids and which often results into physical and mental defects at birth. [read more]

  • Acute articular rheumatism
    Acute articular rheumatism is a rare and non-contagious medical condition brought about by a bacterial joint infection that can possibly come with a heightened risk of the development of heart complications. Adults are the common victims affected by this disease. However, statistics have shown that less than 200, 000 Americans are afflicted with this condition, which explains why it is categorized as a rare disease. [read more]

  • Acute Beryllium Disease
    Acute Beryllium Disease, also known as acute berylliosis, is the inflammation of the lungs due to exposure to beryllium. [read more]

  • Acute Bronchitis
    Acute Bronchitis is a medical condition that is characterized by the inflammation of the large bronchi tubes in the lungs. [read more]

  • Acute Disseminated Histiocytosis-X
    Also known as the Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease, acute disseminated histiocytosis-X is a rare progressive kind of hystiocytosis. In this condition, high levels of histiocytosin are found in the bone marrow, causing deterioration of the organ issues. This illness difficult to treat, and is linked with diabetes insipidius. [read more]

  • Acute erythroblastic leukemia
    Acute erythroblastic leukemia is also known by other medical terms such as erythremic myelosis, erythroleukemia and the DiGuglielmo syndrome, which is the uncontrolled production of immature and undeveloped erythrocytes, more popularly known as the red blood cells. This type of leukemia is a rare form of cancer that originates from the marrow and blood. [read more]

  • Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis
    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is more popularly known as Sweet's syndrome, which is a type of skin disorder characterized by sudden appearance of painful skin lesions and fever. This condition often appear on the patient's back, face, arms or neck and red bumps may rapidly increase in size and can possibly progress to blisters. [read more]

  • Acute gouty arthritis
    Acute gouty arthritis is characterized as sudden pain attacks in the joints, most especially in the legs and feet due to the buildup of uric acid in the joints. Gout is generally caused by an abnormality in the individual's metabolism which results to the proliferation if uric acid that consequently reduced the ability of the kidney to get rid of the uric acid. Patients suffering from sickle cell anemia, diabetes and obesity as well as kidney disorders are among the people who are most likely to develop acute gouty arthritis. [read more]

  • Acute Idiopathic Polyneuritis
    Acute idiopathic polyneuritis, also known as Gullain-Barre syndrome (GBS), is a rare but progressive paralyzing disorder of the peripheral nerves. [read more]

  • Acute intermittent porphyria
    Acute intermittent porphyria is a very rare metabolic disorder that is characterized by an abnormal deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme that would result to the buildup of polyphyrins. This medical condition is inherited and is passed on from one generation to another. [read more]

  • Acute Kidney Failure
    Acute kidney failure is characterized by the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to perform its normal functions, which includes eliminating the excess waste and fluid from the blood. When the kidney is damaged and losses its filtering capability, a highly dangerous level of fluid may accumulate in the body. [read more]

  • Acute Liver Failure
    Acute liver failure is considered a serious medical emergency that typically occurs when the liver rapidly loses the ability to function. This medical condition gradually develops through the years due to some factors such as alcohol abuse and hepatitis virus. This condition requires immediate medical attention since lack of treatment can prove to be highly fatal [read more]

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, otherwise known as acute lymphocytic leukemia is another form of cancer of the white blood cells. In this case, the immature and malignant white blood cells continues to multiply in an abnormally rapid thereby causing overproduction in the bone marrow. This disease causes damage and death by actively crowding out the Bone marrow's normal cells and spread to the other organs in the body. ALL is found to be common among children and young adults. [read more]

  • Acute monoblastic leukemia
    Acute monoblastic leukemia otherwise known as acute monocytic leukemia is an acute type of myeloid leukemia. For patients to be considered a victim of AML-M5, he must have more than 20% blasts in the marrow. Monoblasts are largely distinguished for displaying a rough, circular nucleus and a delicate lacy chromatin. [read more]

  • Acute mountain sickness
    Acute mountain sickness, or more popularly known as altitude sickness is a pathological condition which is caused by exposure to very low air pressure. This is common in outdoors with high altitudes, usually above 8,000 feet. This is caused by a reduction of partial pressure in the oxygen. [read more]

  • Acute myelocytic leukemia
    Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is known to be the most common type of leukemia, which is found in adults, although people pf all ages can be affected by this serious medical condition. In AML, underdeveloped leukemia cells accumulate in the patient's bone marrow, thereby causing the destruction and replacement of cells that would produce normal blood cells. [read more]

  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or ANUG is characterized as a plymicrobial infection of the patient's gums that normally leads to bleeding, inflammation, necrotic gum tissue and deep ulcerations. Patients with this condition also suffer from fever and halitosisi. ANUG is also known as Vincent's angina, a popular term whioch was coined in WW1 when a great number of soldiers suffered from this condition. [read more]

  • Acute pancreatitis
    Acute pancreatitis is characterized as the rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas. Depending on the severity of the condition, serious complications and high mortality occur despite treatment. This disease is usually prevalent among individuals with bile duct obstruction of prolonged alcohol abuse. [read more]

  • Acute Pancreatitis
    Acute Pancreatitis is a medical condition whereby there is an inflammation of the pancreas. [read more]

  • Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is a unusual form of eye disease that mostly affects Caucasia people ranging from ages 20–30 years old. This medical condition is characterized by a patient's central vision either in one or both eyes is affected or vision is completely lost due to inflammation a at thed the buildup of fluid in the back of the eye. [read more]

  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia
    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a known subtype of AML or acute myologenous leukemia, which is a form of cancer of the bone marrow and the blood. APL patients suffer from the abnormal accumulation of underdeveloped granulocytes . APL is characterized as a disorder brought about by chromosomal translocation. [read more]

  • Acute renal failure
    Acute renal failure is more popularly known as acute kidney failure or injury, and is characterized by the rapid loss of renal utility that causes serious damage to the kidney. Depending on the durationg and the extent of the condition, the accumulation may also be accompanied with metabolic disturbances such as acidification of the blood, fluid balance changes and elevated postassium levels. This is a serious medical condition that requires immediate medical attention. [read more]

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome, is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. This is the most important disorder that is caused by an increased permeability pulmonary edema. ARDS is a severe lung disease caused by different direct and indirect issues. It is marked by inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with concomitant systemic release of inflammatory mediators causing inflammation, hypoxemia and frequently resulting in multiple organ failure. This condition is life threatening and often lethal, typically requiring mechanical ventilation and admission to an intensive care unit. A less severe form of this disease is called acute lung injury (ALI). ARDS most commonly signified adult respiratory distress syndrome to differentiate it from infant respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. However, as this type of pulmonary edema also arises in children, ARDS has gradually shifted to mean acute rather than adult. The differences with the typical infant syndrome remain the same. [read more]

  • Acute Sinusitis
    Acute sinusitis is characterized by the inflammation of the nose and nasal passages that interferes with the normal drainage of the mucus in the sinuses. This causes difficulty in breathing with the throbbing sensation across the face, accompanied by headaches, and nagging coughs. [read more]

  • Acute Toxic Epidermolysis
    Acute toxic epidermolysis is a rare immunological defect that affects the skin. In this condition blisters develop on the skin and causes excessive peeling; the dermis then becomes more exposed to heat and substances and may resort to scalding. [read more]

  • Acute Tubular Necrosis
    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular cells that form the tubule that transports urine to the ureters while reabsorbing 99% of the water, highly concentrating the salts and metabolic byproducts. Tubular cells continually replace themselves, and if the cause of ATN is taken out, then recovery is likely. ATN presents with acute renal failure and is one of the most frequent causes of ARF. The presence of "muddy brown casts" of epithelial cells present in the urine during urinalysis is pathognomonic for ATN. ATN may be classified as either toxic or ischemic. Toxic ATN arises when the tubular cells are exposed to a toxic substance (nephrotoxic ATN). Ischemic ATN occurs when the tubular cells do not get adequate amounts of oxygen, a condition they are highly sensitive to due to their very high metabolism. [read more]

  • ACY2 Deficiency
    ACY2 deficiency is a genetic disorder that features a spongy degeneration of the central nervous system. The signs that indicate the onset of the disease begin at infancy, usually characterized by progressive mental decline and rapid loss of head control, balance and coordination. Patients with the disease have an abnormally large head due to swelling. This disease is caused by an abnormal mutation in the ASPA gene that makes the cells unable to produce an important enzyme for brain and muscle development, aspartocylase. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
    Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD) is a rare hereditary disease that is the result of the lack of an enzyme required to convert fat to energy. People with MCADD cannot refrain from eating for very long. Fasting starts after the body has used all the food that the person has eaten, then begins to use the body's own fat to make energy. When people with MCADD fast, they can experience a variety of serious life threatening symptoms or even death. Persons with MCADD cannot utilize this fat to make energy, consequently, the body begins to fail and malfunction once the food the person has eaten runs out. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of
    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition in which the body fails to oxidize fatty acids because an enzyme is either missing or not functioning correctly. Long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCHAD) is 1 of 3 enzymatic activities that comprise the trifunctional protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The other 2 activities of the protein are long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (LCKT) and 2-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase (LCEH). The protein is an octamer made up of 4 alpha subunits that contain the LCEH and LCHAD activities, and 4 beta subunits that contain the LCKT activity. This enzyme complex helps metabolize long-chain fatty acids, and the LCHAD activity is specific for compounds of C12-C16 chain length. The genes for the alpha and beta subunits have been traced to chromosome 2. Affected infants with LCHAD deficiency, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, arise in infancy with acute hypoketotic hypoglycemia. These episodes usually appear for the first time after a fast, which usually occurs in the context of intercurrent illness with vomiting. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very short chain, deficiency of
    Short Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCADD) is a condition in which the body fails to oxidize fatty acids because an enzyme is either missing or not functioning correctly. Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD) is a rare condition that stops the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). People affected with this disorder are not able to break down a certain group of fats called short-chain fatty acids efficiently. Some affected infants will display vomiting, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), a lack of energy (lethargy), poor feeding, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Other features of this disorder may include poor muscle tone (hypotonia), developmental delays, seizures, and a small head size (microcephaly). The symptoms of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be activated by periods of fasting or during illnesses such as viral infections. In some cases, signs and symptoms may not exhibit themselves until adulthood, when some individuals may develop muscle weakness and wasting. Other people with gene mutations that can lead to this disorder may have such mild symptoms that they are never diagnosed. [read more]

  • Ad14
    Ad14 otherwise known as the Adenovirus Serotype 14 medical condition that is said to be a mutated form of the common cold. [read more]

  • Addiction
    Addiction was a term used to describe an attachment, devotion, dedication, inclination, etc. Nowadays, however, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, social life, or mental state. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as compulsive overeating and problem gambling. Factors that have been suggested as causes of addiction include biological/pharmacological, genetic, and social factors. [read more]

  • Addison Anemia
    Addison Anemia is a medical condition caused by the malabsorption of Vitamin B-12 and is relatively common form of anemia. [read more]

  • Addison's Disease
    Addison's disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces inadequet amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It may arise in children as well as adults, and may occur as the result of a large number of underlying causes. The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who initially described the condition in his 1855 On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. The adjective "Addisonian" is used for features of the condition, as well as individuals with Addison's disease. The condition is typically diagnosed with blood tests, medical imaging and additional investigations. Treatment is with replacement of the certain hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). If the disease is the result of an underlying problem, this is addressed. Regular follow-up and monitoring for other health problems is required. [read more]

  • Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
    Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form, also known as Christian syndrome or Craniostenosis arthrogryposis cleft palate, is a rare disease that affects multiple systems which causes malformations of the palate, thumbs, and upper limbs. [read more]

  • Adenitis, Mesenteric
    Mesenteric adenitis is characterized as an inflammation of the mesenteric lymph nodes found in the abdomen. If the inflammation is found in the right lower quadrant, most people would mistake it as appendicitis but is often preceded by sore throat. [read more]

  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Adenocarcinoma of the lung (or lung cancer) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both women and men in the United States and throughout the world. Lung cancer has beaten breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In 2007, 160,390 people were projected to die from lung cancer in the United States, which is more than the number of deaths from colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer combined. Only about 2% of those diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body are living five years after the diagnosis, although the survival rates for lung cancers diagnosed at a very early stage are higher, with approximately 49% surviving for five years or longer. Cancer arises when normal cells undergo a transformation that causes them to grow and multiply without the normal controls. The cells form a mass or tumor that varies from the surrounding tissues from which it arises. Tumors are dangerous because they take nutrients, oxygen, and space from healthy cells. [read more]

  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma
    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that develops within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. Other sites of origin include the trachea, lacrimal gland, skin, breast, and vulva. This neoplasm is defined by its characteristic histologic appearance. Adenoid cystic cancer (AdCC) is a very rare type of cancer that can develop in many different body sites. It most often arises in the areas of the head and neck, in particular the salivary glands; but has also been reported in the breast, lacrimal gland of the eye, lung, brain, bartholin gland, and the trachea. It is sometimes known as adenocyst, adenocystic, malignant cylindroma, adenoidcystic, ACC, AdCC. [read more]

  • Adenoma
    Adenoma is characterized as a collection ogu growth that is glandular in origin. Adenomas usually grow in major body organs such as the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and colon. These growths are usually benign in nature but can progress into malignant over. While it can be ntbenign, it can also present some potentially serious complications by mass effect and production of large volumes of hormones. [read more]

  • Adenoma of the adrenal gland
    Adrenal adenomas are categorized as benign or a non-cancerous form of tumour of the adrenal gland. It can arise from the gland's outer layer or what is known as as the adrebal cortez. Ig the adenoma produces hormones, it is considered as a functioning adenoma and non-functioning for adenomas that do not produce hormones. [read more]

  • Adenomyosis
    Adenomyosis is more popularly known as amenorrhea, and is characterized as a serious health complication among women that consist of the detection of an ectopic endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, are found to extend into the muscular and fibrous tissue of the uterus.There are two known types of adenomyosis–primary and secondary. This disorder may coexist along with external endometriosis. [read more]

  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
    Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency (ADA) is a highly rare genetic disorder and is categorized as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency that largely affects body's immune system. To date, there are only about a dozen documented cases of ADA deficiency. This genetic disease is known to be quite fatal, and often lead to death if afflicted patients do not seek treatment. People who have this disease usually lead a sheltered life and live in enclosed environment to prevent exposure to infectious agents. [read more]

  • Adenosine monophosphate deaminase
    Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMD) is a type of muscle-specific deficiency that is a common cause of many exercise-induced myopathy and is one of the most common causes of metabolic myopathy among human beings. [read more]

  • Adenovirus Infection
    Adenoviruses are among the most common cause of respiratory illnesses. People who already have a compromised immune system can become more susceptible to developing more serious medical conditions when exposed to this type of virus. [read more]

  • Adenylosuccinase Deficiency
    Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease that affects purine synthesis. Among the main features of this disease are slow development of psychomotor skills as well as epileptic seizures and autism. It can be detected by means of testing abnormal purine metabolites present in body fluids. There is no cure available yet for the disorder. [read more]

  • Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a type of disorder of the purine metabolism that affects patients both behaviorally and biochemically. Patients afflicted with this disorder normally have autistic features and display some mild psychomotor delays. [read more]

  • Adhesion
    An adhesion is a band of fibrous tissue that binds the unconnected anatomic surfaces, which are separated from each other. It develops commonly in the abdomen after trauma or injury. Sometimes it is a congenital defect like the obstruction of the intestine. [read more]

  • Adhesive Capsulitis
    Adhesive capsulitis is also known as frozen shoulders, a condition that is characterized by the abnormal stiffness and pain on the shoulder joint area. As the condition progresses and worsens, the individual will experience a limited range of motion. This condition usually affects one shoulder at a time. [read more]

  • Adie syndrome
    Adie syndrome, sometimes reffered to as Adie's Tonic Pupil or Holmes-Adies Syndrome is categorized as a neurological disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and the pupil of the patient's eye. It causes damage to the postganglionic fibers of the eye that is usually brought about by bacterial or viral infection. [read more]

  • Adiposis dolorosa
    Adiposis dolorosa, is also known as Dercum's disease and Ander's disease, which is a type of a rare disease that is characterized by some multiple painful lipomas that usually arise in adult life. Among the individuals commonly afflicted with this disease are those who are also battling with obesity and occurs on both men and women. [read more]

  • Adrenal cancer
    Adrenal cancer is a very rare disease that begins in the patient's adrenal glands, which is located on the top section of the kidneys. The tumors can rapidly increase the production of hormones. The good news is about 99% of adrenal tumors are non-cancerous and would not normally require any form of treatment when small in size. It does not produce any detectable symptoms which is why patients diagnosed with this disorder find out about this condition purely by accident in other examination for completely unrelated diseases. [read more]

  • Adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) generally refers to several autosomal recessive medical conditions that are results from some biochemical pathway of the steroidogenesis of the cortisol from cholesterol by the patient's adrenal glands. Majority of these conditions involve lesser or greater production of sex steroids and can also greatly alter the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in affected individuals. [read more]

  • Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenital, X-linked (Adrenal Hypoplasia)
    There are four types of congenital adrenal hypoplasia that have been recognized and they are the following: an X-linked type or the OMIM 300200 which is caused by a deletion or mutation of the AHCH gene or the DAX1 gene (found in the X chromosome dosage-receptive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital vital region). This type is often linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It might be a component of an adjacent deletion of chromosome (this may include congenital adrenal hypoplasia, OMIM 310200 or the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and OMIM 307030 or glyce3rol kinase deficiency; the second type is the autosomal recessive type and it is caused by a deletion or mutation of the gene which is responsible for coding for SF-1 or steroidogenic factor 1 on OMIM 184757 or chromosome 9q99. This type is also linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; The third type is an autosomal recessive type. This type has a vague etiology (or OMIM 240200); The fourth type of adrenal hypoplasia which is linked with the retardation of intrauterine growths, genital defects, and metaphysical dysplasia is the OMIM 300290 or the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysical dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, genital defects) association. The X-linked type adrenal hypoplasia congenital is a disease which is mainly acquired by males. It usually involves several endocrine tissues of the body most especially the gmall glands above the kidneys or the adrenal glands. The characteristics that often manifest are a reduction in the function of the adrenal gland; hypoglycemia; dehydration, feeding difficulties; and shock. Other male patients might also be sexually underdeveloped. The females who are rarely affected also have adrenal insufficiency and a deficiency of sex hormones. [read more]

  • Adrenal Incidentaloma
    An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass which is seen during the imaging for other causes that are non-adrenal related. This means that the lesion was discovered serendipitously. Adrenal incidentaloma is the most common adrenal disorder and it is found during 1-5% of CT scans for the abdomen. 5-10% of patients who are diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma have masses that are non-functioning (this is based on postmortem examinations). This disease affects both males and females with most of the incidentalomas being hormonally inactive and benign. There are only a few numbers of cases where adrenalectomy is required (and this is done only when the lesion becomes functioning and malignant). The diagnostic assessment often evaluates the hormonal activity of the lesion and if it is malignant. Assessment of functions require plasma dihydroepiadosterone; urinary catecholamines for 24 hours and metanephrines; a low dosage of a test of dexamethasone suppression; serum ACTH; standing serum renin to aldosterone ration for hypertension and hypokalemia. The evaluation of the danger of malignancy requires MRI or CT scans; on CT lesions that are malignant are not regular, non-homogeneous and have great attenuation; for lesions that are MRI malignant, an clear concentration on T2 weighed image; it may also be useful to have CT guided cytology; there is also a need to exclude paechromocytoma before this procedure; [read more]

  • Adrenal Insufficiency
    There are two classifications for adrenal insufficiency and they are: primary and secondary. The primary adrenal insufficiency happens when the adrenal gland dysfunctions. The secondary adrenal insufficiency which is also named central adrenal insufficiency happens there is a lack of CRH secretion or the corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus; or it could be the lack of ACTH secretion which is the corticotropic hormone from the pituitary. The second type leads to adrenal cortex hypofunction. Further classifications include acquired and congenital. [read more]

  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma
    Adrenocortical carcinoma also called as ACC or adrenal cortical carcinoma and adrenal cortex cancer is a cancer that is aggressive which originates from the cortex (a tissue that produces steroid hormones) of the adrenal gland. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a tumor that is rare with an incidence of 1-2 in every 1,000,000 individuals annually. ACC has a bimodal allocation by age (most of the cases cluster among children that are under the age of 6 and in adults at 30-40 years of age). ACC can result into many syndromes such as Cushing's syndrome, virilization, Conn syndrome, and feminization. It also commonly metastizes or invades neighboring tissues and the survival rate is estimated at only 20-35%. [read more]

  • Adrenogenital Syndrome
    The more proper term for adrenogenital syndrome is congenital adrenal hyperplasia or CAH. This refers to numerous other autosomal recessive disor which result from biochemical paths of cortisol setoidogenesis from cholesterol done by the adrenal glands. Most number of these conditions could have lesser or greater sex steroid production and they can alter primary or secondary sex characteristic development among adults, children and infant patients. Only a few cases of people with CAH can be appropriated with intersex condition although this attracted the attention of the American public in the 90's and since then, there have been various accounts that have been circulated. It is estimated that 95% of CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Conditions Caused by CAH The most common conditions that are caused by adrenogenital syndrome are: ambiguous genitals (in some female patients wherein it can be initially hard to know the exact sex of the infant); salt-wasting that causes vomiting (which may lead to dehydration and eventually—death); the early appearance of pubice or the occurrence failure or the delay of puberty (including sexual infantilism); too much facial hair; virilization; irregular menstrual periods during the adolescent stage; infertility caused by anovulation; and hypertension. [read more]

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
    Adrenoleukodystrophy is also known as ALD, Sudanophilic leukodystrophy and Schilder's disease. This is a rare disorder that is inherited which often leads to progressive damage of the brain, adrenal gland failure and eventually, death. ALD belongs to a group of disorders that are inherited which are called Leukodystrophies. Leukodystrophies often progressively destroy the myelin (a complex fatty neutral tissue which insulates numerous nerves of the peripheral and central nervous systems). The absence of myelin intensifies destruction. Patients of this disorder have a missing essential protein called the transporter protein. The transporter protein is needed in carrying an enzyme (the one used in breaking down long chain fatty acid in a normal person's diet). A long chain fatty acid accumulation can bring about brain damage and adrenal gland damage. Usually, the patients of ALD are males who inherit the X-linked disorder. Leudodystrophies are not similar to demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis where the myelin is normally formed but is eventually lost through immunologic dysfunction or for other causes. [read more]

  • Adrenomyodystrophy
    Adrenomyodystrophy is a rare genetic disease which is often characterized by chief adrenal insufficiency, acute psychomotor retardation, dystrophic myopathy, and an acutely swollen bladder which can result into death. [read more]

  • Adult Onset Still's Disease
    Still's disease was first discovered as a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that is common among children but is now also discovered to have a few cases in adults. The adult type is called the adult onset Still's disease (or AOSD). AOSD was first described by an English doctor in 1971. The physician's name was Bywaters who is also famous for his work on the crush syndrome. There are varying theories as to the cause of Still's disease. There is a suggestion that it originated from a microbacterial infection. To this day, the cause of the illness remains unknown. It is more securely established that the disorder's pathogenesis is autoimmune. [read more]

  • Adult Schizophrenia
    Adult Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most complex of all identified mental health disorders. It is characterized by a severe and chronic, often disabling disturbance of the person's brain that causes distorted thinking, unusual strange feelings and disturbed behavior and use of language. [read more]

  • Agammaglobulinemia
    Agammaglobulinemia is also called hypogammaglobulinemia. It is the most ordinary type of primary immunodeficiency which accounts to about 50% of all the cases. The three major kinds can be defined as: early onset, late onset, and X-linked. It was only after more than 50 years since the clinical manifestation was first recorded in 1952 by a certain Bruton. He described that the defect on the molecule in XLA or X-linked agammaglobulinemia has been explicated. To honor Bruton, the responsible gene was named Btk which means Bruton tyrosine kinase. It is estimated that 90% of the patients with the early-onset kind of agammaglobulinemia and the lack of B cells have defects on their Btk genes. The late-onset type is often referred to as the CVID or Common Variable Immunodeficiency. The last type is the early-onset non-Bruton agammaglobuliemia with absent or just low serum immunoglobulin (or Ig). Most of the cases are representative of a very heterogenous group which includes Ig deficiency with an increase in immunoglobulin M or hyper-IgM syndrome. There are also some infants who have an initial reading of low Ig level which soon increases to the normal level. This is named as Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. Currently, the production of defective antibodies and the low circulation of a number of B cells were descriptive of some female infants and some males who do not have any Btk defects. These records imply the participation of other genes. [read more]

  • Aganglionosis
    Aganglionosis is a medical term used to describe absence of the ganglia or ganglion cells from the myenteric plexus. [read more]

  • Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a rare congenital defect characterized by the absence of the corpus callosum, the protective tissue of the brain resulting to disconnection of the brain hemispheres. [read more]

  • Ageusia
    Ageusia is a medical state in which the tongue loses its ability to taste. In this condition the tongue can no longer differentiate sweetness from salt, sour, bitter and umami flavors. The taste buds may not appear to be swollen but the nerves of the tongue are no longer responsive to the stimuli. Ageusia is caused by neurological problems in the brain, lack of vitamin B3 in the endocrine system and side effects brought about by anti-rheumatic drugs. [read more]

  • Aggressive fibromatosis
    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unusual type of tumor that is locally persistent but not malevolent or malignant. Patient's symptoms will depend on the precise location and size of the tumor and also whether it reduces adjacent structures. [read more]

  • Aging
    Aging, also known as the cycle of life, is any form of change of an organism as time passes. There are many dimensions to aging such the physical, psychological, mental, and emotional aspects. For example, the time of reaction of a human being is lessened or slowed as he ages while his wisdom and knowledge of facts may improve. There should be a distinction between universal aging (where all people go through) and probabilistic aging (which is a type of aging that occurs only to some and not all individuals). An example of probabilistic aging is the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Chronological aging refers to the actual age of an individual and it can clearly be distinguished from social aging (where the society expects people to behave in accordance to their age and status). The third type of aging is biological aging (which is the person's physical state as he ages). Age measurement is done through entire years or months in the case of infants. An individual's birthday is often a significant event. As to mental aging, it is a bit more challenging to categorize individuals under this type because an older person does not guarantee mental or emotional capacities that are greater than the younger generation. [read more]

  • Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia
    Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia is characterized as a condition that typically occurs when the bone marrow is scarred, resulting to its failure to function properly. With the reduced production from the bone marrow, the liver and the spleen will produce the necessary blood cells, causing it to become enlarged. This condition gradually develops through the years and often found in individuals over 50 years old. [read more]

  • Agnosia
    Agnosia or failure to know is a condition in which the person is unable to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells without any defective in a specific sense. There are different types of agnosia. The Autotopagnosia, the person is unable to identify the parts of the body. Visual agnosia the person cannot recognize a visual objects. Another type is Alexia, Inability to recognize text. We also have color agnosia, the patient has difficulty in distinguishing between color perception versus color recognition. Prosopagnosia also called as faceblindness or facial agnosia , the affected person is unable to recognize faniliar faces. Expressive agnosia is a type o g agnosia that the person cannot perceive different facial perception. Visual Verbal agnosia, the patient cannot understand spoken words. Auditory agnosia. The person can hear but unable to determine environmental and non-verbal auditory signs. Amusia, unable to identify music. Somatosensory agnosia or Astereognosia the patient is unable to identify object that is touch. Time Agnosia another type of agnosia that characterized with loss of comprehension of the time and duration of events. Apraxia or motor (body) agnosia it involves loss of ability to determine physical actions thus lead to repetitive of action. [read more]

  • Agoraphobia
    Agoraphobia is usually referred to as "fear of open spaces" though this explanation is simple and confusing. Agoraphobia is like an irrational fear or anxiety related with unknown environment or events or situations though this explanation also oversimplifies a complicated topic.. Panic attacks from panic disorder, usually causes agoraphobia to arise in several situations and the fear of places or situations happen when these were the reasons of the panic attacks. Agoraphobia in other words is the “fear of having another panic attack” or simply the fear of something or somewhere that may cause a panic attack. A violent sequence situates in where worry or fear of certain places or circumstances create a panic attack more possible to happen, which in turn elevates the level of anxiety. No matter what the explanation is, agoraphobia can not be only put pressure emotionally but it can really turn to be devastating which results to a life of self-imposed loneliness. [read more]

  • Agyria
    Agyria which actually means smooth brain is an unusual brain formation disorder distinguished by the absence of normal folds in the brain. Malfunctioning neuronal movement is the cause of Agyria where in the nerve cells travel from their original place to their stable location. It is a kind of cephalic disorder. Convolutions or gyri refer to the folds in the brain and this forms the surface of the normal brain. Young patients who have Agyria has have a lack of or partially formed convolutions which makes the exterior of the brain smooth. [read more]

  • Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria
    Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria is an abnormal development of the human brain distinguished by a huge amount of small folds or concolutions (gyri) on the exterior of the brain. The entire surface or other parts of the brain may be involved. [read more]

  • Aicardi syndrome
    Aicardi syndrome is an unusual abnormality syndrome distinguished by the lack of a major structure in the brain referred to as corpus callosum, the existence of abnormalities in the retina adn seizures in the form of immature spasms. An X-linked dominant trait is inherited in Aicardi syndrome that is fatal in males. [read more]

  • Aichmophobia
    Aichmophobia is the tremendous and unreasonable fear of being touched by a finger or any pointed materials or objects such as needles or injections. [read more]

  • AIDS
    AIDS means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome which means that the person may get infected by the disease and it will then cause a weakening of his system that resists or fights disease. The disease is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. When the person gets infected by the virus, and the body creates its own “antibodies” to fight off the infection, it is when he is called HIV positive. Thus, the person is called HIV positive when he has these HIV antibodies. However, being HIV positive is different from having AIDS. It is common to find HIV positive person who have lived for many years without getting AIDS although AIDS is generally developed from HIV. A person may get infected with HIV through different ways, such as through blood infection and through semen or vaginal fluids. Thus, having sex with a person with HIV, receiving blood or using the same syringe with the person with HIV may result into getting infected. A child usually gets infected with HIV if the mother has the virus. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) it is estimated that there are around 1.2 million persons in the US are infected with HIV virus or have AIDS. Despite the number, the death rate due to AIDS has been reduced significantly since the time when it was the leading cause of death in the 90s. This is because of the new treatments available at present. HIV becomes AIDS when the immune system of the person infected with HIV is severely damaged. Thus, a person with no more than 200 CD 4 cells (less than 14% CD4 cells) in his body has AIDS. IF the person has AIDS he is more likely to get Pneumocystis pneumonia (PC), a certain lung infection; a Kaposi's sarcoma, a skin cancer; a Cytomegalovirus or infection affecting the eyes and Candida or a fungal infection in the mouth or infections in the throat or vagina. These infections are called opportunistic infections or infections which take advantage of the weak immune system. There is no known cure for AIDS however, at present there are available drugs which slows then development or progress of the HIV virus. At the same time these drugs slows down the effect or the damage done by the HIV to the immune system. There are also other drugs to help the patient treat or prevent the opportunistic infections. The latest drugs available are very effective in reducing the rate of the common opportunistic infections [read more]

  • AIDS Dementia Complex
    AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is one of the most common complications of HIV-1 infection. It is severe and is greatly associated with high morbidity. Its pathogenesis is still a mystery although as compared with other opportunistic infections of HIV, it is believed to be caused directly by the HIV-1 virus. ADC was first seen alongside the AIDS epidemic. As with the term, there is the persistent cognitive deterioration which not only affects the intellect of the patient but including the motor complex and behavior. Also, myelopahty is an important aspect of the ADC. The moment the patient is diagnosed with the ADC, it is staged according to the ADC Staging System. The staging is composed of five steps which are based on the cognitive and motor incapacity of the patient. The earlier stage is when there are neurologic symptoms but without the functional impairment and the advanced stage is when there is severe dysfunction. Generally, ADC affects the patient's cognition, motor skills and behavior. Usually the cognitive and motor skills are the first ones affected and the diagnosis is usually made when the patient manifest impairment of these skills. In a study conducted on the ADC, it was found that ADC is commonly found for those with advanced HIV-1 infection although it is also commonly found in those with preserved helper lymphocyte. This means that immunosuppression has an effect on the development of the complex. According to the data by the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA), ADC is strongly associated with the advanced stage of HIV. Moreover it also showed that there is strong relationship between survival rate and the development of stage 2 and over of ADC. Compared with the mortality rate of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia, the 6-months cumulative mortality rate of ADC is three times greater. Compared with other neurologic diseases it is almost the same is the 85% rate if PML, 70% of CNS lymphoma and 51% of cerebral toxoplasmosis. The high rate may be attributed to ineffectiveness of antiviral treatment, the vulnerability of neurologic debility and the hopelessness attitude of the caregivers. According to the most recent studies the HIV-1 plays a significant role in the development of ADC particularly those with severe cognitive dysfunction. It was found that it is due to the production of the macrophages and microglia by the HIV-1, which affects the neuronal dysfunction. There is also the activation of the cytokine circuits and the neuropahtologic sequelae which causes neurotoxicity. By identifying these factors doctors may soon find effective treatment for ADC. [read more]

  • Ainhum
    Ainhum is a disease characterized by painful constriction of the fifth toe. This generally leads to amputation after a few years. Ainhum is more common among black African descents. It is commonly found among the blacks in West Africa, India and South America. The first recorded incidence of the disease is in 1867 by J.F. da Silva Lima. He described the disease suffered by one of the tribes in Brazil, the Nagos, who gave the disease its name. It is very rare in Europe and only a few incidences have been reported. It is also more common among those in between 20 and 50 years of age, with the average in 38 years of age. The youngest patient in record to have Ainhum is seven years old. The cause of the disease is still being studied. At present though, scientists have found that it is not caused by fungi, virus, parasite, bacteria and injury. Although it linked with walking barefoot during childhood, the disease is also found among those who have not gone barefoot. Among all the predisposing factors, race has been found to be on top of the list and thus scientists believe that it has some genetic component. Scientists believe that the disease is caused by the abnormal blood supply on the foot. Angiography of the peripheral limb has shown that the tibial artery may have become attenuated at the ankle and that there is noticeable absence of the plantar arch and branches. There are four stages of ainhum: the Grade I, wherein there is the presence of the groove; Grade II, wherein the floor of the groove is ulcerated; Grade III, wherein the bone is involved; and Grade IV wherein autoamputation occurs. In about 78% of the cases there is the presence of pain. For those in the early stage the pain may be slight and may have been caused by the pressure on the nerves. For those in the advanced stage, the pain is quite severe which is caused by chronic sepsis or fracture of the phalanx. Ainhum is commonly confused with diabetic gangrene, scleroderma, leprosy, Vohwinkle syndrome and leprosy. The pain is the symptom of the ainhum and it is a progressive condition. For the treatment of the ainhum, for the Grade I and II excision of the groove and z-plasty has been proven to relieve pain and prevent autoamputation. For the Grade III disarticulating the metatarsophanlangeal joint has been proven to be as effective. [read more]

  • Airplane Ear
    Airplane ear is the feeling of general discomfort usually experience by airplane passengers, mainly due to the rapid changes in the air pressure and altitude. People with cold, congested nose and some nasal allergy are more likely to experience airplane ears when traveling. [read more]

  • Akathisia
    Akathisia also spelled as acathisia from the greek word means without or not. Akathisia is characterized by restlessness. The patient is unable stay still or motionless. [read more]

  • Akinetic Mutism
    Akinetic mutism is the term used to describe persons who neither move nor speak. [read more]

  • Alagille Syndrome
    Alagille syndrome is a disease that affects the heart, liver and other major organs of the body. [read more]

  • Alagille-Watson Syndrome
    Alagille-Watson syndrome (AWS) is one of the genetic disorders which affect the different systems of the body including the heart and the liver. The symptoms of the AWS are usually manifested during early childhood or infancy. It is hereditary and its prevalence rate is 1 in every 70,000. The symptoms if AWS varies per family that in some cases it is so mild that the symptoms are unnoticeable while in some cases the symptoms may be as severe as to require transplantation of the heart. When the symptom is liver damage, the patient may have Alagille syndrome which includes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, xanthomas, itching and bile duct paucity. The patient may also have congenital heart problem and kidney problems. In other less common cases, the central nervous system is affected. As for the physical manifestation, those with AWS have the same facial features which includes broad forehead, small and pointed chin and deep-set eyes. The Alagille-Watson Syndrome is caused by the mutation in the JAG1 gene. This gene plays an important role in the signaling of cells during the embryonic development. The mutation of the gene then disrupts the signaling and thus it causes developmental errors of the body's system, such as the heart, liver, spinal column and facial features. In those with liver problems caused by the AWS, the bile ducts are narrowed and malformed. This then results in bile build ups and scarring which prevents the proper elimination of wastes in the blood. Usually the child inherits the altered gene from one parent although there are cases wherein the patient develops mutations of the gene. At present, there is still no known cure for the AWS and the treatment given to patients are targeted to the improvement of the affected system of the body, such as improvement of heart or liver condition. At the same time, the treatments are aimed also at reducing the effects of the affected system. For those with liver problems caused by AWS, there are several medications which are effective in improving the bile flow and in reducing the itching and this include Actigall, Atarax, Rifampicin, Cholestyramine and Phenobarbitol. Of course the effectiveness of the medication varies per patient. Doctors also recommend the high dosage of multivitamins especially vitamins A, D, E and K, since with the damage to the bile ducts the body will have difficulty absorbing these important vitamins. For those with heart defects caused by AWC, corrective surgery is sometimes necessary. [read more]

  • Albers-Schonberg Disease
    The Albers-Schonberg disease is one of the most common types of osteopetrosis. It has been found that it is caused by the mutation in the CICN7 chloride channel gene. Those who have Albers-Schonberg disease, have bone cells, osteoclats, not functioning normally. These osteoclats are responsible for the breaking down of old bone tissues so that new ones will grow. In case of the disease, the osteoclats do not break the old bone tissues which then results in overgrow of the bones in the body. These overgrown then become very brittle and break easily. In the United States, it is estimated that around 1,250 persons have osteopetrosis. There are different forms of osteopetrosis and the most severe type is very rare that in the United States, there are only about 8 to 40 cases reported each year. The malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a severe form of the disease. It affects the child even when she is still in the womb. When the baby is delivered, the bones of the shoulder usually break. The baby with malignant infantile osteopetrosis has low calcium, has pressure on the optic nerve in the brain and experiences frequent bone fractures. About 75% of those affected with this disease will develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. If not treated, the child is not expected to live beyond the age of 10. Children have the disease when the parents have the abnormal genes even though they may not have the symptoms. The transient infantile osteopetrosis is the same as the infantile osteopetrosis except that in this case the patient heals on her own without treatment. The adult benign osteopetrosis is what is originally called the Albers-Schonberg disease. The disease is named after the man who first recorded or described the disease. The disease is generally mild and is more common among those in between the age of 20 and 40. One of the most common manifestations of the disease is frequent bone fractures and difficulty healing them. In some cases bone infections, degenerative arthritis, headache and pain may also be experience by those with the disease. The disease may be inherited from the parent with the defective gene and children of parents with the Albers-Schonberg disease have about 50% chance of having the same defective gene. The intermediate osteopetrosis is more common among children below the age of 10. The symptoms is almost the same as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis although less severe. It is believed that it is inherited the same way as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis. [read more]

  • Albinism
    Albinism is the term used to describe a heterogeneous group that display genetically determined disorders that are generally characterized by hypopigmentation that largely affects the eyes. This group of disorders will result to little or no melanin production; hence patients don't have melanin on their skin, eyes and hair. Albinos are quite sensitive to sun exposure and at significantly more at risk of developing skin cancer. [read more]

  • Albinism immunodeficiency
    Albinism immunodeficiency is an unusual persistent disorder that involves multiple systems of the body and occurs from an alteration in the lysosomal trafficking regulator gene, LYST. Because of the destruction of lysosome degranulation with phagosomes phagocytosed bacteria are not damaged by the lysosome's enzymes. Additionally, emission of lytic secretory granules in the cytotoxic T cells is also distressed. Not only doe sit happen to humans but also to cattle, blue Persian cats, white tigers and orcas. [read more]

  • Albright hereditary osteodystrophy
    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, otherwise known as Martin-Albright syndrome is generally a form of osteodystrophy. This is considered to be a very rare genetic disorder characterized as the body's failure t respond and recognize parathyroid hormone. This hormone is involved in taking control of phosphate and calcium in the blood vessel. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    In 1937, Donovan James McCune and Fuller Albright explained Albright's syndrome as an inherited condition distinguished by abnormalities in the skin pigmentation, bone ailments and endocrine complications. The diseases in the bone may result to the weakness of the bone and abnormalities in the legs, arms and skull. Diseases in the endocrine may the reason for early puberty and elevated growth rate. Patients are affected by several distinctiveness of the ailment to various degrees several individuals may have the condition and have no evident complications. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    Albright's syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by some irregularities on the skin known as caf?-au-lait spots, endocrine problems and bone diseases, by which the bones become weak and the development of deformities in the skull, legs and arms. The endocrine diseases may cause an abnormally rapid increase of growth rate and early puberty. Patients are affected in varying degrees and display different characteristics largely depending on the severity of the case. [read more]

  • Alcaptonuria
    Alcaptonuria is more commonly known as black urine disease, which is very rare genetic disease that can be passed on as an autosomal recessive trait. The particular gene that causes this disorder is unable to break down some proteins known as phenylalanine and tyrosine that may be toxic to the human body. This condition is harmful to the bones and body tissues. [read more]

  • Alcohol fetopathy
    Alcohol fetopathy is characterized by a series of congenital defects that affect the facial, cranial, cardiac and nueral abnormalities. This medical condition also involves mental and physical retardation that occur on infants arising from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • alcohol hepatitis
    Alcohol is commonly associated with a number of liver diseases including hepatitis. However, the relationship between alcohol hepatitis and drinking is quite complex. This is because only a small number of heavy drinkers are afflicted with alcohol hepatitis and there are some moderated drinkers who have contracted this disease. Alcohol can possibly progress to liver failure and cirrhosis if patient continues to drink and is often fatal. [read more]

  • Alcohol Induced Neurotoxicity Syndrome
    Alcohol-induced neurotoxicity syndrome is an acquired neurological damage caused by excessive alcohol abuse. This condition is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and is characterized by dementia. [read more]

  • Alcohol Poisoning
    Alcohol Poisoning is a serious — sometimes deadly — result of consuming dangerous amounts of alcohol. Excessive alcohol intake can create a direct and devastating impact on the central nervous system. Alcohol can lead to serious conditions including slowing your breathing, heart rate and gag reflex. These occurences can result to severe implications like choking, coma and even death. Alcohol poisoning is life-threatening condition that is usually brought about as a result of drinking excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages within a short period of time. [read more]

  • Alcoholism
    Alcoholism is drinking alcoholic beverages at a level that obstruct with physical health, mental health, and social, family, or job responsibilities. It is a progressive medical condition that encourages alcohol dependency. You may be fascinated with alcohol and unable to control how much you drink. [read more]

  • Aldosteronism, Primary
    Primary aldosteronism is a medical condition, where the adrenal glands of the body produce too much of the aldosterone hormone, which causes the body lose potassium and retain sodium. In general, sodium and potassium work together to aid in maintaining the right balance of fluids in the human body, help in transmitting nerve impulses, as well as contract and relax the muscles. However, the excess in aldosterone results to sodium retention, retaining excess water and the increase of blood pressure and blood volume. [read more]

  • Alexander disease
    Alexander disease is considered as a very rare type of neurological conditions that is known as leukodystrophies, which is a disorder results from abnormalities in myelin, the “white substance” that protects the nerve fibers in the brain. Alexander disease is progressive in nature and is usually fatal. [read more]

  • Alien hand syndrome
    Alien hand syndrome , also identified as Dr. Strangelove syndrome and anarchic hand is an very unusual neurological disorder, characterized by the apparent loss of control of one's hand, and the sufferer's hand appears to have a mind of its own. [read more]

  • Alkalosis
    Alkalosis is a condition when there is a fleuid and electrolytes imbalance. In this case the base or also called alkali is in higher level. Its opposite is acidosis, which is the acid level of our body, is abnormally high. [read more]

  • Alkaptonuria
    Alkaptonuria is a very rare disease that is genetically transmitted. The disease is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme called homogentisic acid oxidase. This type of deficiency often leads to the buildup of the homogentisic acide on the tissues of the body. This medical condition has been reported to be more prevalent in Dominican Republic and Slovakia. [read more]

  • Allan-Herndon syndrome
    Allan-Herndon syndrome is categorized as an extremely rare hereditary disorder that causes severe mental retardation along with impaired speech ability, diminished muscle tone, as well as possible movement abnormalities. For most infants afflicted with this medical condition tend to develop normally during the first few months. However, when the child reaches more or less six months, the baby will appear weak and unable to hold up its head and may never learn to walk on their own. [read more]

  • Allergic angiitis
    Allergic angiitis is also known by another medical term called Churg-Strauss syndrome, which is characterized by a restricted blood flow to the various organs. While this disease normally involves any major body organ, it usually affects the skin and the lungs. The restricted flow of blood can cause serious damage of the affected areas. The restricted flow of blood to the body organs can cause temporary or permanent damage. [read more]

  • Allergic Asthma
    Allergic Asthma is a medical condition that is characterized by the episodic obstruction of bronchial reactivity and airway inflammation caused by allergies. [read more]

  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus
    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus is a serious respiratory disorder that is characterized by the allergic reaction of the lungs to a certain type of fungus. This disease occurs mostly in individuals that has cystic fibrosis and asthma, triggering cough, wheezing and in some cases accompanies by fever. If left untreated, this disorder may cause serious lung damage. [read more]

  • Allergic Cascade
    Allergic cascade is the medical term used to describe a sequence of chemical release that takes place in response to allergens. [read more]

  • Allergic Rhinitis
    Allergic Rhinitis Also called Hay Fever. Defined as an inflammation of the nasal passages, usually presents with watery nasal discharge and itching of the nose and eyes. [read more]

  • Alopecia
    Alopecia is the medical description for loss of hair from the body or head that sometimes lead to baldness, often unwelcome and unwanted. However, there are some individuals who display some psychological compulsion to forcibly pull out own hair. In some cases, hair loss can also present an underlying case for other medical concern such as iron deficiency. [read more]

  • Alopecia areata
    Alopecia areata is a medical condition that affects humans, characterized by excessive loss of hair in certain areas of the body, typically the scalp. This disease is often referred to as spot baldness since the initial stage causes the formation of bald spots that gradually spread through all areas of the scalp. [read more]

  • Alopecia Totalis
    Alopecia totalis means “loss of all hair in the head” that affects men, women and children. While the causes of alopecia totalis is still unclear, research has confirmed that this condition is an autoimmune disorder, wherein an organism fails to recognize its own parts as “self” and results in a negative response against its own tissues and cells. [read more]

  • Alopecia universalis
    Alopecia Universalis, also known as “Alopecia areata universalis” is a condition that involves rapid loss of all hair, including eyelashes and eyebrows. Alopecia universalis is the most serious type of alopecia areata, affecting only 1 person in 100,000. [read more]

  • Alopecia, Female Pattern
    The medical term for hair loss is called alopecia. Female alopecia is often characterized as being distressing and common. Caused by hormones, genes and aging, female pattern baldness involves a typical patter of loss of hair in women. [read more]

  • Alopecia, Male Pattern
    Androgenetic alopecia or the male pattern baldness is the patterned balding of a man. One should note that the condition is not a medical disorder although it may affect both the appearance and self-esteem of some men. [read more]

  • Alpers disease
    Named after Bernard Jacob Alpers, Alper's disease is a progressive degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Also called progressive sclerosing polidystrophy, progressive infantile poliodystrophy, progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood and Alpers' syndrome, this autosomal recessive disorder only occurs in infants and children, sometimes in siblings. [read more]

  • Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
    Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, also known simply as Alpha-1 or A1AD, is a genetic disorder caused by the defective production of “alpha 1-antitrypsin”. When this happens, the blood and lungs receives insufficient amounts of A1AT while the liver cells receive excess amounts of A1AT proteins. Serious cases of Alpha-1 cause emphysema in most patients with this condition. Children and adults may experience liver diseases. Treatments of this disease include intravenous A1AT protein infusions, liver or lung transplants and avoidance of dangerous inhalants. People of Iberian, Saudi Arabian and northern European ancestry are more at risk of having A1AD. [read more]

  • Alpha-mannosidosis
    Alpha-mannosidosis is an “autosomal recessive metabolic disorder” that leads to physical and mental deterioration. When the a-mannosidase enzyme becomes defective, it causes impaired cell function and sugar buildup. Since this enzyme normally helps in breaking down complex sugars, absence of this functional enzyme may lead to death on children caused by deterioration of the central nervous system. [read more]

  • Alpha-thalassemia
    In this condition, “a thalassemias” involve genes HBA1 and HBA2, which occurs due to Mendelian inheritance in a recessive fashion. Alpha-thalassemia is also connected to the deletion of 16p chromosome. Alpha-thalassemia results in a decrease in alpha-globin production that causes a decrease in the production of alpha-globin chains. As a result, an excess of beta chains occur in adults, while an excess of gamma chains occur in newborns. [read more]

  • Alport syndrome
    Alport syndrome, which first occurred in a British family and identified by Dr. Cecil Alport in 1927, is a genetic disorder characterized by end-stage kidney disease, hearing loss and glomerulonephritis. Hematuria or the presence of blood in urine always occurs in patients with this condition. Some also develop eye problems. [read more]

  • Alstrom syndrome
    Alstrom syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder – one of the rarest in the world, existing in only 266 reported cases in medical books and only 411 patients in 42 countries. First described by Carl Henry Alstrom in 1959, this condition is usually mistaken with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, which has resembling symptoms. However, the Bardet-Biedl syndrome usually have later onset with its symptoms. [read more]

  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood
    Alternating hemiplegia of childhoon or “AHC” is a rare genetic disease that causes progressive mental retardation and intermittent paralysis, which starts during childhood. [read more]

  • Altitude Illness
    Alternative names for Altitude Illness are the ff: High altitude cerebral edema; High altitude pulmonary edema; Mountain sickness; acute mountain sickness. Altitude Illness is a sickness that can influence mountain climbers, hikers, skiers, or travelers who climb very fast; usually encountered when reaching high elevation in a very rapid manner. [read more]

  • Altophobia
    Altophobia, or acrophobia, is a person's fear of heights. This fear can be very dangerous especially to those who are exploring high elevations; they may suddenly experience panic attack while going higher above the ground causing their heart to palpitate and lead to serious complications. [read more]

  • Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia
    (ACD) is defined as a lethal evolving anomaly of the pulmonary vasculature. It is normally illustrated as the miscarriage of the normal air-blood diffusion barrier in the newborn lung. It is usually supplementary with the misalignment of the pulmonary veins. [read more]

  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease
    Alveolar Hydatid Disease is a rare medical condition where there is a multi-organ infection caused by the larval stage of a Echinococcus multilocularis, tapeworm that is usually microscopic and is usually found in foxes, coyote, dogs and cats. When affecting human, the tapeworm thrive on the lungs, brain and organs of the body. [read more]

  • Alveolar Osteitis
    Alveolar osteitis or dry socket is a type of dental condition that typically occurs when the blood clots at the area where an extracted tooth is dislodged, and exposes the underlying nerves and bones. This causes increasing pain. [read more]

  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma
    Alveolar soft part sarcoma or “ASPS”, which was first identified in 1952, is an extremely rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, a slow-growing tumor that occurs mainly in children and young adults. ASPS is a highly angiogenic disease, which involves an intensive production of new blood vessels connecting the tumor to the blood and enabling dissemination of tumor cells into the bloodstream. Because of this, tumor cells can easily transfer into various parts of the body, usually affecting the brain and lungs. ASPS is a sarcoma that affects soft tissues that connects and supports organs and structures of the body. It usually develops in the deep soft tissues and muscles of the leg or thighs, but could also appear in hands, head and neck. However, it could also spread and develop inside bones. [read more]

  • Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an inflammation of the alveoli found in the lung. This condition is caused by hypersensitivity to various types of inhaled organic dusts. People with this disease are usually exposed to dust from their hobbies or occupations. Several types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis exist based on the provoking antigen. These include Bird-Breeder's Lung (avian proteins), Farmer's Lung (molds), Bagassosis (moldy bagasse or sugarcane), Malt Worker's Lung (moldy barley), Humidifier Lung (by mist of standing water). Mushroom Worker's Lung (mushroom compost), Compost Lung (compost), Peat Moss Worker's Lung (peat moss), Suberosis (moldy cork dust), Japanese Summer-Type HP (damp wood and mats) and Cheese-Washer's Lung (cheese casings). Other types of EAA include Hot Tub Lung, Mollusc Shell HP, Metalworking Fluids HP, Isocyanate HP, TMA HP, Beryllium and Wine-grower's Lung. The most common of all EAA are Bird-Breeder's Lung and Farmer's Lung, affecting 8 to 850 people in 100,000 persons each year for farmers alone and 6,000 to 21,000 people in 100,000 persons for pigeon breeders yearly. [read more]

  • Alveolus Cancer
    Alveolus Cancer is the cancer of the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchial tubes located in the lungs. [read more]

  • Alzheimer disease, familial
    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a very rare form of Alzheimer's disease that affects people aged 20 to 65. This condition is inherited in an “autosomal dominant fashion”. As its name suggest, Familial AD occurs in patients with 2 or more first-degree relatives with AD history. However, only 5% of the total Alzheimer's disease account to familial AD. Emil Kraepelin first identified the symptoms of FAD, while Alois Alzheimer observed the characteristic neuropathology of FAD in 1906. [read more]

  • Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease, which is named after Alois Alzheimer, is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs in people aged 65 and over. This disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting over 20 million people worldwide. Once Alzheimer's has been diagnosed, the life expectancy of patients is around 7 years. Only 3% of patients live for more than 10 years. [read more]

  • Amaurosis
    “Amaurosis” is a Greek word that means obscure, dark or darkening. As its name suggest, Amaurosis is vision loss or a weakness that develops without any apparent lesion, affecting the eyes. Amaurosis can be a result from a medical condition, while some are acquired from excess acceleration, such as in flights. [read more]

  • Ambiguous Genitalia
    Ambiguous genitalia is a very rare medical condition in which the external genitals of the newborn do not clearly appear if it's a male or female usually because it is not properly formed. This may cause serious social stigma and question to the baby's gender. In most cases, it is important to wait to determine to true gender of the child. [read more]

  • Amblyopia
    Amblyopia, commonly known as “lazy eye”, is a visual system disorder characterized by poor vision in one of the eyes. However, the affected eye remains physically normal or out of proportion. This condition affects 1% to 5% of the global population. Poor or no transmission of the visual images to the brain causes lazy eye. This condition usually affects only one eye, but it could occur in both eyes if both are similarly deprived of clear visual images. However, if detected early in life, the chance of successful treatment increases. [read more]

  • Ambras syndrome
    Ambras syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by excessive hair throughout the body. It is also known as “hypertrichosis lanuginosa”, congenital hypertrichosis universalis and congenital hypertrichosis lanuginose. Ambras syndrome affects only one person in 1 billion people. Less than 40 cases of Ambras syndrome have been documented worldwide. This condition is said to have genetic component with family histories of Ambras syndrome being reported in relation to affected patients. In the 19th century, people suffering from Ambras syndrome perform in sideshow acts or circuses. People described as “wolfmen” or “werewolves” due to their excessive hair growth are most likely sufferers of Ambras syndrome. [read more]

  • Amelogenesis
    Amelogenesis is a disease that forms enamel on teeth. It occurs during the crown stage of a person's tooth development or during the formation of dentine. [read more]

  • Amelogenesis imperfecta
    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of a person's tooth development, which causes teeth to become discolored, grooved, pitted, prone to breakage, become unusually small and develop other dental abnormalities. This condition produces varying effects and can affect both baby teeth and permanent teeth. Fourteen types of amelogenesis imperfecta exist. Each type is distinguished by specific dental abnormalities present. All types of amelogenesis imperfecta can affect any number of teeth. People with amelogenesis imperfecta develop teeth with abnormal color, such as grey, brown or yellow. Their teeth have greater risk of developing cavities and become hypersensitive to changes in the temperature. It is estimated that 1 in 14,000 people in the U.S. and 1 in 700 people in Sweden suffer from amelogenesis imperfecta. However, the exact incidence of this condition remains uncertain. [read more]

  • Amenorrhoea
    Amenorrhoea, a term derived from the Greek “a”=negative, “men”=month, “rhoea”=flow, is a condition wherein a female does not experience a menstrual period. Amenorrhoea is also a symptom of various causes. For women where menstrual cycles never start, a condition called primary amenorrhoea, the condition may be caused by several developmental problems such as failure of ovaries to maintain or receive eggs cells as well as congenital absence of one's uterus. Delay in a female's pubertal development may also cause primary amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhoea, wherein menstruation cycles cease, is usually caused by hormonal problems from the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. This can also occur when a female experiences premature menopause and intrauterine scar formation. [read more]

  • American trypanosomiasis
    American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas' disease, is a human parasitic disease, which occurs in tropical areas in South America. The pathogenic agent of this disease is a “flagellate protozoan” called “Trypanosoma cruzi”, which is transmitted to mammals by blood-sucking assassin bugs of the Reduviidae Family. These insects are also called barbeiro, chupanca, chipo, vinchuca, benchuca and kissing bug. However, other forms of transmission are possible; some affected patients acquire the disease through fetal or blood transmission as well as ingestion of food contaminated with various parasites. [read more]

  • Amnesia
    Amnesia is a condition in which memory is disturbed. The generators of amnesia are organic or functional. It is the loss of recall; usually natural causes include damage to the brain, within trauma or disease, or use of specific drugs [read more]

  • Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
    Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning is an unusual and rare disease which occurs as a result of a toxin made by a microscopic, salt-water plant that is usually red-brown or a diatom specie called Nitzchia Pungens. [read more]

  • Amnestic Disorder
    Amnestic Disorder, otherwise known as the Retrogade Amnesia, is a disorder where there unusually decline in memory function such as difficulty in recalling events that happened or facts that they know before the Amnestic Disorder. [read more]

  • Amoebic Dysentery
    Amoebic dysenery is an intestinal illness due to a microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Anyone can be infected with Entamoeba histolytica. It is common to people living in tropical or subtropical areas and men fun of having sex with men. [read more]

  • Amputation
    Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. It is implemented to control pain or a disease, such as malignancy or gangrene. A special case is the congenital amputation, where foetal limbs have been taken off by constrictive bands. Amputation of the hands or feet is implemented as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes in some countries. [read more]

  • Amyloidosis
    Amyloidosis is a unique and potentially deadly disease that takes place when substances called amyloid proteins build up in your organs; which areabnormal proteins commonly formed by cells in your bone marrow that can be deposited in any tissue or organ. [read more]

  • Amylotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    Amylotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that destroys the motor neurons causing paralysis and eventual death. In this condition the nerves associated with voluntary muscle control degenerate and results to atrophy of the muscles. Most patients become bound to a wheelchair and soon die due to other complications. [read more]

  • Amyoplasia Congenita
    Amyoplasia congenita is a birth disorder characterized by stiffness of the joints and muscle and nerve wastage that causes severe impairment and eventual immobility of the arms and legs. [read more]

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    abbreviated ALS; is a disorder of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that are in charge for voluntary muscle movement. It is a crucial neurological disease that harms the nerve cells that control voluntary muscles. [read more]

  • Anal Cancer
    Anal cancer is a type of cancer which arises from the anus, the distal orifice of the gastrointestinal tract. [read more]

  • Anal Exudates
    Anal exudates are wastes, either in fluid or semi-solid form, which are released by the anus. They also referred to as feces. [read more]

  • Anal Fissure
    An anal fissure is a small tear in the lining of the anal canal. Frequently in infants' ages 6 to 24 months, anal fissures are less likely to develop in older children. Adults may generate anal fissures as a result of passing hard or large stools during bowel movements. [read more]

  • Anal Itching
    Anal itching is characterized by an intense itching felt around the anus causing extreme discomfort. This medical condition is also called pruritus ani and can be caused by a number of irritants such as abrasion of the clothing, moisture or even pressure in sitting. [read more]

  • Anaphylactic Shock
    Anaphylactic Shock is also called Anaphylaxis. It is a life-threatening type of allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. It occurs when an allergic response triggers a rapid release from mast cells of huge quantities of immunological mediators leading to systemic vasodilation and edema of bronchial mucosa. Anaphylactic shock can advance to death in a count of minutes if left untreated. Anaphylactic Shock may occur after ingestion, injection of an allergen, skin contact or, in rare cases, inhalation. [read more]

  • Anaphylactoid Purpura
    Anaphylactoid Purpura otherswise known as the Henoch-Schonlein purpura or HSP is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the blood vessels or the vasculitis. [read more]

  • Anaphylaxis
    Anaphylaxis, from the Greek words “ava ana” (against) and “phylaxis” (protection), is a severe type I hypersensitivity and acute systemic allergic reaction in mammals, including humans. This condition occurs when an animal or person is exposed to an allergen that has already become sensitized. Large amounts of this allergen may cause a life-threatening reaction. Anaphylaxis occurs after injection, ingestion and inhalation of an allergen. In the United States, 1% to 17% of the population is estimated at risk for experiencing an anaphylactic reaction if exposed in various allergens, especially insect stings and penicillin. Of those who suffer from Anaphylaxis, 1% die as a result, accounting to 1,000 deaths per year in the United States. [read more]

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer that has an extremely poor prognosis with only 14% survival rate. This disease is known for its aggressive behavior and fatal resistance to available cancer treatments. Anaplastic thyroid cancer quickly invades surrounding tissues. [read more]

  • Anasarca
    Anasarca, also called Swelling is the enlargement of skin, organs or other body parts. It is caused by build up of liquid in the tissues. The extra fluid can advance to a quick upsurge in weight over a short period of time. Anasarca can occur throughout the body or only in a definite part of the body. [read more]

  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is also called Androgen resistance syndrome. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition wherein patients suffer from a set of disorders related to sexual differentiation, which results in mutation of the genes encoding the androgen receptor. The nature of problems caused by Androgen insensitivity syndrome varies largely according to the sensitivity and structure of abnormal receptor. Almost all types of Androgen insensitivity syndrome involve infertility and undervirilization in persons of both genders. Women with complete Androgen insensitivity syndrome have female appearance even if they have an undescended testes and 46XY karyotype. [read more]

  • Anemia
    Anemia comes from the Greek words “an-hama”, which means “without blood”. Anemia is the most widespread blood disorder. This condition is a deficiency of RBCs (red blood cells) or hemoglobin, the molecules inside RBCs. When hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs into tissues, anemia causes lack of oxygen in organs. When this happens, different clinical consequences may occur due to oxygen deficiency. There are three classes of anemia – excessive blood loss, excessive blood cell destruction and deficient production of red blood cells. Anemia has several types, which are produced by various underlying causes. This disease can be classified using different ways, normally based on discernible clinical spectra, the morphology of red blood cells and etiologic mechanisms. [read more]

  • Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan
    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital erythroid aplasia, which is commonly present in infants. Patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have anemia (or low red blood cell counts). However, the remaining blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, have normal counts. Various congenital abnormalities may also occur with Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients. [read more]

  • Anemia, Pernicious
    Pernicious anemia, also called “Addisson's anemia” or “Biermer's anaemia”, is a type of megalobastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. This condition is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in adults. [read more]

  • Anemia, Sideroblastic
    Sideroblastic anemia is a condition caused by the abnormal production of red blood cells, normally as a part of myelodysplastic syndrome that can evolve into hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia. When this happens, the patient's body will have iron, but it cannot incorporate this into the hemoglobin. [read more]

  • Anencephaly
    Anencephaly is a cephalic disorder resulting from a neural tube defect, which occurs when the head of the neural tube does not close. It usually occurs around the 23rd to 26th day of pregnancy. This condition results in the absence of a large portion of the scalp, skull and brain. Infants with Anencephaly are born with no forebrain, the part of the brain where the cerebral hemispheres should be present. The brain tissues that exist are often uncovered by skin or bone. Infants born with Anencephaly are usually deaf, blind, unconscious and inability to feel pain. This is because the cerebral hemispheres affected by this condition are responsible for higher level of cognition, such as thinking. In the United States, 1,000 to 2,000 babies are born with Anencephaly every year. Female babies are more likely to be affected by Anencephaly. Unfortunately, the cause of Anencephaly is unknown. [read more]

  • Aneurysm
    An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like, blood-filled dilation of any blood vessel, which is caused by a disease or weakening of the vessel wall. An aneurysm usually occurs in arteries located in the brain and in the aorta (heart). The bulge in blood vessels could burst, which could lead to death any time. However, the larger aneurysm becomes, the larger chances it is to burst. [read more]

  • Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva
    Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva, also known as “aneurysm of the aortic sinus” is a rare disorder, affecting only one person in 1,000 people. For people with Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva, it usually occurs in the right sinus, rarely in the left. Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva is a congenital disease and may possibly be associated with heart defects. This condition is sometimes associated with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Marfan Syndrome. It could also result from syphilis, chest injuries, atherosclerosis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infective endocarditis and cystic medial necrosis. When Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva is unruptured, it can be asymptomatic. As such, the condition may go undetected until symptoms become apparent or medical imaging is performed. [read more]

  • Angelman Syndrome
    Angelman syndrome is a hereditary disorder that causes developmental disabilities and neurological problems, such as balancing and walking, and difficulty speaking. Regular smiles and outbursts of laughter are common for people with Angelman syndrome, and many have happy, excitable personalities. [read more]

  • Angina Pectoris
    Angina pectoris is a type of chest pain or discomfort that is primarily caused by reduction of the blood flow to the heart muscle. This medical condition is categorized as a coronary artery disease. [read more]

  • Angina Pectoris
    Angina Pectoris is a term that illustrates chest pain due to myocardial ischemia. It normally happens on exertion and is comforted by resting. Alternative names for Angina Pectoris are stable angina and chronic angina. [read more]

  • Angina, Unstable
    Unstable angina, or angina pectoris, is a medical condition where the obstruction of the coronary artery causes reduced supply of oxygen to the heart. [read more]

  • Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia
    Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is more commonly known as the Castleman's disease, which is categorized as a very rare form of illness that primarily affects the lymph nodes as well as other immune-cell structures of the body. [read more]

  • Angiolipoma
    It is important to discuss lipoma to understand the nature of angiolipoma. Lipoma is a benign tumor composed of fatty tissues. These tumors are usually movable, soft to touch and painless. They could grow extremely slow and can sometimes be cancerous. Most types of lipomas are small, but can increase its size up to six centimeters. Lipoma usually occurs in adults aged 40 to 60, but could also appear in children. An estimated 1% of the global population suffers from lipoma. Lipomas are also seen in animals. They are found usually on older dogs, but lipomas can also occur in puppies. They appear in single or multiple. While these lipomas grow, they are usually benign. Malignant forms of lipoma in animals are extremely rare. [read more]

  • Angioma
    Angioma is a benign tumor, which is made up of small blood vessels. Angioma normally appears near or at the surface of the skin in any part of the body. However, Angiomas are usually not considered dangerous (depending on location). Some Angiomas are present as symptoms for other serious diseases, such as cirrhosis. When an angioma is removed, it is usually for cosmetic reasons. [read more]

  • Angiomatosis
    Angiomatosis is a condition that refers to “little knots” of capillaries in different organs. Angiomatosis tend to be defined, sponge-like, sharp tumors that are composed of dilated and large cavernous vascular spaces. Angiomatosis often appears in people with Sturge-Weber syndrome, Bacillary angiomatosis, Von-Hippel-Lindau disease and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. [read more]

  • Angiopathy
    Angiopathy refers to any disease associated with the blood vessels or the lymph vessels. When angiopathy is caused by diabetes, it is called diabetic angiopathy. Similar to most complications brought about by diabetes, diabetic angiopathy is primarily due to hyperglycemia or the high levels of blood sugar known to us as glucose. This disease can occur in any part of the body where the effect of high glucose level resulted to clogged up due to build up of plaque in the inner walls of the vessels. There are two types of this disease, macroangiopathy or microangiopathy. [read more]

  • Angiosarcoma
    Angiosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that develops from the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. Such tumors could occur in any part of the body, but they mostly appear in the neck, head, legs and arms. [read more]

  • Anguillulosis
    Anguillulosis is a parasitosis caused by roundworm. It affects over 50 million people worldwide, occurring mainly in sub-tropical and tropical zones, such as South East Asia, West Indies, Indian Ocean region, Southern Africa and Central & South America. The female roundworm, measuring only 2.55 long, lives in the small intestines of humans. When they lay eggs in the small intestines, they release larvae in their feces. These roundworms reach infectious stage directly after sexual reproduction. When they become infectious, roundworms penetrate skin directly. They could also affect the digestive system and may produce symptoms 30 years after roundworms are reproduced. [read more]

  • Angular Cheilitis
    A chronic inflammatory condition of the corners of the mouth is called angular cheilitis or perleche. It is usually associated with a bacterial (Staphylococcal) or fungal (Candidal) infection, and those infected may also have thrush (an oral candidiasis). Depending upon whether or not the affected person seeks treatment, the condition can last from days to months. [read more]

  • Anhidrosis
    Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat normally that can eventually lead to overheating of the body which can be very fatal. Anhidrosis can be quite difficult to diagnose and often goes unrecognized. There are a number of factors that can cause this medical condition and treatment would usually depend on the underlying cause. [read more]

  • Aniridia
    Aniridia is an extremely rare congenital disease characterized by an underdevelopment of the patient's iris, which usually occur in both eyes. This condition is associated with very poor development of the retina at the back of the eye, which in turn, prevents normal vision development.. [read more]

  • Anisakiasis
    Anisakiasis is a condition caused by an infection from Anisakis worms of the genus parasitic nematodes. These nematodes have a life cycle that involves marine mammals and various fishes. When fishes are infected with Anisakis, it could produce an “Anaphylactic reaction” in people sensitized to IgE (immunoglobulin) Anisakiasis usually occurs in areas where fish is consumed raw, salted or lightly pickled. The highest number of people with Anisakiasis is Japan (consuming sushi), Scandinavia (due to cod liver), South America (after eating ceviche) and Netherlands (from infected fermented herrings). [read more]

  • Anisometropia
    Anisometropia is a medical condition where it affects the binocular vision of a person especially that of infants and children. It is characterized by having Non-symmetric vision or eyes that have unequal and different refractive power which causes varying or unequal rotations leading to diplopia and asthenopia. [read more]

  • Ankle Fracture
    An ankle fracture is a quite common injury, especially among athletes. There are three bones on each ankle joint, each one is susceptible to stubbing, twisting, stress and trauma. The degree of the severity of an ankle fracture varies from one case to another, ranging from mild to severe such as shattering the bones into tiny pieces. [read more]

  • Ankle Sprain
    An ankle sprain may be due to a sudden twist or roll of the ankle or any unnatural movement that stretched the ligaments of the ankle. The ligaments are tough elastic bands that connects a bone to another as well ass help stabilize the joints to prevent any excessive movements. [read more]

  • Ankylosing spondylitis
    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic degenerative inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, causing a painful and eventual fusion of the spine. When complete fusion occurs and results in complete spine rigidity, it becomes a condition known as “bamboo spine”. [read more]

  • Ankylosis
    Ankylosis is a condition characterized by joint stiffness caused by an injury or a disease. The rigidity of joints may be partial or complete. Some cases of Ankylosis may be due to the inflammation of the muscular (tendinous) structures in the outer part of the joints or of the joint's tissues itself. [read more]

  • Ankylostomiasis
    Ankylostomiasis, derived from the Greek words “anclo” (crooked or bent) and “stoma” (mouth), is the disease caused by hookworms. It is also known as tunnel disease, Egyptian chlorosis, Miner's anemia, helminthiasis and Brickmaker's anaemia. Ankylostomiasis is a condition caused by large numbers of hookworms present that produce iron deficiency anemia by aggressively sucking blood from its host's intestinal walls. Hookworm is the leasing cause of child and maternal morbidity in areas of the tropics and subtropics. In children, Ankylostomiasis could cause growth retardation, prematurity, intellection and cognitive retardation, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight for newborns with infected mothers. Ankylostomiasis is rarely fatal, but severe anemia could be present with patients heavily infected with the disease. [read more]

  • Annular pancreas
    Annular pancreas is an extremely rare condition that occurs in 1 out of 15,000 newborns. Annular pancreas is a condition wherein the second part of the “duodenum” is surrounded by pancreatic tissues that continue up to the head of the pancreas. This part of the pancreas constricts the duodenum and impairs or blocks the flow of food to the intestines. [read more]

  • Ano-rectal atresia
    Ano-rectal atresia is a birth defect characterized by a malformed rectum due to an unknown cause. This condition is commonly present along with other types of birth defects such as heart and spinal problems, renal and limb anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia. Ano-rectal atresia is sometimes a complication of sacrococcygeal teratoma. There are several forms of Ano-rectal atresia. Sometimes the colon remains close to the skin (low lesion), which can be caused by narrowing of the anus or missing anus with the rectum ending in a pouch. Other types are characterized with a high lesion, wherein the colon is located high in the pelvis, while the fistula connects the rectum with the vagina, urethra or bladder. Some patients suffer from a joined vagina and colon into a single channel, a disorder called persistent cloaca. To confirm the type of Ano-rectal atresia, sonography is recommended. Ano-rectal atresia occurs in 1 in 5,000 newborns. It affects both boys and girls. However, Ano-rectal atresia will be present as the low version 90% in females and 50% in males. [read more]

  • Anodontia
    Anodontia, also known as anodontia vera in dentistry, is a very rare genetic disorder. This disease is characterized by congenital absence of all permanent and primary teeth. Anodontia is associated with a group of nerve and skin syndromes known as “ectodermal dysplasias”. Anodontia is commonly part of different syndromes, which rarely occur as an isolated disorder. Partial anodontia, wherein the patient suffers from congenital absence of two or more teeth, could also occur. This is also known as “oligodontia” and “hypodontia”. Some patients may also suffer from congenital absence of all third molars and all wisdrom teeth. [read more]

  • Anonychia microcephaly
    Anonychia Microcephaly is a neurological disorder characterized by a small head circumference, widely spaced teeth, clinodactyly of 5th finger and the absence of nails. This condition may be congenital. However, some cases develop during the first years of life. Anonychia Microcephaly may be caused by various conditions that result in chromosomal abnormalities or an abnormal growth of the brain. Infants with Anonychia Microcephaly are born with a reduced head size. As the child grows, his or her head size fails to grow while their faces continue to develop normally, resulting in a small head with receding forehead and loose scalp. When the child grows older, the size of the skull becomes more obvious even if the entire body became dwarfed or underweight. [read more]

  • Anophthalmia
    Anophthalmia is the congenital absence of one or both eyes. Its name is derived from the Greek word “anophthalmos”, meaning “without eye”. Primary or True Anophthalmia is extremely rare. True Anophthalmia occurs when complete absence of the ocular tissue inside the orbit is diagnosed. When this condition occurs, a small globe becomes present inside the orbital soft tissue, which is usually not visibly in the initial examination. Extreme microphtalmos is more commonly seen. [read more]

  • Anopthalmia
    Anopthalmia is a congenital disorder in which a child is born with only one or totally no eyes. The occurrence of this defect is very rare. In this condition, there only is a small white mass present in the ocular cavity; but the mass contains no vision abilities. Treatment for this disease requires surgery. [read more]

  • Anorchia
    Anorchia is a medical condition wherein both testes are not present at birth. Anorchia is also known as congenital anorchia, vanishing testes syndrome, vanishing testes, empty scrotum and testicular regression syndrome (TRS). During the first few weeks of fertilization, the embryo needs to develop rudimentary sex organs that are very important to the development of the reproductive system. In human males, if their sex organs do not develop within the first 8 weeks, they will develop female genitalia. When the testes are lost between 8 to 10 weeks, they will develop “ambiguous genitalia” at birth. However, when the testes are lost after fourteen weeks, the baby can develop a normal, male reproductive system, but without testes. People with Anorchia have a 46-XY chromosome constellation. Signs of Anorchia include lack of secondary sex characteristics and an empty scrotum. [read more]

  • Anorexia nervosa
    Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder that describes an eating disorder, which is characterized by body image distortion and low body weight due to an obsessive fear of becoming fat or gaining weight. People with anorexia nervosa usually control their body weight by voluntary vomiting, purging, starving, extreme exercise and other weight control measures, such as taking diuretic drugs and diet pills. It usually affects adolescent females and only 10% of anorexia nervosa patients are male. Anorexia nervosa is an extremely complex disorder, involving neurobiological, sociological and psychological components. [read more]

  • Anorgasmia
    Anorgasmia is a medical term to refer to the regular difficulty of reaching reaching orgasm especially even after ample sexual stimulation and causing personal distress. Anorgasmia is actually a very common occurrence with about 15 percent of women report such cases of experiencing difficulty in reaching orgasm. [read more]

  • Anosmia
    Anosmia is a condition wherein patients experience the loss of temporary or permanent ability to smell. Hyposmia is a related condition wherein patients experience a decrease in their ability to smell, while “hyperosmia” is a condition that causes an increase in the patient's ability to smell. However, when a person loses his sense of smell for a particular odor, he is suffering from a genetically based disorder called “specific anosmia”. “Congenital Anosmia” refers to the condition wherein a person is born without the sense of smell. Anosmia can be associated with other conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, zinc deficiency, cadmium poisoning, allergies, Refsum disease, holoprosencephaly, Alzheimer's disease, Kallman syndrome and Parkinson's disease. [read more]

  • Anovulation
    Anovolution is a medical condition where by there is difficulty in ovulating thereby causing infertility. The ovary in this kind of medical condition fails to release egg which make her unable to conceive. [read more]

  • Anoxia
    Anoxia is a medical condition where there is lack of oxygen in the body to supply it to the person's organ tissues. It is also known as hypoxia inasmuch as they refer to same condition where there is not enough oxygen needed to supply the organ tissues of the body. [read more]

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries are extreme stretching and tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which can either be complete or partial. [read more]

  • Anterior horn disease
    Anterior horn disease is a condition that affects the anterior horn cells, which are responsible for voluntary muscle activities, such as breathing, walking, swallowing and speaking. Anterior horn disease is characterized by the death of more neurons, which result in a prolonged and progressive motor weakness. Some patients with anterior horn disease are affected permanently. [read more]

  • Anterior Knee Pain Syndrome
    Anterior knee pain syndrome is a degeneration of the tissue that protects the knee cap. This disease features extreme pain on the knees and is usually felt by people who are into athletic sports. [read more]

  • Anthrax
    Anthrax is an acute disease in animals and humans, which is caused by the bacterium “bacillus anthracis”. Some types of anthrax are highly lethal. There are 89 types of anthrax recorded. Unlike other types of bacteria, anthrax can form long-lived spores. As soon as the life cycle of the bacteria is threatened by various factors, such as temperature change of dying host, the bacteria can transform into dormant spores, wait for another host and transfer to continue their life cycle. Anthrax usually occurs in wild and grass-eating mammals that breathe or ingest in the spores while eating grass. This disease can also be caught by humans exposed to dead infected pigs, high amounts of anthrax spores in animal wool, fur or hide and tissues from infected animals. While anthrax cannot be spread directly from one person to the next, human clothing can transfer the spores and when an infected person dies and the body is buried. [read more]

  • Antibiotic Resistance
    Antibiotic resistance is the capability of a microorganism to resist the effects of antibiotics. It is a particular type of drug resistance. It develops naturally via natural selection that acts upon arbitrary mutation but it can also be developed by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. [read more]

  • Antibiotic Resistant Tuberculosis
    Antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis, also known as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, is a kind of TB that doesn't respond effectively to anti-TB drugs such as rifampicin and isoniazid. This type of the disease is one of the deadliest forms of tuberculosis. It is less transmissible however, but it also needs special kinds of drugs that can eliminate antibiotic-resistant agents that thrive in the body. Most of the time treatment takes years to complete; some patients meanwhile die due to failure of completing the treatment. [read more]

  • Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea typically occurs when the natural balance of bad and good bacteria in the intestinal tract is disturbed. This causes the harmful bacteria to proliferate resulting to frequent bowel movements. Often, it is mild and can clears up after several days or less. [read more]

  • Antibiotic-caused Colitis
    Antibiotic-caused colitis is an infectious disease affecting the colon. Like the typical colitis, it is caused by C. difficile, which is also present among individuals who are taking antibiotic treatment. This infection commonly occurs in hospitals. [read more]

  • Antimicrobial Resistance
    Antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of certain drugs. In this case some bacterial infections become difficult to treat since doctors have to search for a new antidote to treat diseases. Antimicrobial resistance can lead to more serious diseases such as bacteremia, where the bacteria have contaminated the blood. [read more]

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
    Antiphospholipid syndrome, simply called “APLS” or “APS”, is a disorder of coagulation, which causes pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia, miscarriage and preterm deliver. It also causes blood clots in both veins and arteries. The syndrome occurs because of the production of antibodies against phosphilipids. This disorder is characterized by antibodies against B2 glycoprotein I and cardiolipin. Antiphospholipid syndrome is usually seen in conjunction with other autoimmune-related diseases. In some cases, Antiphospholipid syndrome can lead to high risk of death and dramatic organ failure caused by generalized thrombosis. [read more]

  • Antisocial personality disorder
    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a mental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern and violation of and disregard for the rights of others, which begin in early childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood. Features of Antisocial personality disorder include manipulation and deceit. [read more]

  • Antithrombin deficiency, congenital
    Antithrombin is a small protein molecule, which is responsible for inactivating several enzymes of the coagulation system. It consists of 432 amino acids and contains 3 disulfide bonds as well as 4 possible “glycosylation” sites. The role of antithrombin in regulating normal blood coagulation is demonstrated by the relationship between acquired and inherited antithrombin deficiencies. This relationship is also seen in the increased risk of developing thrombotic disease. Antithrombin deficiency usually appears to patient with recurrent pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. [read more]

  • Antitrypsin
    Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic defect caused by an abnormal production of alpha-1 antitrypsin, a protein that thrives in the liver cells. The lack of this protein may cause severe disorders in the different organs and weakness of the immune system. [read more]

  • Anton syndrome
    Anton syndrome, also known as “Anton's blindness” and “Anton-Babinski syndrome”, is a very rare symptom of brain damage that occurs in the occipital lobe. Anton-Babinski syndrome is named after Gabriel Anton and Joseph Babinski. Individuals who suffer from Anton syndrome are considered “cortically blind”, but insist they are capable of seeing even with evidence of their blindness. Blindness is usually dismissed by the suffered of Anton syndrome through confabulation. This type of symptom is commonly seen after a stroke, but could also occur after experiencing head injury. Anton syndrome can be caused by damage in the portion of the brain responsible for detecting the absence or presence of vision or damages to the part of the brain responsible for eyesight. [read more]

  • Anuria
    Anuria otherswise known as the Anuresis is a medical condition where there is inability to urinate because of the kidney failed to function or due to diseases like kidney stones. [read more]

  • Aortic aneurysm
    Aortic aneurysm is a general term referring to the swelling of the aorta, usually caused by an underlying weakness in the aorta's wall. Although stretched vessels may only cause discomfort, aortic aneurysm may result in rupture, which causes massive internal hemorrhage, severe pain and a quick death if not treated promptly. [read more]

  • Aortic arch interruption
    Aortic arch interruption, also commonly known as “interrupted aortic arch”, is an extremely rare heart defect wherein the aorta did not complete its development – did not form a complete tube or the aorta has a hole in the muscle wall. As such, patients with an aortic arch interruption have a gap between the descending and ascending thoracic aorta. Majority of patients with this condition have other cardiac-related anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, truncus arteriosus, aortic stenosis or ventricular septal defects. As such, treatment of aortic arch interruption would depend on the presence of any of the associated defects. [read more]

  • Aortic coarctation
    Aortic coarctation is a condition characterized by narrowing of the aorta in an area where the “ductus arteriosus” inserts. There are three types of aortic coarctation – preductal, ductal and postductal coarctation. In preductal coarctation, the narrowing is near the ductus arteriosus. Severe cases of preductal coarctation, blood flow to the lower body to the narrowing could become dependent on a patent ductus arteriosus. When this happens, its closure can become life threatening and lead to hypoplastic development of the aorta. In ductal coarctation, the narrowing occurs along the insertion of the “ductus arteriosus”. This type of condition usually develops when the ductus arteriosus closes. In postductal coarctation, the narrowing is far from the instertion of the ductus arteriosus. Newborns with this type of aortic coarctation may become critically sick after birth. Ductal aortic coarctation is more common in adults and is associated with hypertension, weak pulses in lower extremeties and notching of the ribs. [read more]

  • Aortic dissection
    Aortic dissection is a condition wherein the wall of the aorta tears, causing blood to flow between the layers of the aorta wall and forcing the layers apart. Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition and is considered as a medical emergency because it could lead to a quick death even with appropriate treatments. If the dissection tears the aorta through all its three layers, rapid and massive blood loss would occur. Aortic dissection that result in rupture have 80% mortality rate. Almost 50% of patients with aortic dissention die before they reach the hospital. [read more]

  • Aortic supravalvular stenosis
    Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a fixed form of congenital left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction that arises as a localized or a diffuse narrowing of the ascending aorta beyond the superior margin of the sinuses of Valsalva. It is responsible for less than 7% of all fixed forms of congenital LVOT obstructive lesions. SVAS may arise sporadically, as a manifestation of elastin arteriopathy, or as part of Williams syndrome (also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome), a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. [read more]

  • Aortic Valve Regurgitation
    Aortic valve regurgitation is also known as aortic incompetence or insufficiency. This medical condition occurs when the heart's aortic valve does not close tightly, causing some of the blood to that has been pumped out to leak back. This leakage will result to preventing the heart to supply blood to the rest of the body, causing the patient to always feel tired and short of breath. [read more]

  • Aortic valve stenosis
    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a “valvular” heart disease caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. Normally, the aortic valves control the direction of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. When the aortic valve is in good working condition, it does not obstruct the flow of blood. Aortic valve stenosis is a common disorder, affecting about 2% of individuals over 65 years old, 3% of patients over 75 and 4% of people over 85 years old. Since the global population is aging, the prevalence of Aortic valve stenosis is increasing. [read more]

  • Apert syndrome
    Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder commonly known as “acrocephalosyndactyly”. This disorder is classified as a “branchial arch syndrome”, which affects the first branchial arch, responsible for the maxilla and mandible. Apert syndrome causes lasting and widespread effects to individuals because branchial arches are important in the fetus development. [read more]

  • Aphasia
    Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from damage to segments of the brain that are responsible for language; usually on the left brain hemisphere. It often occurs all of a sudden usually as a result of stroke or head injury. In some cases, it progresses gradually. In both cases, the result is remarkable impairment in writing, reading, expression and language understanding [read more]

  • Aphthous stomatitis
    Aphthous stomatitis is a form of mouth ulcer that presents a painful open sore within the mouth, which is caused by a break in the patient's mucous membrane. Also known as aphthous ulcer or “Sutton's disease”, the term “aphtha” means ulcer. Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by repeated painful discrete areas of ulceration. Recurrent Aphthous stomatitis (RAD) is distinguished from other diseases by their multiplicity, chronicity and tendency to recur. RAD is one of the most common oral diseases, accounting to 10% of the population. Females are more affected by Aphthous stomatitis than men are. However, over 35% of patients with RAD have a family history of this disease. [read more]

  • Aphthous Ulcers
    Aphthous ulcers are more commonly known as canker sores. These are characterized by the development of small and shallow lesions on the soft tissues in your mouth, under the tongue, or insides of the cheeks or lips, as well as at the base of the gums. Often , it will usually go away naturally after a few weeks or so. [read more]

  • Apiphobia
    Apiphobia is the fear of bees or bee stings, a common phobia among people. Derived from the Latin words “apis” for honeybee, Apiphobia is a specific phobia – an abnormal fee of bees. Apiphobia is a type of zoophobia common in young children, which could prevent them from participating in any activities outdoors. Older people with Apiphobia can control this fear more easily. However, a few cases of Apiphobia in adults, such as Adam Savage of MythBusters, may show extreme fear of bees. One method of overcoming Apiphobia in children is to train them in facing their fears. [read more]

  • Aplastic anemia
    Aplastic anemia is a condition wherein the bone marrow does not produce enough new cells to replenish the blood cells. The word “aplastic” refers to the marrow that suffers from aplasia, making it unable to function normally. Anemia is the disorder that results in having lesser red blood cells than normal, which are needed to function properly. Although anemia refers to low levels of red blood cells, Aplastic anemia differs due to the lower counts of all blood cell types – platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells. [read more]

  • Apnea, Infantile
    Apnea is a condition that is characterized by the sudden or spontaneous loss of breathing for 20 seconds or more. Infantile apnea, as its name suggest, occurs in children under 1 year old. [read more]

  • Apnea, Postanesthetic
    Postanesthetic apnea is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by sensitivity to any anesthetic agents, particularly those derived from drugs like choline. When a person with sleep apnea is administered with anesthetic drugs, the muscles responsible for lung function become paralyzed. [read more]

  • Apocrine Duct Occlusion
    Apocrine duct Occlusion, commonly known as the Fox-Fordyce disease, is an uncommon skin disorder, affecting male and children, but is more common in women between 13 and 35 years old. This condition is characterized by the sudden development of itchy bumps usually around hair follicles of nipples, underarm areas and pubic region. [read more]

  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a potentially fatal genetic disorder and autosomal recessive cause of hypokalaemia, prenatal and postnatal growth failure, undetectable levels of aldosterone and renin and hypertension, which responds to treatments using glucocorticoid. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is an extremely rare disorder, accounting to only 60 patients recorded for the past 20 years. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a result of mutations of the HSD11B2 gene, which is responsible for encoding the kidney isozyme “11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase”. This isozyme inactivates the circulating cortisol to the less-active metabolite cortisone, which leads to an elevated amount of cortisol in the kidney. Note that high concentrations of cortisol could activate the “mineralocorticoid receptor”, which leads to an aldosterone-like effect in the patient's kidneys. This occurrence causes hypernatremia, hypokalemia and hypertension. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can also be caused by licorice ingestion, which blocks 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and increase cortisol activity. Early and aggressive treatment of Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can prevent and improve the mortality and morbidity of end-organ damage rates. Diagnosis is made by DNA and hormonal analysis. [read more]

  • Appendicitis
    Appendicitis, also known as epityphlitis, is a condition wherein an inflammation of the appendix occurs. Although mild cases of appendicitis can be resolved without any treatment, most require removal of the appendix. [read more]

  • Apple Peel Syndrome
    Apple peel syndrome, also known as Jejunal Atresia, is an extremely rare genetic disorder wherein patients are born without a small part of the fold from the stomach membrane connecting the small intestines to the abdomen. This condition occurs in 1 of 270 babies born alive. It is the most common intestinal obstruction found in one third of all babies. [read more]

  • Apraxia
    Apraxia is a neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of ability to carry out or execute learned movements, such as speech, despite having the physical ability and desire to perform such movements. [read more]

  • Apudoma
    An apudoma is any endocrine tumor that arises from an APUD cell (APUD, meaning amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) properties. These cells, which are derived from neural crest cells, are from structures such as the prostate, pancreas and ampulla of Vater. First identified in 1975, Apudoma is a very general term. As such, most doctors and scientists prefer to use a more specific term when possible, such as apudoma of gall bladder. [read more]

  • Arachnitis
    Arachnitis, commonly known as Arachnoiditis, is a severe condition characterized by intense stinging, burning pain and various neurological problems, which could lead to scarring, irritation and blinding of blood vessels ad its nerve roots. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly
    This disease is also known as "spider fingers" or archromachia. It is referred to as "spider fingers" due to the fact that the fingers are slim and long comparing it to the palm like a spider's legs. This disease can occur after birth or later in life. This disease can happen without any medical conditions but sometimes it is related with some medical condition for instance Marfan Syndrome. Other term for this disease is Dolichostenomelia. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly, Contractural Beals Type
    Contractural Beals Type Arachnodactyly is a very rare genetic disorder also known as Beals Syndrome. It is characterized by permanently flexed fingers, abnormally shaped ears and the permanent fixation of affected joints like hips, fingers, knees and elbows that is in a flexed position. [read more]

  • Arachnoid cysts
    It is an uncommon disease which involves cysts that are fluid-filled that forms in the arachnoid membrane that is a thin layer of tissue that creates a membrane that covers the brain and the spinal cord It can start during childhood or can come later during adulthood. The determination of the severity of the disease is based on the location of the cyst and how big it is. [read more]

  • Arachnoidal Fibroblastoma
    Arachnoidal Fibroblastoma, commonly known as Meningioma, is a tumor of the meninges, a part of the brain that protects the spinal cord and brain. This condition can develop in any part of the spinal cord or brain, but usually start in the cerebral hemispheres. Most Arachnoidal Fibroblastoma are benign, but malignant types of this condition occur. This condition accounts to one in every five brain tumors and is mostly found in middle-aged adults. [read more]

  • Arachnoiditis
    A disease due to the swelling of the arachnoids which is a membrane that encloses and shields the central nervous system nerves together with the spinal cord and the brain. The swelling can be caused by infections due to viruses or bacteria and can also be caused by chemical irritation. The swelling may cause creation of scar tissue and bonding that results the nerves on the spine to “bond”. The disease is usually progressive and treatments differ in its efficiency, the disease is not often cured. [read more]

  • Arakawa's syndrome II
    An error of metabolism that is inherent is known as Arakawa's syndrome II. A hereditary disorder caused by the absence of the enzyme tetrahydrofolate-methyltransferase. People who has this disease cannot properly digest methylcobalamin a kind of Vitamin B12. Other terms for this disease are Methionine synthase deficiency, N5-methylhomocysteine transferase deficiency and Tetrahydrofolate-methyltransferase deficiency syndrome. [read more]

  • ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a condition in which a patient with underlying disease has a breathing problem. It is a non- specific respiratory disorder that occurs if there is a fluid build up in the lungs that blocks the exchange of gases that provide energy in the body. ARDS is a life threatening disease if failed to provide care immediately and properly. [read more]

  • Aregenetive Anemia
    Aregenetive anemia is a type of anemia in which the bone marrow drastically reduces its production of blood cells. It is a rare but serious condition that can be life-threatening. [read more]

  • ARG Deficiency
    ARG deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that is shown by a lack of the arginase enzyme. This enzyme plays a big role in removing nitrogen from the body, and insufficient amounts of arginase can lead to nitrogen poisoning in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Effects of nitrogen contamination include mental retardation, spasticity and mental retardation. ARG deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Arginase deficiency (Arginemia)
    A hereditary disorder, that causes high level of arginine in the blood. Death is the result for total deficiency while partial deficiency causes hyperammonemia, metabolic alkalosis, convulsions, hepatomegaly, mental retardation and failure to grow. [read more]

  • Argininosuccinic aciduria
    Argininosuccinic aciduria, also referred to as argininosuccinic academia, an inborn condition that results to ammonia being accumulated in the urine and the blood. In the earlier days of life it becomes evident, take note that ammonia is toxic particularly in the nervous system. A lack of argininosuccinate lyase enzyme, which is required to get rid of nitrogen from the body, causes ammonia to build up in the blood and urine. A baby infected with argininosuccinic aciduria can appear exhausted and be reluctant to eat, with poorly-controlled breathing rate or body temperature, occurrence of seizures or abnormal body movements, or worse might result to coma. [read more]

  • Argyria
    An intake of elemental silver, silver dust or silver compounds, over exposure to silver salts - typically industrial exposure or medication causes Argyria. The most evident symptom if Argyria is that the skin turns to blue or bluish-grey colored. Argyria may start as generalized or local Argyria. A condition that is related to the eye is called Argyrosis. It is believed that the disorder can be permanent but laser therapy is helpful. [read more]

  • Arm Fracture
    A broken arm is a very common injury that both occur in children and adult. A fracture would usually require immediate medical attention and surgery to realign the bone. [read more]

  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
    Ocassionally it is called as Chiari II malformation or ACM, it is is a hereditary deformity of the brain. It is an unusual deformity where the support of the brain goes through the upper spinal canal. This disorder happens to approximately every child born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Chiari malformations I, II and III is associated with the apparent irregularity of the hindbrain which was described by German pathologist Hans Chiari in the late 1800's. Afterwards, further investigators supplemented a fourth (Chiari IV) malformation. The severity scale is rated I – IV, with IV as the most severe. Arnold Chiari Malformation particularly refers to the Chiari II malformation. [read more]

  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
    Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an genetic cardiac muscle disorder characterized by a damaged muscle that can be gradually replaced by fat and scar tissue. This serious heart disease is one of the highly recognized causes of sudden death among teenagers. ARVC can cause some abnormal heart rhythms that can result to the weakening of the heart's pumping action. In most cases, this medical condition is not fatal and does not significantly affect the quality of life. However, a number of patients usually develop some other complications and would require constant medical attention. [read more]

  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
    This disorder is an unusual heart ailment that involves primarily right ventricle. It causes the muscle tissue of right ventricle to be changed by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the capability of the heart to pump blood. It is distinguished by hypokinetic parts relating the free wall of the right ventricle, with fibro-fatty substitute of the right ventricular myocardium, together with related arrhythmias starting in the right ventricle. It is also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC. [read more]

  • Arsenic Poisoning
    Arsenic Poisoning is a type of poisoning which results from ingestion of food and fluid containig the chemical arsenic. [read more]

  • Arterial tortuosity
    Arterial tortuosity is an unusual hereditary connective tissue disorder distinguished by elongated and widespread tortuosity of the main arteries involving the aorta. The autosomal recessive acquired and location of the gene responsible is in the chromosome 20q13. [read more]

  • Arteriosclerosis
    Arteriosclerosis is a general term for several disorders causing thickening, loss of elasticity, and hardening of the walls of the arteries with the most common form called atherosclerosis. [read more]

  • Arteriovenous Fistula
    Arteriovenous Fistula is an abnormal passageway between an artery and a vein, which can either be present at birth, created surgically intended for hemodialysis treatments for patients with end-stage kidney failures, or acquired either by trauma or erosion of an aneurysm in an artery. As a disease, arteriovenous fistula is referred to as arteriovenous malformation, a congenital disorder of the connections between arteries and veins in the cardiovascular system of the body. [read more]

  • Arteriovenous malformation
    Arteriovenous malformation or commonly known as AVM is an inborn disorder distinguished with a multifaceted, twisted web of arteries and veins. The hereditary spreading guide of AVM (if any) are unidentified, and AVM is not usually considered to be an inborn disorder--unless in the framework of a particular genetic disease. AVM may be evident at birth it may appear as a blemish that resembles a hemangioma. Comparing to other areas of the skin the skin of the AVM is warmer to the touch. The blemish is dark red. Throbbing in the mass can be noticed from the fast moving among arteries and veins. [read more]

  • Arteritis
    Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of an artery. It usually results from a contamination or auto-immune reaction. Kinds a) Temporal arteritis - also called as giant cell arteritis. It is particularly arteritis of the vessels providing the head, eyes and optic nerves, mainly the temporal artery. This is common in old aged individuals. A swollen head artery results to headache. b) Takayasu's arteritis - distresses the aorta and its branches. A thrombo-obliterative procedure of the enormous vessels starting in the aortic arch, it takes place usually in young women. Radial and carotid pulses are usually destroyed. Due to the distressed movements it causes the skin to change. Other effects may be hair loss and deteriorated skin and deteriorate of the skin and its branches by primary muscle atrophy. c) Polyarteritis nodosa - distresses the medium-sized arteries, particularly those of renal, coronary, hepatic and skeletal muscle systems. Arteritis can be partly caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. [read more]

  • Arthritis
    Arthritis is a condition that usually involves damage on the joints of the body. For people older than fifty-five years, it is the leading cause of disability. Arthritis is a medicinal term, which mean any kind of joint swelling but the term is usually used to refer to age-related osteoarthritis that is the most usual kind. Though, there are other kinds of arthritis involving rheumatoid arthritis (second-most usual, involving younger adults and juveniles), and different kinds of minor arthritis which are caused by a primary condition: immediate arthritis caused by an infection, psoriatic arthritis from psoriasis, gonococcal arthritis from gonorrhea, and the like. Several probable circumstances with arthritis-like signs involve ankylosing spondylitis and gout. [read more]

  • Arthritis In Children
    Still's disease, is a kind of arthritis that occurs in children. Children with Still's disease often experience common arthritic symptoms adults suffer, and about 300,000 children in the United States are affected by the disease. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Juvenile
    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) previously identified as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most ordinary type of unrelenting arthritis in children. Occasionally it is called as juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) a term that is not exact as JIA does not include all types of persistent childhood arthritis. Arthritis causes the lining of the joint (synovium) to swell. JIA is a division of arthritis noticeable during childhood, which might be temporary and self-limited or persistent. It varies considerably from arthritis usually noticed in adults (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis), and other kinds of arthritis that can present in infancy which are persistent conditions. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Septic
    Arthritis, septic (septic arthritis) is an inflammation of a joint that results from a bacterial infection, or, in rare cases, from a viral or fungal infection. Also sometimes called infectious arthritis or bacterial arthritis, this disease is commonly acute but has the potential to become chronic. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Thumb
    Arthritis, thumb (or thumb arthritis) is characterized by inflammation of the joint of the wrist and the base of the thumb (basal or carpometacarpal joint). Thumb arthritis is also alternatively called basal joint arthritis. [read more]

  • Arthrocentesis
    Arthrocentesis is a procedure in which a syringe is inserted to collect synovial fluid from an infected joint. This procedure is used to diagnose illnesses such as gout and arthritis. It is also known as joint aspiration. [read more]

  • Arthrogryposis
    Arthrogryposis also referred to as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, an unusual hereditary disorder that results to multiple joint contractures and is distinguished by weakness of the muscle and fibrosis. It is a not a progressive disease. The ailment obtains its name from Greek, exactly meaning “bent or curved joints'. There are several identified subgroups of AMC, with varying signs, symptoms, causes and the like. In several cases, a small number of joints might be affected and the variety of movement might be just about normal. In the majority type of arthrogryposis, hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, feet and knees are affected. In the majority rigorous types, almost each joint is involved, as well as the jaw and back. Normally, the contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness that adds limitation to movement. AMC is normally balanced and entails each four extremities with a number of dissimilarity seen. [read more]

  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency
    Arylsulfatase A deficiency also referred to as Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the very ordinary type of a family of hereditary ailments identified as the leukodystrophies, ailments that involves the enlargement and/or growth of myelin, the fatty layer which works as an insulator around nerve fibers all through the inner and marginal nervous systems. Arylsulfatase A results to a damaging swelling of fatty material in the body. [read more]

  • Asbestos Poisoning
    Asbestos Poisoning is a medical condition whereby the person is poisoned because of too much exposure or even ingestion of asbestos fibers. It may later on cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer. [read more]

  • Asbestosis
    Asbestosis is a persistent seditious medical condition upsetting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It happens following a long-term, serious contact to asbestos like in mining, and is consequently viewed as a work-related lung ailment. Sufferers have rigorous dyspnea or shortness of breath and are at an augmented danger concerning numerous diverse kinds of lung cancer. As apparent details are not at all times stressed in non-technical writing, care must be taken to differentiate among several types of related ailments. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these can be defined as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma or usually a very unusual type of cancer, but growing in occurrence as people exposed to asbestos age. [read more]

  • Ascariasis
    Ascariasis is a human infection caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Maybe one quarter of the world's inhabitants is infected and ascariasis is mainly common in humid regions and in regions of poor hygiene. Additional types of the species Ascaris are parasitic and can cause infections in domestic animals. Disease happens during eating of food contaminated with feces having Ascaris eggs. The larvae hatch hideaway all the way through the intestine, arrive at the lungs, and lastly travel up the respiratory tract. Starting there they are then re-swallowed and grow up in the intestine, growing up to 30 cm (12 in.) in length and securing itself to the intestinal wall. Diseases are typically asymptomatic especially if the quantity of worms is little. They may nevertheless be associated with swelling, fever, and diarrhea, and serious harms may extend if the worms travel to other portions of the body. [read more]

  • Ascending Aorta Dissection
    Ascending aortic dissection is a cardiovascular disease in which the walls of the ascending aorta are split open due to pressure. [read more]

  • Ascites
    Ascites otherwise known as the Peritoneal Cavity Fluid or the Peritoneal Fluid Excess or the Hydroperitoneum or the Abdominal Dropsy, is the medical condition whereby there is an accumulation of fluid in the cavity located in the abdomen called Peritoneal. [read more]

  • ASD
    ASD (or atrial septal defect) is a congenital condition characterized by a hole in the wall between the left and right atria (the two upper chambers of the heart). [read more]

  • Aseptic meningitis
    Aseptic meningitis symptoms happens the same as meningitis without the location contributing organism. The disease causes the lining of the brain or meninges to swell and a pyogenic bacterial source is not present. History of distinguishing symptoms and certain examination findings is the basis to diagnose meningitis. Using lumbar puncture it should show an increase in the amount of leukocytes visible in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several cases of aseptic meningitis embody infection with viruses or mycobacteria that cannot be noticed with custom techniques. Although the start of polymerase chain effect has augmented the capability of clinicians to identify viruses for instance cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, and herpes virus in the CSF, several viruses can still escape detection. [read more]

  • Asherman's syndrome
    Asherman's syndrome also referred to as uterine synechiae presents a situation distinguished by the occurrence of marks inside the uterine opening. [read more]

  • Aspartylglycosaminuria
    An unusual genetic disorder resulted from a deficit of an enzyme glycoprotein (aspartylglucosaminidase). It is associated to a Finnish ailment heritage wherein a set of ailments results from a transformation in a single gene distinguished with elevated occurrence in Finland comparing to the rest of the world. [read more]

  • Asperger's Syndrome
    Asperger's Syndrome is a developmental disorder affecting a child's ability to socialize and communicative effectively with others. Most of the time children with this syndrome exhibit social awkwardness and centrally focused interest in specific topics. It is believed to be a milder end spectrum of other pervasive developmental disorders. [read more]

  • Aspergillosis
    The term is given to a broad diversity of ailments resulted from the genus of fungi Aspergillus. The usual types are pulmonary aspergilloma, invasive aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. [read more]

  • Asphyxia neonatorum
    A disorder that uses a newly born baby stops to breathe on its own the minute after birth. It is also referred to as deprivation of oxygen or hypoxia. This is usually caused by the mother's blood pressure dropping or complications during the delivery with blood flow to the infant's brain. The hypoxic injury can happen to most of an infant's organs like the heart, liver, lungs, gut and kidneys although damage in the brain is the usual concern and possibly the last to be healed. In worst cases, the baby survives but is left with brain damage this shows in developmental delay. [read more]

  • Aspiration pneumonia
    Aspiration pneumonia starts because of a foreign material entered the bronchial tree, commonly gastric or oral contents and is considered as bronchopneumonia. The swelling is augmented depending on the acidity of the aspirate, a chemical pneumonitis may develop and bacterial pathogens. [read more]

  • Asplenia
    Asplenia is the lack (‘a-') of spleen with its normal function and related with several severe infection dangers. Hyposplenism is used to refer to the decreases (‘hypo-') splenic performance, but comparing it to asplenism it is not that severe. In general, splenic hypoplasia and asplenia refers to the entire or partial absence of the splenic function. Hereditary/congenital splenic abnormalities are commonly related with abnormalities in several organ systems, particularly cardiac irregularities but it can happen separately. Polyspenia is also regularly related with hereditary/congenital splenic abnormalities Loss of splenic function usually occurs as a result of surgical removal or autosplenectomy or, infarction in patients with hemoglobinopathies. Polysplenia, or bilateral left-sidedness, is also frequently associated with congenital cardiac anomalies. [read more]

  • Astasia-abasia
    Astasia-abasia refers to the lack of ability to walk or stand normally. Individuals affected by this disease usually presents trouble in walking, tilting wildly in several directions and only falls when they a physician or family member is nearby. Patients cannot stand up straight except when assisted by someone. Although movements of the legs can be done normally while lying or sitting down. [read more]

  • Asthenia
    Asthenia is a medical term referring to the feeling of weakness without actually losing strength. General asthenia happens to a lot of chronic wasting ailments like cancer and anemia and most likely developed in ailments of the adrenal gland. Asthenia may partially affect specific organs or systems. [read more]

  • Asthma
    Asthma is persistent condition affecting the respiratory system where in the airway seldom tightens, swells, and is lined with extreme amounts of mucus, usually in reaction to one or more triggers. The episodes may be set off by events such as contact to an environmental allergen or stimulant like cold air, moist air, warm air, excessive exercise or emotional stress. Common cold can set off the episodes on children. [read more]

  • Asthma, Childhood
    Asthma, childhood (childhood asthma), the most chronic illness affecting children, is characterized by continuous inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs. [read more]

  • Asthma, Exercise-Induced
    Asthma, exercise-induced (exercise-induced asthma) pertains to coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath during exercise or any vigorous physical activity. As with most other types of asthma, exercise-induced asthma results from the inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs. [read more]

  • Astigmatism
    Astigmatism is characterized by a mild defect in the curvature of the eye which causes blurry vision. Astigmatism is an easily treatable condition. In astigmatic patients, the cornea or the lens of one eye has a slightly different curvature in one direction from the other. It comes in two forms: corneal astigmatism, characterized by a distorted cornea; and lenticular astigmatism, characterized by a distorted lens. [read more]

  • Astrocytoma
    Astrocytoma is a major intracranial lumps resulting from astrocyte cells of the brain. In the the cerebral hemispheres, in the optic nerve, in the posterior fossa and seldom in the spinal cord is where it may appear. The WHO provided a four point level basing in the histological grade of the lump. [read more]

  • Ataxia
    Ataxia means “lack of order” in Greek where the term originated. It consists of nasty in-coordination of muscle movements which is considered as a neurological sign and symptom. Ataxia is an exact medical sign entailing dysfunction of potions of the nervous system that manage movement for instance the cerebellum. Every September 25th of each year the "International Ataxia Awareness Day" is observed. [read more]

  • Ataxia telangiectasia
    Ataxia telangiectasia is a main immunodeficiency disorder that happens in an anticipated occurrence of 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 300,000 births. Other term for this disorder is Louis-Bar syndrome or Boder-Sedgwick syndrome. It is a congenital progressive multi-system ailment. Initially it starts as progressive cerebellar ataxia the followed by conjunctive and cutaneous telangiectasias, immune deficiencies, and recurrent sinopulmonary infections in later stages. There is also a related 100-fold augmented mortality danger. Cerebellar atrophy is most outstanding in the part of vermis as well as augmented neighboring cerebrospinal spaces and prominent folia using MRI. [read more]

  • Atelectasis
    Atelectasis is the term used for the medical state in which there is a partial or complete lung collapse. When the lung collapses, air distribution is affected and this is the when the alveoli become deflated (distinct from pulmonary consolidation). Infant respiratory distress syndrome includes a different kind of atelectasis. [read more]

  • Atelectasis
    Atelectasis is described as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated, as distinguished from pulmonary consolidation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome includes another type of atelectasis, and is distinguished and discussed in its own article. [read more]

  • Atelosteogenesis, type II
    Atelosteogenesis, type II is a rigorous disorder of the bone and cartilage growth. It is very unusual and baby with this disorder are usually stillborn, though some infant survive they die after caused by respiratory failure. [read more]

  • Atheroma
    Atheroma is the medical condition where the arteries are thickening or swelling because of the deposition of the plaque on the artery walls. [read more]

  • Atherosclerosis
    Atherosclerosis involves the arterial blood vessels. Because of the disposition of the lipoproteins, in the huge portion of the walls of the arteries severe inflammatory response happens. “Furring” or “hardening” of the arteries usually refers to atherosclerosis. Result from the development of several plaques in the arteries. Arteries' functions are carrying oxygen and blood to the heart, brain and other portions of the body. The major outcome of atherosclerosis is referred to as the cardiovascular ailments. [read more]

  • Athetosis
    Athetosis is a nonstop flow of sinuous, slow, writhing movements, usually of the hands and feet. Movements that are cause by athetosis are mainly referred to as athetoid movements. It was said that due to the damage to the corpus striatum of the brain and a cut to the motor thalamus that is why Athetosis happens. [read more]

  • Athlete's foot
    Athlete's foot or Tinea pedis which is its other term is a parasitical fungal contamination of the epidermis of the human foot. It is usually caused by a mold that develops in the surface of the skin and then into the skin's living tissue. For severe cases it appears as a widespread “moccasin” pattern seen on the sides and bottom of the foot but usually it appears between the toes. This infection commonly affects male. After acne, athlete's foot is considered as the most common skin disease in the US. [read more]

  • Atonic Seizures
    Atonic seizures, also known as drop attacks or akinetic seizures, are a minor kind of seizure. These seizures are characterized by brief lapses in muscle tone that last for up to 15 seconds and can cause no damage. However, the sudden loss of muscle control may lead to falling or loss of balance. It can be diagnosed by electroencephalography, and doesn't need treatment until injuries occur. [read more]

  • Atopic Dermatitis
    Atopic Dermatitis involves the parts of the body which is not in direct contact with the allergen and it is considered as an allergic hypersensitivity. It is a skin disorder distinguished by constant swelling and pruritis. Usually it is congenital and related with allergic rhinitis and asthma. [read more]

  • Atresia
    Atresia a state where in an opening or passage in the body is unusually closed or missing. Examples of Atresia: Biliary atresia - destruction of a part of the bile ducts because of arrested fetal growth, resulting to persistent jaundice and liver injury ranging from biliary stasis to biliary cirrhosis, through splenomegaly as portal hypertension develops. Ovarian follicle atresia - points to the deterioration and consequent resorption of more than one undeveloped ovarian follicles. Vaginal atresia - hereditary occlusion of the vagina or subsequence sticking together of the walls of the vagina. Esophageal atresia - involves the alimentary area resulting to the esophagus to end prior to linking normally to the stomach. Choanal atresia - obstruction of the back of the nasal opening, typically by irregular bony or soft tissue. Anorectal atresia - deformity of the opening among the rectum and anus. Pulmonary atresia - deformity of the pulmonary valve where in the valve orifice stops to grow. Aural atresia - a hereditary deformity of the outer ear or pinna. Intestinal atresia - deformity of the intestine Coping skills Always provide support to family members or friends who have this disorder. Write down or keep records of the individual's medical history, this will help doctors to keep track and know about the condition of the individual affected. Always communicate with the affected individual because he might want to know where he is at and what has he achieved and as well as the progress he made. Even though each situation varies, take note that a lot of children with hereditary heart abnormalities grow up productive and healthy. [read more]

  • Atrial Fibrillation
    Atrial Fibrillation is an abnormal rhythm of the heart characterized by quivering instead of normal beating. This decreases the efficiency of the heart to move blood increasing the incidence of stroke because of the formation of blood clots in the heart. [read more]

  • Atrial Flutter
    Atrial Flutter is the arrhythmia of the heart where there is a rapid beating in its upper chambers due to irregular signals causing an irregular heartbeat. [read more]

  • Atrial myxoma
    Atrial myxoma a tumor that is not cancerous located in the upper left or right portion of the heart. It develops on the wall that divides the two sides of the heart. The familial type of the condition also includes tumors in several parts of the body like in the skin. [read more]

  • Atrial septal defect
    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormality or a hereditary heart defect in the interatrial septum of the heart because of the embryonic foramen to stop from closing normally. [read more]

  • Atrioventricular Canal Defect
    Atrioventricular canal defect is a condition that pertains to a number of congenital heart abnormalities, including the presence of a hole between the heart's chambers as well as valve anomalies involving blood flow regulation. [read more]

  • Atrioventricular septal defect
    Atrioventricular septal defect formerly known as "common atrioventricular canal" (CAVC) or "endocardial cushion defect" distinguished by a deficit of the heart's atrioventricular septum. It results from an abnormal or insufficient union of the lower and higher endocardial cushions with the middle part of the atrial septum and the muscular part of the ventricular septum. The Atrioventricular septal defect is divided into two forms which are “partial” and “complete” forms. In partial AVSD there is a partial defect in the primum or lower portion of the atrial septum but does not have straight intraventricular communication while in complete AVSD, there is a huge ventricular element underneath each or both the higher or lower bridging leaflets of the AV valve. [read more]

  • Atrophic vaginitis
    Atrophic vaginitis is also referred to as vaginal atrophy or urogenital atrophy it is the swelling of the vagina and the outer urinary tract because of the thinning and reduction of the tissues and the decrease in lubrication. This is mainly caused by the lack of reproductive hormone estrogen. The decrease in reproductive hormone estrogen occurs usually during pre menopause and increases during post menopause but these conditions can be a result of other situations. [read more]

  • Atrophy
    Atrophy is a general physiological process, it is either the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body or a part of the body being useless. Size of a cell, tissue or organ can be wasted away with this disorder. [read more]

  • Attachment Disorder
    Attachment disorder pertains to a relatively rare but nonetheless serious mental problem characterized by the inability of infants and young children to form healthy bonds with parents and/or their primary caregivers. [read more]

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity is it classified as a neuro-behavioural developmental disorder which affects 5% of the world's population. It is usually acquired during childhood, and is distinguished by a constant pattern of distraction or hyperactivity and forgetfulness, poor inclination control or impulsivity, and being distracted and over the years it has been increasingly seen on adults. Children around 60% who have this disorder carries it as they grow. [read more]

  • Auditory Processing Disorder
    Auditory Processing Disorder other wise known as the Central Auditory Processing Disorder or the CAPD for brevity is a medical condition where the person affected, usually children of school age, cannot process information they received through hearing because their ears and brain do not fully coordinate. [read more]

  • Auditory Processing Disorder In Children
    Auditory processing disorder (APD) is a condition in which auditory information is not properly processed when it reaches the brain. It is a form of dyslexia that involves the central nervous system. People with this disorder have a difficulty recognizing the differences amongst sounds. [read more]

  • Autism
    Autism is a brain disorder associated with a variety of developmental problems, which impairs in social interaction and communication causing restricted and repetitive behavior. The manifestations are often observed before the child turns three. [read more]

  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia it is a kind of hemolytic anemia where in the immune system of the body that attacks its own red blood cells (RBCs) which leads to the destruction of the red blood cell which is called as hemolysis. On the RBC's surface antibodies and related complement system components become permanent. With anti-globulin test the antibodies can be noticed also referred to as the direct Coombs test. Methyl-dopa and flaurabine drugs can induce AIHA. [read more]

  • Autoimmune hepatitis
    Autoimmune hepatitis is an abnormal presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II on the exterior of hepatocytes it might be because of the hereditary predisposition or severe liver infection that results to a cell-mediated immune response in opposition of the body's liver causing autoimmune hepatitis. [read more]

  • Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy
    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is a term for the nerves of the secondary nervous system being damaged that can result from either diseases of the nerve or from the systemic illness side-effects. Secondary neuropathies differ in their presentation and origin and can affect the neuromuscular or nerve junction. [read more]

  • Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I is a very unusual autoimmune disorder distinguished by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (APE), candidiasis (C) and ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Theh disorder is also called as candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism-Addison's disease-syndrome following its major features: * Mild immune deficiency that leads to mucosal and cutaneous infections alog with candida yeasts. The function of the spleen is also reduced or referred to as asplenism. * Parathyroid gland's autoimmune dysfunction that leads to hypocalcemia and the adrenal gland. Other ailments that are related: hypothyroidism hypogonadism and infertility vitiligo (depigmentation of the skin) alopecia (baldness) malabsorption pernicious anemia chronic active (autoimmune) hepatitis In contrast to type 2, this type takes over an autosomal recesive style and it is because of a defect in AIRE or autoimmune regulator a gene that is seen on the 21st chromosomes. A transcription factor, normal function AIRE exhibits to display immune lenience for antigens from endocrine organs. [read more]

  • Autonomic dysfunction (Autonomic nervous system diseases)
    Autonomic dysfunction it is a disease of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. It has components placed in the Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction can be related with hypothalamic ailments, spinal cord disorders, brain stem disorders, and peripheral nervous system. Signs can include destruction of the vegetative functions that includes the preservation of heart rate, blood pressure pupil function, reproductive and injury physiology, sweating and digestion. [read more]

  • Autonomic Dysreflexia
    Autonomic dysreflexia is a severe state in which the autonomic nervous system overreacts towards certain stimuli felt by the spinal cord. The stimuli causes pressure to the lower part of the spine and leads to the narrowing of the blood vessels and eventually, stroke. This is common among patients who met a spinal cord injury. [read more]

  • Avascular Necrosis
    Avascular Necrosis otherwise known as the Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis and ischemic necrosis, is a disease which results to a temporary pr permanent loss of blood supply to the bones leading to bone death and collapse. [read more]

  • Avian Influenza
    Avian influenza pertains to a condition that humans can contract from infected birds. It is more commonly known as bird flu. [read more]

  • Avoidant personality Disorder
    Avoidant personality Disorder is a condition marked by extreme shyness, inadequate feelings, sensitivity of being rejected. Individuals with this disorder often feel inferior with others. They tend to avoid situations having potential for conflicts. They are often observed to be clingy, antisocial, dramatic or obsessive. [read more]

  • Axillary Hyperhidrosis
    Axillary hyperhidrosis refers to the extreme sweating of the armpits accompanied by foul odor. It is a common condition in men. [read more]

  • Ayerza's Disease
    Ayerza's disease, also known as pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disorder that involves the lungs and the pulmonary artery. In this condition, the pulmonary artery becomes pressured thus it is unable to deliver sufficient oxygen to the heart's right ventricle where the lungs pick up oxygen. Exhaustion of the right ventricle may lead to a right-side heart failure, resulting to death. [read more]

  • Azoospermia
    Azoospermia is a condition whereby there is no or absence of measurable level of sperm in a man's semen which causes infertility. [read more]

  • B-Cell Lymphoma
    B-cell lymphoma, also known as Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. NHL usually originates in the lymphoid tissues and can spread to other internal organs. However, unlike Hodgkin's disease, NHL is less predictable and has a greater predilection to extranodal sites. [read more]

  • Babesiosis
    Babesiosis is an uncommon, vector-borne, malaria-like disease usually caused by ticks or parasites of the genius “Babesia”. In areas where babesia is common, such as North America, this disease can be transmitted through blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Baby Acne
    Baby acne pertains to a skin disease called acne vulgaris affecting newborn infants. Acne vulgaris (or acne) is characterized by inflammatory changes in the skin. Acne lesions are popularly known as pimples or zits, and are more common among adolescents. [read more]

  • Baby Blues
    Baby blues is a type of depression experience by mothers after giving birth. It commonly known and diagnosed as the post-partum depression or the post natal depression of mothers after childbirth. [read more]

  • Baby Bottle Tooth Decay
    Baby bottle tooth decay is a common condition among infants. It is where a child's milk teeth decays due to the food he or she consumes. It usually damages the front teeth. [read more]

  • Bacillary Angiomatosis
    Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a bacterial disease brought about by two kinds of bacteria under the Bartonella family: Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. The infection is usually characterized by tumor-like lesions in the skin and other internal organs of the body, and can manifest in people affected by AIDS. [read more]

  • Back Curves
    Back curves, or scoliosis is a skeletal deformity in which the back bone curves into an S or C shape. This is a common skeletal illness present among women, but can affect people regardless of age and gender. [read more]

  • Back pain
    Back pain is a relatively common complaint characterized by a painful sensation in the patient's back that may be attributed to a number of conditions. [read more]

  • Bacteremia
    Bacteremia is a medical condition whereby there is an invasion or spreading of bacteria in the bloodstream of a person thereafter spreading to the other parts of the body resulting into abscesses and inflammation of abdominal cavity. [read more]

  • Bacterial endocarditis
    Bacterial endocarditis it is the swelling and infection of the interior layers of the heart and usually the valves that resulted from bacteria. [read more]

  • Bacterial food poisoning
    Bacterial food poisoning also generally known as foodborne illness it is an illness that it is caused by ingesting a contaminated food. [read more]

  • Bacterial gastroenteritis
    Bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease caused by a bacterial toxin or bacterial infection, the most usual agent being salmonella, campylobacter and shigella. About 50% reposrted cases of gastroenteritis as food borne illness are because of norovirus and 20% are severe cases occurred in children because of rotavirus. The third major viral agent is the astrovirus. [read more]

  • Bacterial Meningitis
    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges – the protective membranes wrapping the central nervous system. This condition may develop as a result of viruses, bacteria and a number of infectious agents. However, it may also occur in people who recently experience physical injury, those with cancer and others who have a history of drug abuse. Most cases of meningitis resolve without treatment. However, this condition can become severe because the inflammation can damage the spinal cord and the brain, which are both in close proximity to the areas affected by meningitis. Since severe meningitis could cause serious neurological damage or death, immediate medical attention and diagnosis is needed. The most common type of meningitis – infectious meningitis – can be treated with antibiotics alone, but requires continues observation. Other types of meningitis can be prevented through scheduled immunization. [read more]

  • Bacterial pneumonia
    Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria. The most common cause is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13.) which is also common in all ages except for newly born babies. Another type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is the Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) these bacteria are classified as Gram-positive bacteria. For Gram-negative bacteria it is seen less regularly like Klebsiella pneumoniae (J15.0), Haemophilus influenzae (J14.), Escherichia coli (J15.5), Moraxella catarrhalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (J15.1) are the most usual bacteria. The gut is where these bacteria reside and enters the lungs when the lung's content is inhaled like vomit. Not unlike typical bacteria, “atypical” bacteria are commonly seen in young adults and teenagers and are less sever and needs various antibiotics. Examples of “atypical” bacteria are Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Coxiella burnetti, Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7). [read more]

  • Bacterial Vaginosis
    Bacterial Vaginosis Is a type of vaginitis resulting to overgrowth of organisms present in the vagina, which upsets the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginitis can be present in many pregnant women without even knowing that they have it. Sometimes bacterial vaginitis in early stages is often asymptomatic. [read more]

  • Bad Breath
    Bad breath is known medically as halitosis. It pertains to bad odor emanating from an individual's oral cavity, usually as a result of poor hygiene, certain diets, or bacterial infections. [read more]

  • BAER
    BAER is an acronym for Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response and it is test measures of ear and brain wave activity that happens in reaction to clicks or certain pitch. There are 3 waves (1, 3 and 5) set for the ear, BAER uses a computer that averages over time to determine background noise to produce an averaged reaction of the auditory gateway to an auditory stimuli. [read more]

  • Baillarger Syndrome
    Baillarger syndrome is a rare neurological food-related condition which can be acquired at birth. It is also known as Frey's syndrome. [read more]

  • Baker's Cyst
    Baker's cyst is characterized by a sensation of bulging or tightness accompanied by pain behind the knee. The painful sensation worsens when the affected knee is moved or fully extended. Baker's cyst is also alternatively known as popliteal cyst. [read more]

  • Balance Disorders
    Balance disorders are impairments or complete loss of muscle coordination. A common balance disorder is ataxia, in which involuntary trembling of some parts of the body take place during voluntary motion. This becomes a hindrance in performing precise movements. Balance disorders are a symptom of different defects in the muscular as well as the central nervous system. [read more]

  • Balanitis
    Balanitis is a medical condition where there is inflammation of the head of the penis names as the glans. [read more]

  • Balantidiasis
    Balantidiasis is an infection of the intestine with parasitic protozoa (Balantidium coli) that results in swelling of the intestine. The disease is commonly acquired thru direct or indirect exposure with pig fecal matter. [read more]

  • Baldness
    Baldness refers to extreme hair loss from an individual's scalp, and may be either permanent or temporary. Baldness is known medically as Alopeicia. [read more]

  • Baldness
    Baldness refers to extreme hair loss from an individual's scalp, and may be either permanent or temporary. Baldness is known medically as Alopeicia. [read more]

  • Ballard syndrome
    Ballard syndrome is an uncommon condition of the liver and spleen that is enlarged it happens in parts of a weakened bone. The disorder is a congenital and commonly prevailing trait. It usually happens as an isolated dysmelia though it can also happen with other abnormalities as part of several hereditary syndromes. [read more]

  • Balloon Angioplasty Of The Heart
    Balloon angioplasty of the heart is an alternative procedure to bypass surgery in order to treat atherosclerosis. In this process the tip of a rubber balloon is threaded into the affected arteries and then inflated to crush atherosclerotic plaques that cause blockage. This procedure has been proven effective to treat coronary heart disease, but blockage may recur. [read more]

  • Ballooning Mitral Valve Syndrome
    Ballooning mitral valve syndrome is a relatively common heart defect characterized by the failure of the mitral valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium to close properly. It is also called mitral valve prolapse or MVP. [read more]

  • Bannayan-Zonana syndrome
    Bannayan-Zonana syndrome or other term is Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome is an unusual hamartomatous disorder through the incidence of several subcutaneous macrocephaly, lipomas and hemangiomas. In an autosomal prevailing form the disease is inherited though wild cases have been documented. Hamartomatous polyposis syndrome is the family where the disease belongs that also involves juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Cowden syndrome. BZS lesions are slowly developing and simply resectable. Intracranial association and visceral may happen in unusual conditions and can result to bleeding and indicative automatic compression particularly of the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots and may need surgical resection. [read more]

  • Banti's syndrome
    Banti's syndrome is also referred to as Banti's disease is a persistent congestive enlargement of the spleen causing in the untimely damage of the red blood cells by the spleen. Though in the past Banti's syndrome describes patients with hypersplenism, splenomegaly and portal hypertension with no cirrhosis and with no occlusion of the portal venous system. [read more]

  • Bantu siderosis
    Bantu siderosis is the overload of iron primarily seen in South African people. It involves unusual iron deposits in the liver. It is said that several African people are liable to an augmented skill to absorb iron. Initially, this was said to be a cause of ungalvanised barrels utilized to keep home-made beer that led to augmented oxidation and augmented levels of iron in the beer. Additional researches show that only those individuals that drink this beer acquires an overload in iron and the same syndrome happened in the people of African descent. Because of this, researchers were led to discover the gene polymorphism in the gene for ferroportin that prompts several individuals of African descent to overload iron. [read more]

  • Barber's Itch
    Barber's itch is a skin condition characterized by the appearance of small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles, usually as a result of infections. Barber's itch is known medically as folliculitis. [read more]

  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome
    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a hereditary disease mainly characterized by obesity, extra number of fingers and/or toes, hypogonadism, renal failure, and pigmentary retinopathy. The cardiovascular system is also plagued with hypertrophy of the interventricular septum, and fibrosis in the gastrointestinal tract. This disease is an autosomal recessive defect due to the malformations of the chromosome 3 and 16. [read more]

  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1
    Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1 is an unusual hereditary or genetic disorder distinguished by mental retardation, polydactyly, obesity and pigmentation of the retina and other anomalies. Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1 results from the deficiency in chromosome 11q13. [read more]

  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome
    Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a hereditary immunodeficiency disorder distinguished by T- and B-cell dysfunction and these cells are important in aiding to fight the infection. The group of genes is referred as major histocompatibility compound class II or MHC class II is not articulated. The absence of treatment can cause death in infants because of infection. [read more]

  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome 2
    Bare lymphocyte syndrome 2 or the other term for the disease is Defective expression of HLA class 2. BLSII genetic basis is not because of the gene MHC II. The result of the mutations in genes is used as the genetic basis that codes for proteins that usually control the expression if the MHC II genes. [read more]

  • Baritosis
    Baritosis a condition of the lung, that results from inhaling barium dust or barium that has compounds. It is a condition that is benign generally that does not result to symptoms except for irritation. On chest X-rays the particles of barium can be evident as an opaque shadow on individuals that has Baritosis. When contact to barium dust stops the abnormalities seen on chest X-rays slowly disappears. [read more]

  • Barium Enema
    A barium enema is another name for colon examination. This procedure is done to examine the small and large intestines to diagnose if there are any perforations, thickening or other abnormalities in the colon area. This procedure is done by inserting a well-lubricated enema tube with a barium medium into the colon to detect growths, inflammations and other problems.The diagnosis shows up in an X-ray fluoroscope screen. Barium enema helps a lot in detecting colon as well as colorectal cancers. It is one of the imaging procedures used by doctors to view the development of cancers in this part of the body. [read more]

  • Barlow's Syndrome
    Barlow's syndrome is a relatively common congenital heart disorder in which one or both of the mitral valve's leaflets abnormally protrude into the left atrium during systole. Barlow's syndrome is also known as mitral valve prolapse. [read more]

  • Barmah Forest Virus
    Barmah forest virus is a type of virus whose carrier is a mosquitoes thriving usually in Australia. [read more]

  • Barotitis Media
    Barotitis media is a sensation of pain or discomfort in the ears during an airplane ride. It is also alternatively known as airplane ear. [read more]

  • Barotrauma
    Barotrauma pertains to physical damage to tissues as a consequence of pressure differences between an air space inside the body and the surrounding liquid or gas. Typically, barotrauma occurs when an individual rapidly moves to and from a higher pressure environment; such as when a scuba diver rapidly ascends or descends underwater. [read more]

  • Barrett's Esophagus
    Barrett's Esophagus is a condition marked by the changes in color and composition of the cells lining the lower esophagus due to repeated stomach acid exposure often due to long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [read more]

  • Barrett's Syndrome
    Barrett's syndrome, also known as “Barrett's esophagus”, “CELLO” or simply “Barrett's” is a condition wherein patients experience an abnormal change in the cells of the lower part of the esophagus. Named after Dr. Norman Barrett, a British surgeon from St. Thomas Hospital that described the condition in 1957, Barrett's syndrome is believed to be caused by reflux esophagitis or damage from exposure to chronic acid. Barrett's syndrome occurs in 10% of patients seeking medical attention for heartburn. In addition, Barrett's is considered a premalignant condition, which is associated with a great risk of esophageal cancer. [read more]

  • Barth syndrome
    Barth syndrome also recognized as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II and Cardiomyopathy-neutropenia syndrome it is an unusual hereditary disorder categorized by a lot of signs and symptoms and also includes motor skills being delayed, metabolism distortion, stamina deficiency, chronic fatigue, cardiomyopathy, delayed growth, and compromised immune system. The research or study of Dr. Peter Barth in the Netherlands and discovery in 1983 was the reason why the syndrome was named after him. He designed a pedigree chart where in it shows that the disease is an inborn behavior. [read more]

  • Bartholin Cyst
    Bartholin cyst pertains to a swelling or bulging of Bartholin's glands, usually as a result of obstruction or infection of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Bartholin's Abscess
    Bartholin's abscess is caused by the build-up of pus that will eventually form a lump or swelling in one of the Bartholin's glands. This is located on either side of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Bartonella infections
    Bartonella infections previously known as Rochalimaea it is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Bartonella species may contaminate healthy people though are considered particularly essential as opportunistic pathogens. Bartonella is spread by insect vectors like fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. It is known that eight Bartonella species or subspecies are recognized to infect humans. Bartonella rochalimae was the sixth species discovered in June 2007 that is recognized to infect humans and also the ninth species and subspecies generally recognized to infect humans. [read more]

  • Bartter syndrome, classic form
    Bartter syndrome, classic form is an unusual hereditary abnormality in the thick ascending limb of the ring of Henle. It is distinguished by decreased potassium levels, low acidity of blood (alkalosis), and regular to decreased blood pressure. 2 types of Barter syndrome: Neonatal Bartter syndrome Classic Bartter syndrome It is closely related to Gitelman syndrome which is milder comparing it to both Bartter syndrome subtypes. [read more]

  • Basal Cell Cancer
    Basal cell cancer is a frequently occurring type of skin cancer. However, it is also the most easy to treat and has the least likelihood of spreading. In general, basal cell cancer is seldom fatal; however, if untreated, it can cause widespread damage to surrounding bones and tissues. [read more]

  • Basal cell carcinoma
    Basal cell carcinoma most usual form of skin cancer and it can be damaging and disfiguring. The danger of growing BCC is elevated for persons with a family history of the illness and with an elevated increasing contact to UV light by means of sunlight or were uncovered to carcinogenic chemicals, particularly arsenic in the past. [read more]

  • Basal ganglia diseases
    Basal ganglia diseases or also known as basal nuclei are a collection of nuclei in the brain interrelated with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. [read more]

  • Basal Joint Arthritis
    Basal joint arthritis pertains to an inflammatory condition affecting the joint of the wrist and the basal or carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. It is also alternatively known as thumb arthritis. [read more]

  • Basilar artery migraines
    Basilar artery migraines an unusual condition distinguished by headache related with a range of neurological symptoms. The state is a result of a trouble of the basilar artery that is seen in the brainstem. [read more]

  • Bassen Kornzweig Syndrome
    Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, also known as abetalipoproteinemia, is a rare disorder that is caused by the irregular fat absorption during digestion. Patients in this condition usually lack important vitamins such as A, D, E and K. [read more]

  • Batten disease
    Batten disease is an unusual, deadly, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which starts in early days of a person. The disease is also referred to as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease it is the most usual type of a group of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (or NCLs). History The disease is named after the British pediatrician Frederick Batten who initially explained about the Batten disease in 1903. It is the most usual form of a collection of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Though Batten disease is commonly observed as the juvenile type of NCL several physicians refer to Batten disease to all types of NCL or ceroid lipofuscinosis. [read more]

  • BDD
    BDD or body dysmorphic disorder is a condition wherein the affected individual is excessively fixated or preoccupied with real or imagined defects in his/her physical appearance. [read more]

  • Beals Syndrome
    Beals Syndrome, also known as Congenital contractural arachnodactyly or CCA, is a heritable disorder involving the connective tissue of the skeleton. It is related to, but distinct from, Marfan Syndrome. [read more]

  • Beau's Lines
    Grooves across the fingernails or transverse lines are called Beau's lines. These nail abnormalities refer to shape, texture, abnormal color or thickness of the toenails or fingernails. With normal nail growth, the lines progress distally and eventually disappear at the free edge. [read more]

  • Becker's Muscular Dystrophy
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), also known as benign pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked inherited disorder that involves the slowly and progressive weakness of the muscle in the legs and pelvis. It is a type of dystrophinopathy, which includes a range of muscle diseaseswhere there is insufficient dystrophin produced in the muscle cells, resulting in instability in the muscle cell membrane's structure. [read more]

  • Becker's Nevus
    Becker's nevus is a skin disorder that predominantly affects males. The nevus mostly first appears as an irregular pigmentation (hyperpigmentation) on the torso or upper arm (though other areas of the body can be affected), and gradually enlarges in an irregular shape, becoming thickened and often developing abnormal hair growth (hypertrichosis). It is also known as Becker's pigmented hairy nevus, Becker nevus, Becker pigmented hairy nevus, Becker melanosis and pigmented hairy epidermal nevus. [read more]

  • Beckwith Wiedmann Syndrome
    Beckwith-Wiedmann syndrome (BWS) is an inherited disorder that affects a person's normal growth development. [read more]

  • Bed-Wetting
    Bed-wetting is a developmental phase wherein an infant or child is unable to retain bladder control at nighttime. It is also sometimes called nocturnal enuresis or nighttime incontinence. [read more]

  • Bedbug Bites
    Bedbug Bites are little red bumps on the skin caused by bites of a bedbug. A bedbug is a small, flat, reddish bug that can be found in every home. [read more]

  • Bedsores
    also known as pressure sores, decubitus ulcers or pressure ulcers areas of damaged skin and tissue develops when sustained pressure cuts off circulation causes the tissue of the vulnerable parts of the body to die. Prone areas include the skin on the hips, buttocks, and heels. [read more]

  • Bee And Wasp Stings
    Bee And Wasp Stings are insect stings brought about by bites of bees and wasps. Bees are fuzzy insects that feed on flowers while wasps are non-fuzzy insects closely related to bees but can also feed on animal food and other insects. The two insects may l [read more]

  • Behcet's Syndrome
    Beh?et's (pronounced ‘BAY-sets') disease is a disease that causes symptoms in various parts of the body. It produces a group of symptoms that affect different body systems, including gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and the central nervous system. These symptoms include mouth or genital ulcers, skin lesions, and inflammation of the uvea which is an area around the pupil of the eye. Common symptoms include sores found in the mouth and on the genitals. More serious symptoms can include inflammation (combined with swelling, heat, redness, and pain) in the eyes and other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Behr's Syndrome
    Behr's Syndrome is a rare inherited neurological condition named after Carl Behr, who first described it in 1909 as a syndrome of variable pyramidal tract signs. It is characterized by spastic paraplegia and sometimes optic atrophy. It is a hereditary familial syndrome that falls under ocular and neurologic disorders affecting both men and women. Behr's Syndrome starts in infancy with disturbed vision, disturbed coordination with ataxia, mental deficiency, and urinary sphincter weakness. Other characteristics include optic atrophy prevalent in males, scotoma, bilateral retrobulbar neuritis, nystagmus, progressive temporal nerve atrophy, increased tendon reflexes, Babinski sign, and incoordination. Its inheritance is autosomal recessive, meaning it is not linked to sex chromosomes, although heterozygotes may still manifest much attenuated symptoms. [read more]

  • Bejel
    Bejel, which was previously called endemic syphilis, is a nonsexually transmitted infection caused by treponemal spirochetes closely related to Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. Bejel, yaws, and pinta are diseases closely related to syphilis. They mainly occur in the tropics and subtropics. Unlike syphilis, they are transmitted through skin contact, mostly between children living in poor hygienic conditions. Like syphilis, these diseases start with skin sores and have a latent period that is followed by more a destructive disease. Bejel occurs mainly in the warm arid countries like the eastern Mediterranean region and West Africa. Yaws occurs in equatorial countries. Pinta is most common among the Indians of Mexico, Central America, and South America. Although the bacteria that causes bejel, Treponema pallidum endemicum, is morphologically and serologically indistinguishable from Treponema pallidum pallidum, transmission of bejel is not venereal in nature, generally resulting from mouth-to-mouth contact, skin-to-skin contact, or sharing of domestic utensils, and the courses of the two diseases are vary somewhat. [read more]

  • Bell's Palsy
    Bell's Palsy is a paralysis of the facial nerve which results to an inability to control facial muscles in the affected side. There are several conditions that can cause facial paralysis: brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be traced to the paralysis, the condition is called Bell's Palsy. It is named after the Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it. Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy, or diseases involving only one nerve, and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis. Bell's Palsy is defined as an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis, and is usually self-limiting. Its trademark is the rapid onset of partial or complete palsy, usually in a single day. [read more]

  • Benign Astrocytoma
    Benign astrocytoma (or astrocytoma Grade I, astrocytoma Grade II, intracranial neoplasm, intracranial tumor) is categorized into two types: Diffuse (Adults, cerebral hermisphere and brainstem) and circumscribed (Children, characteristic location/morphology). They are benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity of the astrocytoma depends on its location and size. [read more]

  • Benign Congenital Hypotonia
    Benign congenital hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone, which is the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle, and it often involves reduced muscle strength. It is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect the motor nerve control of the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing benign congenital hypotonia, even in early infancy, is relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the cause underlying it can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's growth and development, and later on in life, depend primarily on how severe the muscle weakness is and the nature of the cause. Other names of this condition are Hypotonia , Congenital Hypotonia, Congenital Muscle Hypotonia , Congenital Muscle Weakness, and Amyotonia Congenita. [read more]

  • Benign Essential Blepharospasm
    Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms and twitching of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder where muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB starts gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with irritation of the eye. [read more]

  • Benign Essential Tremor Syndrome
    Benign essential tremor (ET) is a movement disorder affecting the neurological system. It is characterized by involuntary fine rhythmic tremor of a body part or different parts, mostly the hands and arms (upper limbs). In many individuals affected by this, upper limb tremor may occur as an isolated finding. In others, however, tremors may gradually involve other regions of the anatomy, such as the head, voice, tongue, or palate (roof of the mouth), leading to dysarthria, or difficulty articulating speech. Less common are tremors that affect muscles of the torso or legs. It is also known as Presenile Tremor Syndrome, familial essential tremor, or hereditary benign tremor. [read more]

  • Benign Fasciculation Syndrome
    Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is a disorder affecting the neurological system and characterized by fasciculation (or twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body. The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most commonly found in the eyelids, arms, legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected by BFS. The twitching may be occasional or may go on almost continuously. Any intentional movement of the affected muscle causes the fasciculation to cease immediately, but may return once the muscle is at rest again. [read more]

  • Benign Intracranial Hypertension
    Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is a neurological condition that consists of exaggerated brain pressure without the presence of tumors or edemas in the brain. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), also known as benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV), is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a kind of dizziness that affects one's sense of balance. It is caused by the accumulation of the particles of the inner ear that tug on to hairlike sensors that help coordinate the person in maintaining steady balance. It can be treated by clearing out the particles and position them back in their places via surgery. [read more]

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is the non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland; the male organ that produces semen. Enlargement of the prostate can put pressure to the urethra causing difficulty in urination. [read more]

  • Benign Prostatice Hyperplasia (BPH)
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also called nodular hyperplasia or benign enlargement of the prostate, benign prostatic hypertrophy. This refers to the condition wherein the prostate, usually of middle-aged men to elderly men, increase in size. The condition is one of a hyperplasia not hypertrophy as previously believed. The prostatic stromal and epithelial cells becomes hyperplastic which then results to the formation of fairly discrete and large nodules of the prostate specifically in the periurethral region. The enlarge nodules then compress the urethral canal and cause obstruction of the urethra either partially or completely, which interferes urination. [read more]

  • Berdon's Syndrome
    Berdon's Syndrome, also known as Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIH), is a disorder of newborn babies, most prevalent in females, characterized by constipation and urinary retention, microcolon, giant bladder (or megacystis), hydronephrosis, intestinal hypoperistalis, and dilated small bowel. It results from a dysfunction of the smooth muscle in the abdomen and digestive system. This disorder prevents the intestines, stomach, kidneys, and bladder from functioning correctly. The pathological findings consist of a large quantity of ganglion cells in both dilated and narrow areas of the intestine. It is a familial disturbance of unknown origin. Experts disagree whether inheritance is autosomal dominant or recessive. In 1976, Berdon and company first described the condition in five female infants, two of whom were sisters. All had marked bladder dilatation and some had hydronephrosis and the external appearance of a prune belly. The infants also had microcolon and sverely dilated small intestines. [read more]

  • Bereavement
    Bereavement is a psychological state in which a person succumbs to depression due to a loss of a loved one. This is typical among people who have lost their loved ones due to a traumatic or sudden event. [read more]

  • Berger's Disease
    Berger's Disease (also known as primary IgA nephropathy, glomerulonephritis with IgA and IgG deposits and IgA mesangial nephropathy), has a wide pattern of distribution and is thought to be the most common form of primary glomerular disease throughout the world. Although highly prevalent, geographic variations occur, which could be due to genetic as well as enviromental influences on the patient. This is a kind of glomerulonephritis resulting from the deposition of circulating IgA antibody in the kidney tissues. Inflammation of the glomerulus (glomerulonephritis) is the result of this and may present as acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. This renal disorder more commonly affects males in the 16-40 age range. [read more]

  • Beriberi
    Beriberi is an ailment affecting the nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1). The etymology of the word is from a Sinhalese phrase meaning literally, "I cannot, I cannot", the word being repeated for emphasis. [read more]

  • Berlin Breakage Syndrome
    Berlin breakage syndrome, also known as Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and Seemanova syndrome, is a rare syndrome that is characterized by chromosomal instability, maybe as a result of a defect in the Double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism. It is a very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, lowered immunity and heightened risk of cancer. The features of this condition are basically indistinguishable from the Nigmegen Breakage syndrome. The name comes from the Dutch city Nijmegen where the condition was first discovered. Most people with NBS originate from West Slavic regions. The largest number of them is Polish. [read more]

  • Bernard Soulier Disease
    Bernard-Soulier disease is condition usually present in newborn infants, wherein the blood platelets are not able to stick to the ruptured walls of the blood vessel. This may cause problems in blood clotting and becomes a result of profuse abnormal bleeding. [read more]

  • Berylliosis
    Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disorder (CBD), is an occupational lung disease. It is a chronic allergic-type lung response and chronic lung disease that results from exposure to beryllium and its compounds. Berylliosis is incurable but its symptoms can be treated. [read more]

  • Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann Disease
    Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, also known as sarcoidosis, is a disease which can affect different organs inside the body. It causes the development of microscopic granulomas on the organs. These are masses resembling little tumors or look like grains of sugar or sand. They are made up of groups of cells from the immune system. These tiny granulomas can increase in size and number and clump together, making many large and small groups of lumps. If numerous granulomas form in an organ, they can affect how the organ functions. This can cause symptoms of Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease. [read more]

  • Beta Thalassemia
    Beta thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. [read more]

  • Bhaskar Jagannathan Syndrome ~
    Bhaskar Jagannathan syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the clustering of features like aminoaciduria, arachnodactyly, cerebellar ataxia, congenital cataracts, and delayed developmental milestones. It is a very rare syndrome characterized primarily by long, thin fingers, cataracts that form during infancy, amino acids in the urine, incoordination and delayed development. When the affected person was first reported, the author raised the question if it could be a new cerebro-oculo-renal syndrome. [read more]

  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve
    A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart valve possessing two cusps that are situated between the left ventrical and the aorta. A congenitally bicuspid aortic valve has 2 working leaflets. Most people have 2 complete commissures. An approximated half of cases have a low raphe. Excluded are stenotic or partially fused valves caused by inflammatory processes, such as rheumatic fever. [read more]

  • Bilateral Renal Agenesis
    Bilateral renal agenesis is uncommon and is a serious condition, related to Potter's Syndrome. Bilateral renal agenesis is the lack of both kidneys at birth. It is a genetic disorder characterized by a failure of the kidneys to develop as a fetus inside the womb. This absence of kidneys results to a deficiency of amniotic fluid (or oligohydramnios) in a pregnant woman. Normally, the amniotic fluid serves as a cushion for the developing fetus. When there is not enough amount of this fluid, compression of the fetus may occur resulting in further malformations of the baby. It is the consequence of failure of differentiation of the metanephric blastema during the 25–28th day of development and both ureters and kidneys and renal arteries are missing. This disorder is more commonly found in infants born of a parent who has a kidney malformation, particularly the absence of one kidney (or unilateral renal agenesis). Studies have proven that unilateral renal agenesis and bilateral renal agenesis are genetically related to eachother. 1 out of 3 infants with this congenital defect are not born alive. Most infants that are born alive do not live beyond the coarse of four hours. [read more]

  • Bile Duct Cancer
    Bile duct cancer is a relatively rare carcinoma affecting the biliary tract. This type of cancer, also called cholangiocarcinomas, can also occur in several areas in and around the liver. [read more]

  • Bile Reflux
    Bile reflux is a condition characterized by bile flowing upward from the small intestine into the stomach and esophagus. Bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver, can inflame and then damage the esophageal lining and stomach. [read more]

  • Biliary Atresia
    Biliary atresia is a rare condition found in newborn infants in which the common bile duct between the liver and the small intestine is blocked or missing. If it goes unrecognized, the condition leads to liver failure but not to kernicterus. This is due to the liver still able to conjugate bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The only effective treatments for biliary atresia are certain surgeries, or liver transplantation. [read more]

  • Biliary Cirrhosis
    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a disease in which the bile ducts in the liver are slowly and steadily destroyed. The body has an intricate system of ducts designed specifically to transport bile, which is a fluid produced in the liver. Bile is needed for the proper digestion of fats and helps rid the body of worn-out red blood cells, cholesterol and potentially toxic metals. In primary biliary cirrhosis, the destruction of bile ducts can cause dangerous substances to build up in the liver and sometimes lead to irreversible scarring of liver tissue (or cirrhosis). Many experts consider primary biliary cirrhosis an autoimmune disease in which the body turns against its own cells, although it's possible that genetic and environmental factors also play a part. Primary biliary cirrhosis develops somewhat slowly. Medication can slow the progression of the disease, especially if treatment starts early. [read more]

  • Binge-Eating Disorder
    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by a compulsion to frequently overeat. In people with binge-eating disorder, the gorging becomes a regular ritual, shrouded in shame, secrecy, and feelings of self-loathing. Bing-eating is also alternatively known as compulsive overeating. [read more]

  • Binswanger's Disease
    Binswanger's Disease, also known as subcortical dementia, is a rare form of dementia characterized by cerebrovascular lesions in the deep white-matter of the brain, mood changes, and loss of memory and cognition. Patients often show signs of abnormal blood pressure, blood abnormalities, stroke, disease of the large blood vessels in the neck, and disease of the heart valves. Other prominent features of the disease include urinary incontinence, clumsiness, difficulty walking, speech difficulty, slowness of conduct, and lack of facial expression. These symptoms, which tend to start after the age of 60, are not present in all patients and may sometimes appear only as a passing phase. [read more]

  • Biotin Deficiency
    Biotin Deficiency otherwise known as the Vitamin H deficiency is a nutritional disorder where a person is deficient in taking biotin or the water-soluble B vitamin. [read more]

  • Biotinidase Deficiency
    Biotinidase Deficiency (BIOT) is the result of the lack of an enzyme called biotinidase. Without treatment, this disorder can cause seizures, developmental delay, eczema, and hearing loss. [read more]

  • Bipolar Disorder
    Bipolar disorder is not just a single disorder, but a group of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. People who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or combined episodes which present with features of both mania and depression. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate with eachother, known as rapid cycling. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia and is based on the type and severity of mood episodes experienced. [read more]

  • Bird Flu
    Bird flu is a disease commonly affecting wild and domestic birds that, when transmitted to humans, can be potentially fatal. [read more]

  • Birt-Hogg-Dub Syndrome
    Birt-Hogg-Dub syndrome is a rare disorder that affects the skin and lungs and heightens the risk of certain types of tumors. The condition is characterized by multiple noncancerous (or benign) skin tumors, particularly on the face, neck, and upper chest of the person. These growths typically first appear during a person's twenties or thirties and become larger in size and more numerous over time. Affected individuals also have a higher chance of developing cysts in their lungs and an abnormal accumulation of air in the chest cavity (pneumothorax) that may lead to the collapse of a lung. Additionally, people with Birt-Hogg-Dub? syndrome have a greater risk of developing cancerous or noncancerous kidney tumors and possibly tumors in other organs and tissues. [read more]

  • Birthmarks
    Areas of discolored skin that can be raised or flat usually present at birth or shortly after birth. Few types of birthmarks fade as the child grow while most types are permanent. Most birthmarks are harmless and may fade in time but there are also some that are associated with certain health conditions. [read more]

  • Black Death
    Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, was a pandemic disease that nearly wiped out Britain's population during the 14th century. It was thought to be caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but recent studies attribute the plague to other diseases. [read more]

  • Black Eye
    Black Eye or the Periorbital Hematoma is the medical condition whereby there is a bruising around the eye because of an injury to the face and not directly to the eye. [read more]

  • Black Lung
    Black Lung or black lung disease is a common name for coal worker's pneumoconiosis, a lung disease of long-time workers in the coal industry. Cause is linked to accumulated inhalation of small amounts of coal dust. It has been termed black lung because accumulated inhalation of coal dust made the lung turned black in color instead of the regular pink color. [read more]

  • Blackheads
    Blackheads pertain to common skin breakouts characterized by small darkish spots on the skin, usually as a result of obstruction in the opening of the pores. [read more]

  • Bladder Calculi
    Bladder calculi are small masses of minerals that form in the bladder, usually as a result of concentrated urine sitting in the bladder for extended periods. Bladder calculi are also known as bladder stones. [read more]

  • Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer is a type of cancer occurring in the bladder, which is the organ in the pelvic region responsible for storing urine. Bladder cancer usually starts in the cells lining the inside of the bladder. [read more]

  • Bladder Control, Loss Of
    Bladder control, loss of (loss of bladder control) is defined by an inability to control urine flow or bladder function. It is also known as urinary incontinence. [read more]

  • Bladder Infection
    Bladder infection pertains to a bacterial infection affecting part or parts of the urinary tract. It is also alternatively known as urinary tract infection or UTI. [read more]

  • Bladder Inflammation
    Bladder inflammation is a condition characterized by inflammation of the bladder which causes chronic pain in the pelvic area. [read more]

  • Bladder Neoplasm
    Bladder neoplasm (or bladder cancer) is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply and grow in number without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine and is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer starts in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called urothelial cell or transitional cell carcinoma (UCC or TCC). [read more]

  • Bladder Papilloma
    Bladder Papilloma is a medical condition where there is a benign tumor that grows in the person's bladder which stores urine produced by the kidneys. [read more]

  • Bladder Stones
    Bladder stones pertain to small mineral masses that develop in the bladder, usually as a consequence of concentrated urine stagnating in the bladder. Alternative names for bladder stones are bladder calculi and urinary tract stones. [read more]

  • Bladder, Prolapse
    Bladder, prolapse (or, more appropriately, prolapsed bladder) is a condition affecting females wherein the wall separating the bladder from the vagina weakens and stretches, allowing the bladder to bulge into the vagina. This condition is also referred to as a cystocele. [read more]

  • Blastocystis Hominis Infection
    Blastocystis hominis infection is an infection caused by a microscopic parasite known as B. hominis, which is commonly found in human stools. [read more]

  • Blastoma
    A blastoma is a type of cancer that is brough about by malignancies in precursor cells, often called blasts. It is a tumor thought to result from embryonic tissue. The term "blastoma" is generally used as part of the name for a tumor as, for examples, in glioblastoma and medulloblastoma (types of brain tumors), hepatoblastoma (a liver tumor), nephroblastoma ( Wilms tumor of the kidney), neuroblastoma (a childhood tumor of neural origin), osteoblastoma (a bone tumor) and retinoblastoma (a tumor of the retina). A blastoma is a neoplasm composed of immature and undifferentiated cells derived from the blastema of an organ or tissue. [read more]

  • Blastomycosis
    Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis organism. Blastomycosis causes clinical symptoms that have similarites to histoplasmosis. The organism causing blastomycosis is endemic to portions of North America. [read more]

  • Bleeding In The Digestive Tract
    Bleeding in the digestive tract is considered as a symptom for other diseases rather than disease itself. Common causes of bleeding are related to other conditions such as ulcer. The source of the bleeding may come from the gastrointestinal tract which includes esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon, rectum and anus. [read more]

  • Bleeding Varices
    Bleeding varices are a result of dilated blood vessels usually located in the stomach or esophagus. This bleeding is characterized by the increased pressure in the portal vein within the gastro-esophageal tract. When not immediately diagnosed, the condition may lead to serious complications such as liver failure. [read more]

  • Blepharitis
    Blepharitis is the inflammation of the one's eyelids. It is characterized by inflammation of the margins of the eyelid. Blepharitis generally causes redness of the eyes and itching and irritation of the eyelids in both eyes. Its appearance is often confused with conjunctivitis (pinkeye) and due to its recurring nature it is the most common cause of "recurrent conjunctivitis" in aging people. It is also often treated as 'dry eye' by patients due to the gritty and sandy sensation it may give the eyes - although lubricating drops do little to improve the condition. The two types of blepharitis are anterior blepharitis and posterior blepharitis. In the former, the blepharitis affects the front of the eyelids near the eyelashes. The causes are seborrheic dermatitis (which similar to dandruff) and occasional infection by the bacteria Staphylococcus. The latter affects the back of the eyelids, the part that has contact with the eyes. This is caused by the oil glands that are situated in this region. It is the most common type of blepharitis. [read more]

  • Blepharophimosis
    Blepharophimosis is a condition where the individual has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size. The the patient's nasal bridge is flat and there is hypoplastic orbital rim. Both the vertical and horizontal palpebral fissures (or eyelid opening) are reduced in length. Vignes probably first described this entity as a dysplasia of the eyelids. Aside from small palpebral fissures, features include epicanthus inversus (folds curving in the mediolateral direction, inferior to the inner canthus), low nasal bridge, and ptosis of the eyelids. Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome, either accompanied with premature ovarian failure (BPES type I) or without (BPES type II), is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene. [read more]

  • Blepharospasm
    A blepharospasm is any abnormal tic or twitch of the eyelid. It generally refers to Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEP), a focal dystonia, in which a neurological movement disorder affects involuntary and sustained muscle contractions of the muscles around the eyes. Benign means that the condition is not life threatening and essential indicates that the cause of the condition is unknown. Fatigue, stress, or an irritant are possible contributing factors of the condition. Symptoms may sometimes last for a few days then disappear without treatment, but in most of the cases the twitching is chronic and persistent, causing lifelong challenges. The symptoms are often acute enough to result in functional blindness. The person's eyelids feel like they are clamping shut and will not open without much effort. Patients have normal eyes, but for periods of time are basically blind due to their inability to open their eyelids. [read more]

  • Blind Loop Syndrome
    Blind loop syndrome pertains to a condition wherein part of the small intestine is cut off or bypassed from the normal flow of food and digestive fluids. It is also alternatively known as stagnant loop syndrome or stasis syndrome. [read more]

  • Blindness
    Blindness is the condition of lacking vision which may be caused by physiological and neurological factors. The clinical term “no light perception” often refers to total blindness. Severe visual impairment with residual vision is also interpretative to blindness. Individuals described to be having only “light perception” are those who have loss sight and can only differentiate light from dark – meaning they only have the capacity to pinpoint the direction where the light is coming from. [read more]

  • BLOOD CLOT
    Blood clotting is a process where the blood coagulates in order to restore blood vessels during lacerations or whatever event that caused damage. This is an important feature since through blood clotting, open wounds begin to heal by themselves and blood vessels are repaired. The ability to blood clot is due to the sufficient platelet count in the blood. Lack of platelets will result to coronary diseases and clogged arteries which can be very fatal. [read more]

  • Blood Clot In The Lungs
    Blood clot in the lungs, known as pulmonary embolism, is a condition where the blood vessels in the lungs become clogged due to the formation of a blood clots or hematoma. [read more]

  • Blood in Semen
    Hematopsermia, or blood ion semen, is the bleeding of the semen during ejaculation. It can be a symptom of underlying diseases such as urinary tract infection, protatitis, sexually transmitted disease and benign prostate hypertrophy. [read more]

  • Blood Platelet Disorders
    A blood platelet disorder refers to an abnormally low number of platelets, the particles in blood that help with clotting. As a result, blood does not clot normally for the patient with a low platelet count. [read more]

  • Blood Poisoning
    Bacteremia, or blood poisoning, is a medical condition in which bacteria has already contaminated the blood. This is a dangerous state since the bacteria carried by the blood can make damages to the body organs in which it is brought to. [read more]

  • Blood Pressure, High
    Blood pressure, high (high blood pressure) is characterized by an abnormally elevated amount of blood being pumped by the heart. Medically, high blood pressure is known as hypertension. [read more]

  • Blood Pressure, Low
    Blood pressure, low (or low blood pressure) is the opposite of high blood pressure. Also known as hypotension, low blood pressure may not necessarily pose a health risk unless it is caused be an underlying medical condition. [read more]

  • Bloom Syndrome
    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectases and photosensitivity, deficiency in growth of prenatal onset, variable degrees of immunodeficiency, and increased susceptibility to neoplasms of many sites and types. The dermatologist David Bloom first described the syndrome in 1954. [read more]

  • Blount's Disease
    Blount's disease is a growth disorder involving the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg. [read more]

  • Blue Cone Monochromatism
    Blue cone monochromatism, also known as S-cone monochromacy, is a recessive disorder that is linked to the X-chromosome. The affected person's green and red cones are missing while the blue cone mechanism is dominant and functioning properly. Cases like these have been called incomplete achromatopsia, wherein color vision is only impaired and not wholly absent. [read more]

  • Blue Diaper Syndrome
    Blue diaper syndrome, also known as Drummond's Syndrome or Tryptophan Malabsorption, is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized in infants by bluish urine-stained diapers. It is a defect in the body's tryptophan absorption in which the urine contains abnormal indoles, giving it a blue color. It is inherited as an autosomal or most certainly recessive trait but could also be linked to the X-chromosome. [read more]

  • Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome
    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a syndrome characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with internal venous lesions, most commonly affecting the bowel. BRBNS is an important syndrome because of it has the potential to result in serious or fatal bleeding. [read more]

  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder that involves a distorted body image. It is generally diagnosed in those who are extremely critical of their self-image, despite the fact that there may be no noticeable disfigurement or defect on their physique. It is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with a real or imagined defect in one's physical appearance. People with this disorder have a distorted or exaggerated view of their physical appearance and are obsessed with actual external characteristics or perceived flaws, such as certain facial features or imperfections of their skin. They often think of themselves as disfigured or ugly. People with body dysmorphic disorder often have difficulties controlling negative thoughts concerning their appearance, even when others reassure them that they look fine and that the small or perceived flaws aren't excessive or obvious. [read more]

  • Body Lice
    Body lice, or rickets, are parasitic insects that thrive in the human body and eventually cause typhus. This was once a dreaded disease during World War I. [read more]

  • Body Odor and Sweating
    Body odor and sweating pertain to excessive perspiration that produces a foul-smelling smell emanating from the body. [read more]

  • Boil
    Boil (or furuncle) is a skin disease brought about by the inflammation of hair follicles, resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissue. Individual boils can group together and form an interconnected network of boils called carbuncles. In severe cases, boils may develop to form in what is known as abscesses. [read more]

  • Boils
    Painful, pus-filled bumps that form under your skin when bacteria infect and inflame one or more of your follicles are called boils and carbuncles. They usually start as red, tender lumps that quickly fill with pus, growing larder and more painful until they rupture and drain, which mostly take about two weeks to heal although some boils disappear in a few days after they occur. They may appear anywhere on your skin, but appear mainly on your neck, face, armpits, thighs or buttocks where these hair-bearing areas are most likely to sweat or experience friction. [read more]

  • Bone Cancer
    Bone Cancer is cancer originating in the bone and believed to be one of the rare types of cancer due to few reported incidence. There are different forms of bone cancer namely: osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma. Chondrosarcoma arise in the cartilage. Osteosarcoma occurs in growing bone tissue and Ewing's sarcoma starts in immature tissue of the bone marrow; occurring mostly in children and young individuals. [read more]

  • Bone Infection
    Bone infection is a common term for a medical condition known as osteomyelitis, which is characterized by an infection that may begin in the bone itself or has spread to the bone from other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Bone Loss
    Bone loss occurs when the bones become weak and brittle, usually due to low levels of minerals, phosphorus, and calcium in the body. Bone loss is closely associated with osteoporosis and is more common among women. [read more]

  • Bone Neoplasm
    Bone neoplasm, or bone cancer, is when new abnormal bone tissue grows due to excessive cellular division and proliferation. The bone tissue develops more rapidly than normal and continues to grow even after the stimuli that initiated it stops. This includes tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific bones. [read more]

  • Bone Spurs
    Bone spurs pertain to bony protrusions or projections around the edges of the bones. Also called osteophytes, bone spurs are not necessarily painful on their own but may rub against surrounding nerves and bones, thus causing pain. [read more]

  • Borderline Personality Disorder
    Borderline Personality Disorder is a devastating mental condition characterized by instability about personal perception in combination to difficulty in maintaining stable relationship usually manifested by unpredictable moods, extreme “black and white” thinking, fear of abandonment, and impulsive often self-injurious behavior. This condition results to troubles in relationships, long-range planning and self-identity. [read more]

  • Bordetella Pertussis
    Bordetella pertussis belongs to the genus Bordetella. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus which the main agent that causes whooping cough. [read more]

  • Bornholm Disease
    Bornholm Disease otherwise known as the Devil's grip, the Epidemic myalgia, or the Epidemic pleurodynia, the Epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasm or The Grasp of the Phantom is a medical condition that is brought about by a viral infection.. [read more]

  • Borrelia
    Borrelia belongs to a genus of bacteria of the class spirochete. It is a disease which is zoonotic, vector-borne that is transferred mainly by ticks and some lice that depends on the species. Borrelia has 37 known species. [read more]

  • Borreliosis
    Borreliosis, also known as Lyme disease, is an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria from the genus Borrelia. The vector of infection is usually the bite of an infected black-legged or deer tick, but other carriers (including other ticks in the genus Ixodes) have been implicated. Borrelia burgdorferi is the leading cause of Lyme disease in the U.S. and Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are found in Europe. The disease presentation varies greatly, and may include a rash and flu-like symptoms in its initial stage, then musculoskeletal, neurologic, arthritic, psychiatric and cardiac manifestations. In a most of the cases, symptoms can be eliminated with antibiotics, especially if treatment begins early in the course of illness. Late or inadequate treatment often results to "late stage" Lyme disease that is disabling and difficult to treat. Controversy over diagnosis, testing and treatment has resulted to two different standards of care. [read more]

  • Bothriocephalosis
    Bothriocephalosis (also known as Diphyllobothriasis) is an infection with an intestinal parasite. The parasite is a fish tapeworm known as Diphyllobothrium latum. Human infection is caused by eating undercooked fish contaminated with the bacteria. Adult tapeworms may infect humans, felines, canids, pinnipeds, bears, and mustelids, though the accuracy of the records for some of the nonhuman species is disputed. Immature eggs are passed in the feces of the mammal host (the definitive host, where the worms reproduce). [read more]

  • Botulism
    Botulism (from the Latin word, botulus, meaning "sausage") is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulinic toxin is one of the most powerful known toxins: about one microgram is deadly to humans. It acts by blocking nerve function and leads to respiratory and musculoskeletal paralysis to the individual. [read more]

  • Bourneville's Disease
    Bourneville's disease (also known as Tuberous sclerosis) is characterized by facial lesions with tuberous sclerosis, first reported as adenoma sebaceum, but now recognised as angiofibromas. It produces tuberous sclerosis occurring in association with adenoma sebaceum. It is syndrome of epilepsy, severe mental retardation associated with adenoma sebaceum (overgrowth of the sebaceous glands) of the face, hamartomatous tumours of the heart and kidney, and cerebral cortical tubers (hence the name "tuberous sclerosis"). It is heredofamilial and usually shows itself early in life. Females are more often affected by this disease than males. Incomplete forms of the syndrome can manifest. Bourneville's disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity. [read more]

  • Bovine Tuberculosis
    Bovine TB is a disease that primarily attacks animals that can also be transmitted to humans through aerosols and intake of raw milk. This disease is common in under developed countries. [read more]

  • Bowel Incontinence
    Also known as fecal incontinence is the lack of ability to control bowel movement, which causes stool to seep out from the rectum without warning. The severity can range from occasional stool leakage in combination to passing of gas to total loss of bowel control usually causing embarrassment and withdrawal from social events thinking that sudden stool leakage may occur. [read more]

  • Bowel Obstruction
    Bowel Obstruction is a medical condition whereby there is blockage or obstruction of the intestines that results to the abnormal bowel movements. [read more]

  • Bowen's Disease
    Bowen's disease (BD) is a skin disease induced by sunlight, considered either as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. [read more]

  • Boxer Ear
    Boxer's ear is another term for cauliflower ear. It is a kind of hematoma that results to bulging malformations in the outer ear. [read more]

  • Brachial Plexus Injury
    Results when nerves connecting the arm and spinal cord get stretched and torn when the shoulder is pressed down forcefully while the head is pushed up away from the shoulder. [read more]

  • Brachydactyly
    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to shortening of the fingers or toes that results from the underdevelopment of the bones in the hands or feet. Brachydactyly is a medical term is literally meaning "shortness of the fingers and toes". The shortness is relative to the length of the individual's other long bones and other parts of the body. Brachydactyly is an inherited trait, usually dominat.. It most frequently occurs as an isolated dysmelia, but can also occur with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes. Brachydactyly is a general term that refers to disproportionately shortened fingers and toes. It can arise as an isolated finding, or be associated with a pattern of medical findings, called a syndrome. To date, many different forms of brachydactyly have been categorized. As a group, they always include extremely shortened tubular bones in the hands and feet. Some forms also lead to short stature, while others do not. The majority of types of isolated brachydactyly are passed on as autosomal dominant conditions. Radiographic studies (X-rays) can aid physicians differentiate between the different types of brachydactyly. [read more]

  • Bradycardia
    Bradycardia is a condition wherein heart rate slows down to less than 60 beats per minute. A healthy heart normally beats between 60 and 100 beats per minute to provide sufficient oxygenated blood to the body. [read more]

  • Bradycardia-Tachycardia Syndrome
    Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a form of sick sinus syndrome characterized by slow heartbeats (bradycardia) alternating with fast heartbeats (tachycardia) as a result of some malfunction in the heart's natural pacemaker called the sinus node. [read more]

  • Bradykinesia
    In medicine (neurology), bradykinesia means "slow movement". Its etymology is brady = slow, kinesia = movement. It is a feature of several of diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the basal ganglia. Rather than being a slowness in initiation (related to hypokinesia) bradykinesia describes a slowness in the execution of movement. [read more]

  • Brain Aneurysm
    A brain aneurysm is characterized by the bulge in a brain's artery. The most One of the most common types of brain aneurysm resembles a round berry that is attached to the artery. Such aneurisms can usually go undetected since it has no symptoms for years and as long as it does not rupture, it poses no real threats. [read more]

  • Brain Aneurysm
    Brain aneurysm is characterized by a bulge forming in an artery of the brain, which may be tiny or large enough to put pressure on surrounding brain tissue. [read more]

  • Brain Attack
    Brain attack is a type of stroke that occurs from a drastic shortage of blood supply in the brain. Brain cells will commonly die in a matter of minutes. A brain attack is more commonly referred to as a stroke. [read more]

  • BRAIN BLEED
    Brain bleed is another name used to describe cerebral hemorrhage. Also known as stroke, brain bleed brings about serious damages such as paralysis. The effects of brain bleed may no longer be reversed or may require intensive therapy. It can also cause sudden death. [read more]

  • Brain Cavernous Angioma
    Brain cavernous angioma, also referred to as cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), cavernous haemangioma, and cavernoma, is a vascular disorder of the central nervous system that may appear either sporadically or display autosomal dominant inheritance. [read more]

  • Brain Compression
    Brain Compression is a medical condition whereby there is an increase in the intracranial pressure. [read more]

  • Brain Infection
    Brain Infection is a medical condition where there is an infection in the brain. It is commonly called encephalitis. [read more]

  • Brain Neoplasms
    Brain neoplasms are tumors of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are further divided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are categorized into benign and malignant forms. Generally, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain. [read more]

  • Brain Tumor
    Brain Tumor is an abnormal growth of harmful cells in the brain; classified as either primary or secondary. Primary brain tumors originate in the brain can be benign or malignant. Secondary brain tumor originated in any are of the body and spread to the brain. [read more]

  • Brainerd Diarrhea
    Brainerd diarrhea is a medical condition whereby there is the presence of an acute watery diarrhea lasting for more than four weeks and may occur as as result of an outbreak or due to sporadic cases. The disease is named after a town in Minnesota where the first outbreak was first recorded. [read more]

  • Branchial Cyst
    A branchial cyst is an oval cystic mass that grows between the pharynx and the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck. This kind of cyst is asymptomatic and is caused by the accumulation of embryonic remnants after one's development. It can also result from the failure of the second branchial cleft to obliterate. Treatment for the cyst is done by surgery. [read more]

  • Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome
    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that features ear tags just below the outer ear, branchiial fistulas, hearing loss and kidney problems. [read more]

  • Branchiootorenal Syndrome
    Branchiootorenal (BOR) syndrome is marked by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment; branchial fistulae and cysts; and renal malformations, ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. The presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality may be different from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family. Some individuals develop to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. The name branciootorenal syndrome describes the body systems most frequently affected by this genetic disorder. The term "branchio" refers to the abnormalities of the neck found in people affected with this syndrome. Cysts (lump or swelling that can be filled with fluid) and fistulas (abnormal passage from the throat to the skin) in the neck appear frequently. The term "oto" refers to the ear disorders that are associated with the syndrome. For example, the outer ear can be abnormal in appearance. Hearing loss is also commonly associated to the syndrome. Finally, the term "renal" stands for the kidney problems commonly found in patients with this condition. [read more]

  • Brazilian Pemphigus Foliaceus
    Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus is a kind of cutaneous disease that is characterized by the presence of intraepidermal blisters and lesions. The disease is pandemic in Brazil. It can be treated by drugs such as penicillamine and rifampin, and can be diagnosed by means of skin biopsy. [read more]

  • Brazilian Trypanosomiasis
    Brazilain tryponosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, is an infectious disease that has spread in tropical countries. It usually affects children. [read more]

  • Breakbone Fever
    Breakbone fever, also known as dengue fever, is an epidemic disease that causes internal hemorrhage. It has become a widespread epidemic in countries in Asia. [read more]

  • Breast Cancer
    Breast Cancer is a malignant tumor that originated from the cells of the breast and the disease, most women fear most. [read more]

  • Breast Engorgement
    Breast engorgement is a condition in which the mammary glands contain too much milk that cannot be released. [read more]

  • Breast Infection
    Breast infection is an infection affecting the breast tissue of nursing mothers characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the breast. It is also alternatively known as mastitis. [read more]

  • Breast Pain
    Breast pain is a common complaint of discomfort among women, affecting approximately seventy percent of females at some point in their lives. Breast pain, also known as mastalgia, is more common in the younger age bracket, particularly among pre-menopausal women, although it may afflict older females as well. [read more]

  • Bright's Disease
    Bright's disease (also known as nephritis) is a historical classification of kidney diseases that is described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. The term is no longer in use, as diseases are now classified according to their more fully understood etiologies. It is typically characterized by the presence of serum albumin (blood plasma) in the urine, and frequently accompanied by edema (tissue particulate). Many people believe that too much protein consumption can lead to Bright's disease, but this is a spurious statement and is nothing but a myth. [read more]

  • Brittle Bone Disease
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, or sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. People with this disease are born without the proper protein (collagen), or the ability to make it, usually because of a deficiency of Type-I collagen. People with OI either have lesser collagen than normal or the quality is poorer than normal. As collagen is an important protein in bone structure, this impairment can result to those with the condition to have weak or fragile bones. As a genetic disorder, brittle bone disease is an autosomal dominant defect. Most people with OI inherit it from a parent but it can also be an individual (as in de novo or "sporadic") mutation. [read more]

  • Broken Ankle
    Broken ankle is a common situation characterized by a break in one or more bones that make up the ankle joint; including the tibia, fibula, and talus. [read more]

  • Broken Arm
    A broken arm is a common type of injury that involves a range of fractures in the upper limbs. [read more]

  • Broken Blood Vessel in Eye
    Broken blood vessel in eye is known in medical terms as subconjunctival hemorrhage, a condition characterized by the breaking of tiny blood vessels just beneath the clear surface of the eye called conjunctiva. [read more]

  • Broken Hand
    A broken hand is a fracture in the bones of the hand, usually occurring along with a broken wrist. [read more]

  • Broken Hip
    A broken hip pertains to fractures in the hip bones usually occurring in older adults aged 65 and above. A broken hip is a potentially serious injury with life-threatening complications. [read more]

  • Broken Leg
    A broken leg is defined as a fracture or a crack in one of the leg bones. It is also alternatively known as a leg fracture. [read more]

  • Broken Nose
    A broken nose is characterized by a break, fracture, or crack in one or more bones found in the nose. The most commonly broken bone is the bone over the nose bridge. [read more]

  • Broken Ribs
    Broken ribs pertain to a common injury wherein the bones in the rib cage breaks, fractures, or cracks. [read more]

  • Bronchial Asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a pulmonary inflammation wherein the air passages become narrow, causing incessant coughing, shortness of breath and wheezing. Severe asthma attacks can be fatal. [read more]

  • Bronchiectasis
    Bronchiectasis is a disease that results to localized, irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, leading to airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually arises from necrotizing bacterial infections, such as infections caused by the Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species or Bordetella pertussis. [read more]

  • Bronchiolitis
    Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the small airways of the lungs, usually occurring in young children between three to six months of age. [read more]

  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (or BOOP) is the inflammation of the bronchioles and surrounding tissue in the lungs. BOOP is often the result of a pre-existing chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis. BOOP can also be a side effect of certain medicinal drugs, such as amiodarone. In cases where no cause is detected, the disease is called cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The clinical characteristics and radiological imaging resemble infectious pneumonia. However, diagnosis is suspected after there is no response to multiple antibiotics, and blood and sputum cultures are found to be negative for organisms. [read more]

  • Bronchitis
    Bronchitis is a condition that occurs when the inner walls lining the main airways of the lungs become inflamed; usually happening after a previous respiration infection like colds. [read more]

  • Bronchitis, Chronic
    Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation, or irritation, of the airways in the lungs. Airways are the tubes in the lungs where air passes through. They are also known as bronchial tubes. When the airways are irritated, thick mucus forms inside of them. The mucus plugs up the airways and makes it hard for the person to get air into your lungs. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a cough that produces mucus (sometimes called sputum), breathing difficulties, and a feeling of tightness in the chest. [read more]

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia involves the abnormal development of lung tissue. It is marked by inflammation and scarring in the lungs. It occurs most often in premature babies, who are born with underdeveloped lungs. "Broncho" is the name of the airways (the bronchial tubes) through which the oxygen we breathe travels into the lungs. "Pulmonary" refers to the lungs' tiny air sacs (alveoli), where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. "Dysplasia" means abnormal changes in the organization or structure of a group of cells. The cell changes in BPD occur in the smaller airways and lung alveoli, making breathing difficult and causing problems with lung function. [read more]

  • Bronze Diabetes
    Bronze diabetes, or hemachromatosis, is a kind of diabetes caused by an overload of iron deposits in the body tissues. Without treatment, iron overload may cause complications and eventually lead to organ failure. [read more]

  • Brown Syndrome
    Brown Syndrome is a rare eye disorder marked by defects in eye movements. This disorder may be present at birth (congenital) or may occur as the due to another underlying disorder (acquired). Muscles control eye movements and activities. Some of these muscles turn the eyeball up and down, move the eyeball from side to side, or let the eyeball to rotate slightly in its socket. The superior oblique tendon sheath of the superior oblique is the muscle that surrounds the eyeball. The symptoms of Brown Syndrome are due to abnormalities of this tendon sheath including shortening, thickening, or inflammation. This leads to the inability to move the affected eye upward. [read more]

  • Brown-Squard Syndrome
    Brown-S?quard syndrome, also known as Brown-S?quard's hemiplegia and Brown-S?quard's paralysis, is a loss of motricity (paralysis and ataxia) and sensation as a result of the lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. Other names for the syndrome are crossed hemiplegia, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis and spinal hemiparaplegia. It is an incomplete spinal cord lesion characterized by a clinical picture reflecting hemisection of the spinal cord, often in the cervical cord region. It was initially described in the 1840s after Dr. Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard sectioned one half of the spinal cord. It is a rare syndrome, made up of ipsilateral hemiplegia with contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits because of the crossing of the fibers of the spinothalamic tract. [read more]

  • Brucellosis
    Brucellosis, also known as undulant fever, undulating fever, or Malta fever, is a zoonosis (infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans) caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. It is generally a disease of domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle, dogs, etc) and humans and has a worldwide distribution, mostly now in developing countries. [read more]

  • Brugada Syndrome
    The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is marked by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. It is also known as Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome (SUDS), and is the most commonly found cause of sudden death in young men without known underlying cardiac disease in Thailand and Laos. Although the ECG findings of Brugada syndrome were first reported among survivors of cardiac arrest in 1989, it was only in 1992 that the Brugada brothers recognised it as a distinct clinical entity, causing sudden death by resulting to ventricular fibrillation (a lethal arrhythmia) in the heart. [read more]

  • Bruton Agammaglobulinemia
    Bruton agammaglobulinemia was the first immunodeficiency disease to be described. Colonel Ogden Bruton noted in 1952 the absence of immunoglobulins in a young male with a history of pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections. Bruton was also the first physician to furnish specific immunotherapy for this X-linked disorder by administering intramuscular injections of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The patient improved but died of chronic pulmonary disease in his fourth decade of life. This disorder is now formally known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and the gene defect has been mapped to the gene that codes for Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) at band Xq21.3. The BTK gene is big and consists of 19 exons that encode the 659 amino acids that form the Btk cytosolic tyrosine kinase. Mutations can happen in any area of the gene. Btk is needed for the proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes. In the absence of working Btk, mature B cells that express surface immunoglobulin and the marker CD19 are few to absent. The lack of CD19 is readily detected with fluorocytometric assays, and this finding usually easily confirms the diagnosis of XLA in a male. As Bruton originally described, XLA shows itself as pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections in 80% of cases. Such infections that start in male infants as maternal IgG antibodies, acquired transplacentally, are lost. Thus, XLA is most often diagnosed when unusually severe or recurrent sinopulmonary infections occur in a male infant younger than 1 year. [read more]

  • Bruxism
    Bruxism is the medical term used in referring to gnashing, grinding or clenching of teeth; usually affecting children and adults alike. Individuals with bruxism clench teeth at daytime usually when anxious or stressed. Long-term bruxism leads to unpleasant conditions such as jaw problems, damaged teeth, and headache. [read more]

  • Bubonic Plague
    The bubonic plague, also known as bubonic fever, is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). The epidemiological use of the term “plague” is currently applied to bacterial infections that cause buboes, although historically the medical use this term has been applied to pandemic infections in general. [read more]

  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome
    In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture resulted from occlusion of the hepatic vein or inferior vena cava. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly. Some examples of occlusion include thrombosis of hepatic veins and membranous webs in the inferior vena cava. The syndrome can be acute, fulminant, chronic, or asymptomatic. It takes place in 1 out of 100,000 individuals and is more common in females. Some 10-20% also have a sort of obstruction of the portal vein. [read more]

  • Buerger's Disease
    Buerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a rare disease of the arteries and veins in the arms and legs. Buerger's disease is marked by a combination of inflammation and clots in the blood vessels, which impairs blood flow. This eventually causes damage or destroys tissues and may lead to infection and gangrene. Buerger's disease typically begins in the hands and feet and may progress to affect larger areas of the limbs. Buerger's disease is uncommon in the United States, but is more common in the Middle East and Far East. Buerger's disease most commonly affects males between ages 20 and 40, though it's becoming more common in women. Basically everyone diagnosed with Buerger's disease smokes cigarettes or uses other forms of tobacco. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger's disease from developing. For those who don't quit, amputation of all or part of a limb may ultimately be required. [read more]

  • Bulging Disks
    A bulging disk is a medical condition in which the lower back area suffers intense pain when a disk enters a crevice in the spine. Disks are the soft tissues that serve as cushions of the spine. [read more]

  • Bulimia Nervosa
    Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia or "mia", is an eating disorder in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation. The sufferer will then take part in compensatory behaviors to make up for the excessive eating, which are referred to as "purging". Purging can take the form of fasting, vomiting, using of laxatives, enemas, diuretics or other medications, or overexercising. [read more]

  • Bullous pemphigoid
    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a skin disorder that is characterized by the chronic blistering of the skin. This condition ranges from the mildly itchy welts on the skin to more severe infection and blisters, and may affect a particular area of the body or spread all other, depending on the severity. This medical condition affects mostly elderly individuals but can also be seen on people of different ages. [read more]

  • Bundle Branch Block
    Bundle branch block pertains to an obstruction or delay in the electrical impulse pathway that causes the heart to beat. [read more]

  • Bunions
    Bunions pertain to abnormal bony bumps that grow on the joint at the base of the big toe, causing the latter to enlarge. [read more]

  • Bunyavirus
    Bunyavirus is a type of virus which causes infection that results damage to the various organs of the person due to a viral infection carried by the Bunyaviridae which may be passed by mosquito bites. [read more]

  • Burkitt's lymphoma
    Burkitt's lymphoma is categorized as a highly uncommon type of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). This medical condition commonly affects children than in adults and is known to be a very aggressive kind of B-cell lymphoma that typically involves body parts other than the lymph nodes. However, in spite of its rapid-growing nature, Burkitt's lymphoma is usually very curable with the availability of modern intensive therapies. [read more]

  • Burning mouth syndrome
    Burning mouth syndrome is a rather complex and highly vexing oral condition characterized by a burning sensation that occurs involving the lips, tongue, or the major areas of the whole mouth, for no apparent reason.This disorder has been associated with several numbers of other conditions such as psychological problems, menopause, disorders of the mouth, and nutritional deficiencies. [read more]

  • Bursitis
    Bursitis pertains to a painful inflammation of the bursae (small, fluid-filled sacs that lubricate pressure points) that often results from repetitive stress on the body's joints. [read more]

  • Bursitis Of The Hip
    Bursitis of the hip is the inflammation of the bursas in the hip bone or femur. Bursas are sacs that act as cushions to prevent friction among joints. Bursitis is commonly experienced in the shoulders as well as other joint areas. [read more]

  • Bursitis of the Knee
    Bursitis of the knee is a condition characterized by inflammation of a bursa (tiny fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between moving parts of the knee) located near the knee joint. [read more]

  • BURSITIS, CALCIFIC
    Calcific bursitis is the extreme inflammation of the joints due to calcification of the bones. Among the commonly affected areas are shoulders, hips, and calves. Tendons in these areas are likewise prone to damages. [read more]

  • Byssinosis
    Byssinosis is more popularly as “brown lung", which is categorized as an occupational lung disease mainly caused by direct exposure and inhalation of cotton dust in some inadequately ventilated production site and working environment. Byssinosis is more common among factory workers employed in fabric and yarn manufacturing companies. This condition results to the narrowing of the lung's trachea and possible destruction of the lung tissue that can ultimately lead to respiratory failure. [read more]

  • C Syndrome
    C syndrome is also known by another medical term opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, which is categorized as a very rare disorder typically transmitted as a result of a "gonadal mosaicism". This condition is present in people with different cells in its genetic makeup, usually with the number of chromosomes. The affected people are usually corn with some malformation of the head that typically displays a triangular shape which is largely due to the premature union of bones of the skull. Learning and developmental disabilities are also common in people with C syndrome. [read more]

  • C. Difficile
    C. difficile (Clostridium difficile) is a type of bacterium that causes a widespread and serious illness. This bacterium can be found almost anywhere and can easily infect people. [read more]

  • CADASIL
    CADASIL, which stands for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortial artifacts and leukoencephalopathy, is a type of inherited stroke disorder, usually attacks persons aged 30-50 years old. The disease is fatal, as patients usually die around 12 years after symptoms show. The disease affects the brain's small blood vessels. CADASIL also causes an abnormality in the muscle cells around the small blood vessels, called the vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to the destruction of the blood vessel cells. Patients typically have one parent who has CADASIL; as one copy of the gene is enough to cause the condition. [read more]

  • Cafe Au Lait Macules
    A well defined, flat area that is darker in color than the rest of the skin (hyperpigmented) is called a caf? au lait macule (CALM). This refers to the characteristic even (homogeneous) color of “coffee with milk,” which may be light to dark brown. Although they may be present at birth, caf? au lait macules usually appear first in early childhood and can be indicators of more extensive (multisystem) disease like neurofibromatosis. [read more]

  • Cafe au lait spots
    Cafe au lait spots are generally birthmarks that are characterized by some brown cutaneous macules which are usually evident at birth and may strongly suggest possibility of Albright's syndrome or neurofibromatosis. The color of the birthmark may vary from dark to light brown with some irregular or smooth borders. Sizes of the spot can also vary and may possibly enlarge as the child grows. [read more]

  • Caffey's Disease
    Caffey's Disease is also known as infantile cortical hyperostosis, which is a very rare form of disease that is characterized by the abnormal thickening of certain bones in the body such as the long bone shafts and mandible. [read more]

  • Calcification
    Calcification is a condition where there is a building up of calcium in the soft tissue causing said tissue to harden [read more]

  • Calcinosis
    Calcinosis is a medical condition whereby there is a formation of calcium phosphates deposits in any soft tissue of the body. [read more]

  • Calcinosis cutis
    A term used to describe a group of disorders in which calcium deposits from in the skin, Calcinosis cutis or cutaneous calcification may result from a variety of factors. Occurring in soft tissues as a response to injury, dystrophic calcification is the most common source of this disease. Classified into 4 major types namely dystrophic, metastatic, iatrogenic and idiopathic, there are also rare types of Calcinosis cutis that have been variably classified as dystrophic or idiopathic. Such include calcinosis cutis circumscripta, calcinosis cutis universalis, tumoral calcinosis, and transplant-associated calcinosis cutis. [read more]

  • Calciphylaxis
    Calciphylaxis is a highly morbid syndrome of vascular calcification and skin necrosis that is poorly understood. Mostly seen exclusively in patients with end stage renal disease, Caciphylaxis results in chronic non-healing wounds and requires parathyroidectomy and hyperbaric therapy. Considered as a rare but serious disease, calciphylaxis is a type of extraskeletal calcification that is similar to those observed among patients with hypercalcaemic states such as those with milk alkali syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and hypervitamino sis D. [read more]

  • Calculi
    Calculi are stones that form in an organ or duct of the body. Stones are concretions of materials, usually mineral salts that can cause various important medical conditions. [read more]

  • CAMFAC
    CAMFAK syndrome or CAMAK syndrome is only an acronym used to describing a rare and inherited neurological disease. It is characterized by peripheral and central demyelization of nerves, similar to that seen in Cockayne syndrome. The name "CAMFAK" is derived from the first letters of the characteristic findings of the disease: cataracts, microcephaly, failure to thrive, and kyphoscoliosis. However, the disease may also occur with or without failure to thrive and arthrogryposis. Among the first signs of the disease are low birth weight and a bird-like face. It is also typical for persons with CAMFAC to be intellectually deficit. Death may even occur within the first decade. Listed as a rare disease by the Office of Rare Disease (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), CAMFAK syndrome only affects less than 200,000 people in the US population. [read more]

  • Campylobacter Infection
    Campylobacteriosis is an infection caused by the bacteria campylobacter or most commonly known as C. jejuni. Considered as among the most common human bacterial infections, it can be transmitted in several ways such as fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact and ingestion of contaminated food or water. When infected with the bacteria, an inflammatory and sometimes bloody diarrhea or dysentery syndrome may be experienced. It may include cramps, fever and pain. Campyolabacteriosis is usually self-limiting. [read more]

  • Campylobacteriosis
    Campylobacteriosis is an intestinal infection caused by bacteria called Campylobacter; commonly found in the stool of infected people and animals, processed food products contaminated in the process and preparation, poorly cooked chicken and other contaminated fruits that have not been hygienically prepared. [read more]

  • Canavan Disease
    Canavan Disease (also know as ACY2 deficiency) is a rare genetic defect that characterizes a spongy deterioration of the brain and spinal cord. The symptoms that indicate the spread of the disease develop at infancy, usually beginning with progressive mental decline and rapid loss of head control, balance and muscle tone. Affected infants have an abnormally large head caused by swelling. This disease is caused by an abnormality found in the ASPA gene that stops the cells from producing aspartocytase, an enzyme important in brain development. [read more]

  • Canavan leukodystrophy
    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that is the most common cerebral degenerative disease of infancy. The disease causes progressive damage to the brain's nerve cells. It is also a gene-linked, neurological birth disorder, wherein the white matter of the brain disintegrate into spongy tissue puzzled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. The disease belongs to a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies, which are characterized by the degeneration of myelin. Myelin is an electrically insulating dielectric covering the phospholipids layer of neuron insulating the axon. Canavan disease hinders the body's normal production of myelin. Called the central nervous system's “white matter,” this fatty membrane ensures that nerve impulses are properly transmitted. [read more]

  • Cancer
    Cancer is a group of diseases in which cells are hostile, invasive, and sometimes metastatic. These three are considered malignant properties of cancers that differentiate them from benign tumors. Although some benign tumor types are capable of being malignant, they are usually self-limited in their growth and don't invade or metastasize. People from all ages, even fetuses, may be affected with cancer but age is a factor that can raise the risks for more common varieties. About 13% of all deaths are caused by cancer and according to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in 2007 across the world. Even plants and animals may be affected by cancer. Abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells practically cause all cancers. Carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, radiation or infectious agents may have caused said abnormalities. Some however, may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication or inherited. DNA methylation and microRNAs are new aspect of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis that are gaining importance. The tissues from which the cancerous cells originate are used as bases in classifying cancer. There are also two general classes of genes affected by cancer anmely the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. [read more]

  • Cancer In Children
    Cancer in children is a group of cancers that usually occur in children below 5 years of age. These cancers can be extremely fatal when not treated, just like the cancers that develop in adults. The most common cancers that affect children are blood-related, but other kinds include the brain and kidneys. These cancers are not caused by genetic disorders but rather of enzymatic or environmental reasons. [read more]

  • Candidiasis
    Commonly called yeast infection or thrush, candidiasis is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species. The most common Candida specie is Candida albicans. Candidiasis includes infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. The latter belongs to a category called candidemia are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons. These include persons with cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients. [read more]

  • Canine distempers
    Canine distempers are a highly contagious disease that primarily affects dogs and other types of carnivores. This medical condition is still considered reasonably common despite decades of vaccinations. The severity of this disease can vary from mild to seriously fatal. [read more]

  • Canker Sores
    Canker Sores are small, superficial and painful lesions, which usually develop on the soft tissues of the mouth (under the tongue, inside cheeks or lips, and at the base of the gums). Canker sores are presented as either round or oval with a white border and white or yellow center. [read more]

  • Capillaritis
    Characterized by leakage of red blood cells from small, superficial blood vessels that result in pinpoint-like hemorrhages (petechiae) is called capillaritis. Usually a life-long condition, flaring intermittently, it is frequently found in patients with long periods of extended standing related to their occupations. [read more]

  • Caplan's syndrome
    It is also referred to as Caplan's disease it is a combined disease of rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis which shows as intrapulmonary nodules that appear homogenous and visible with the use of chest X-ray. Patients suffering from this disease have a scar and swelled lungs and they might have also been exposed to coal dust. [read more]

  • Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome
    It is a medical condition that is an unusual genetic metabolic disorder where in the where malfunctioning carbohydrate compounds are connected to glycoproteins and results to damaged glycoprotein function. Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome involves a defect in the phosphomannomutase enzyme and involves most body systems in particular the nervous system and the function of the liver. [read more]

  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a condition resulting from exposure to a colorless, odorless, tasteless, yet potentially fatal gas known as carbon monixde. [read more]

  • Carcinoid syndrome
    Carcinoid syndrome points to the collection of symptoms that happen next to carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid tumors happen together along with gastrointestinal tract (GI) that are distinct, colored yellow and well-circumscribed tumors. The tumors usually affect the ileum, appendix and rectum and it is usually distinctive and endocrine in nature. The tumors produce hormones into the blood stream that go through to the end organs and operates then by proper receptors. Though it fairly unusual, out of 15 cases per 1,000,000 population carcinoid tumors report for 75% of GI endocrine tumors. [read more]

  • Carcinoid Tumors
    Carcinoid tumors pertain to rare growths of potentially cancerous masses in several areas of the body. They most commonly occur in the lungs and in the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and colon. [read more]

  • Carcinoma, squamous cell
    Carcinoma, squamous cell is a type of cancer of the carcinoma that may happen in several diverse organs which includes the skin, mouth, lips, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostrate, lungs and cervix. It is a nasty squamous epithelium, epithelium that presents differentiation in squamous cell. [read more]

  • Cardiac amyloidosis
    Cardiac amyloidosis is a medical condition that is a type of amyloidosis the reason of which is because of the deposits of an amyloid protein in the heart tissue that results to the reduced function of the heart. [read more]

  • Cardiac arrest
    Cardiac arrest is also recognized as cardiorespiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest and it is the sudden stop of normal flow of the blood because of the failure of the heart to contract efficiently during systole. Cardiac arrest varies from a heart attack or myocardial infarction where in the flow of blood to the still-beating heart is sporadic. The prevention of oxygen to be supplied to all parts of the body is referred to as "Arrested" blood circulation. [read more]

  • Cardiac Syndrome X
    Cardiac syndrome X is a kind of chest pain associated with reduced blood flow to the heart but the coronary arteries remain normal. This disorder is found to be an effect of other vasospastic problems such as Raynaud's phenomenon and migraine. [read more]

  • Cardiac tamponade
    Cardiac tamponade, is also known by another medical term as pericardial tamponade, which is characterized as an emergency condition where fluid accumulates in the sac that encloses the heart. The accumulation of the fluid can significantly elevate the heart's pressure and can ultimately lead to shock and possible death if without any medical intervention. [read more]

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by mental retardation and marked with heart defects, ectodermal abnormalities as well as growth failure. This medical condition was first discovered in 1986, and to date, there are less than 300 recorded cases of this congenital disorder all over the world, and known to affect both sexes across all ethnic background. [read more]

  • Cardiomyopathy
    Cardiomyopathy is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. [read more]

  • Cardiospasm
    Cardiospasm is the muscular failure among the esophagus and the stomach to open where in obstructing the passage of food into the stomach which causes the food to go into the esophagus. Cardiospasm is also known as achalasia and other terms for this condition are as follows achalasia cardiae, cardiospasm, dyssynergia esophagus, and esophageal aperistalsis. [read more]

  • Carney complex
    Carney complex (CNC) is characterized as a lentiginosis syndrome and familial multiple neoplasma. Patients with this medical condition are observed to have spotty skin pigmentation, multiple myxomas and tumors of the thyroid and endocrine glands. [read more]

  • Carnitine Transporter Deficiency
    Carnitine transporter deficiency is a hereditary carnitine deficiency, which is a result of defective proteins. These proteins are called carnitine transporters. These transporters are responsible for carrying carnitine to wherever it's needed in the body, and prevents it from being excreted. With the deficiency, carnitine is released through urine. Illness or fasting may trigger severe attack. [read more]

  • Carnitine-Acylcarnitine Translocase Deficiency
    Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency is an uncommon fatty-acid oxidation disorder, which stops the body from transforming essential fatty acids to energy. Carnitine is generally acquired through one's diet, and is utilized by body cells in processing fats and producing energy. Individuals with this kind of deficiency have defective enzyme, preventing the transportation of fatty acids into the mitochondria's innermost part for processing. [read more]

  • Caroli Disease
    Caroli disease is categorized as an uncommon congenital disease that involves the cystic dilatation of the liver's intrahepatic bile ducts. It has two types, known as Simple Caroli disease and Complex Caroli disease. The first type is characterized by ectasia or dilatation of bile ducts, while the latter includes the presence of portal hypertension and hepatic fibrosis besides ectasia. [read more]

  • Carotenemia
    Carotenemia is a condition of excess beta-carotene in one's blood. It's common and generally harmless in infants, usually appearing when they start eating solids. Ingestion of too much beta-carotene containing foods, deposits the carotene in one's skin adding yellow color to it. While the condition is not dangerous, it may lead to mistaken analysis of jaundice. [read more]

  • Carotid Artery Dissection
    Carotid artery dissection involves a tear in an inner artery lining, known as carotid artery. Carotid arteries supply blood to the brain, and are located in the neck's front portion. The condition may be critical, and needs immediate medical attention. [read more]

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition wherein the carpal tunnel's median nerve is pinched or entrapped due to swelling tendons or nerve or both. Carpal tunnel safeguards the major nerve to the hand, as well as the nine tendons responsible for bending the fingers. When pressure is placed on this major nerve, it causes pain, muscle weakness, and paresthesias in the hand and forearm. [read more]

  • Carpenter Syndrome
    Carpenter syndrome is classified as a very rare or uncommon genetic disorder, distinguished through premature closure of skull bones, growth retardation, heart defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and other health disorders. It is usually manifests at/or shortly following birth. [read more]

  • Castleman's Disease
    Castleman's disease is considered an uncommon illness affecting the lymph nodes and the body's immune-cell structures. The disease is categorized as lymphoproliferative disorder; meaning it involves overgrowth or proliferation of the lymphatic cells. While it's similar to lymphatic system cancers in many ways, Castleman's disease is non-cancerous. It has two types: Unicentric that involves one site of tissue growths, and Multicentric involving multiple sites of growths. [read more]

  • Cat Eye Syndrome
    Cat Eye syndrome is a very uncommon chromosomal disorder relating to chromosome 22 genetic abnormalities. The syndrome affects the eyes' appearance, and can be apparent at birth. Its name is derived from the distinctive eye abnormality present in affected individuals. This characteristic consists of the partial lack of coloboma or ocular tissue, which often affects both eyes. [read more]

  • Cat-Scratch Disease
    Cat-scratch disease is a communicable disease transmitted through the bacteria in a cat's saliva. The disease can be caught from a cat's bite or scratch, and may be passed on from cat to human. The disease isn't severe in healthy people, but it may be a problem for those who have a weak immune system. [read more]

  • Catatonic Schizophrenia
    Catatonic schizophrenia is a subtype of chronic mental illness known as schizophrenia, which is characterized by altered perception of reality, behavior, and thinking. Patients with catatonic schizophrenia are typically extremely inactive or display minimal movements that seem disconnected from their surroundings. These episodes, known as catatonic episodes, may last for mere minutes or as long as a few hours. [read more]

  • CATCH 22 Syndrome
    CATCH 22 syndrome comprises an extensive range of developmental defects linked to microdeletions of chromosomal area 22q11.2. More known examples of CATCH 22 phenotype are Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, and Opitz GBBB syndrome. The acronym CATCH 22 summarizes the major medical features of the 22q11.2 deletions. [read more]

  • Catel Manzke Syndrome
    Catel Manzke syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder combining glossoptosis, cleft palate, and micrognathia with an abnormality of the index fingers. Apart from the major features, there are also several related malformations described, particularly growth retardation and cardiac defect. [read more]

  • Caudal Regression Syndrome
    Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon disorder wherein the fetal spine's bottom portion does not properly develop. As a result, abnormalities that can be mild or severe occur. The syndrome can lead to various problems, varying from partial nonappearance of the spine's tailbone areas, to severe cases entailing significant malformation of pelvis, lower vertebrate, and spine. [read more]

  • Causalgia
    Causalgia is defined as a chronic pain disease that typically affects the leg or arm. It is characterized by reduced motion range of the hand and shoulder of an affected arm. In rare cases, it can involve other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Cavernous Hemangioma
    Cavernous hemangioma is a harmless propagation of the blood vessels, wherein there is a formation of a tumor-like mass of blood vessels in the internal organs or the skin. This vascular tumor is composed of huge quantity of blood. The usual “superficial” lesions have dark to bright red color; lesions that are deep are blue in color. This condition extends more intensely than capillary hemangioma, so spontaneous regression is less likely. [read more]

  • Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a condition wherein there is formation of blood clot made up of fibrin and platelets in the brain's cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus is found at the brain's base and contains several nerves, other structures, and a vein. This vein transports deoxygenated blood from face and brain then back to the heart. Associated conditions are craniocerebral trauma, thrombophilia, and infections of paranasal sinuses and contiguous structures. [read more]

  • Cayler Syndrome
    Some people are born with defects on their lower lip, and this may occur on the right or left side of the lip. This disease is Cayler Syndrome, also known as asymmetric crying facies. It is a disease wherein a congenital heart defect constricts the muscle movement of the lower lip. The controlled muscle movement is due to an underdeveloped muscle in the lip, or a complete absence of the muscle. Being congenital in nature, those afflicted are born with the disease, and is noticed in the infant when they cry or smile. [read more]

  • CDG Syndrome
    When your child is born with a disease, knowledge about it will help you and your family cope with and learn how to raise the child as they need to. CDG, or congenital disorders of glycosylation, is a disease that affects the body's metabolic systems. It is also known by the name carbohydrate-deficient glycosylation syndrome. The central and peripheral nervous system are the most affected functions of those who are diagnosed with CDG syndrome. [read more]

  • Celiac Disease
    Celiac disease pertains to a digestive disorder set off by consumption of gluten, a type of protein that can be found in pasta, bread, pizza crust, cookies, and other food products that contain barley, wheat or rye. [read more]

  • Celiac sprue
    Genetics plays a significant role when it comes to the diseases we get or do not get in our lifetime. Among those that are determined by genetics, is celiac sprue, which affects the autoimmunity of the small bowel. Research has shown that an estimated 1% of patients come from Indo-European origins, although the disease still remains to be largely underdiagnosed. [read more]

  • Cellulite
    Cellulite is unsightly fat visible on the skin. Cellulite is dimpled in appearance and can be typically seen on the hips, thighs, and buttocks of women. [read more]

  • Cenani Lenz Syndactylism
    Cenani Lenz syndactylism is a hereditary malformation syndrome that involves both the lower and upper extremity. It's an uncommon birth defect that's characterized by a variety of bone abnormalities. The syndrome was named after two medical geneticists; Turkish geneticist Asim Cenani, and German geneticist Widukind Lenz. [read more]

  • Central diabetes insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is one of the two types of diabetes. The disease causes those afflicted to have extremely diluted urine, a result of a hormone deficiency vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. The condition disables the function of the kidneys to produce concentrated urine. Because of the excessive excretion of urine, people with central diabetes insipidus also show symptoms of extreme thirst for cold water. Dehydration is also a common symptom, since the body is unable to store water. The urine of patients also do not contain any glucose. In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus also causes blurred vision. Adults should be able to drink enough water to make up for the loss during extreme urination in order to keep healthy and live with the disease. Children who suffer from central diabetes insipidus show more drastic symptoms, such as diarrhea, fever, and vomiting. The disease also affects the child's growth, appetite, and eating functions. The disease may also occur gestationally, when women get pregnant but it disappears after labor. For one to be diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus, a number of tests are done concerning the blood glucose, calcium, and bicarbonate levels are conducted. Urinalysis is also conducted to determine the levels of electrolytes and urine osmolality, in which a person positive with central diabetes insipidus would have low results for both. An important tool in determining the cause of central diabetes insipidus is the fluid deprivation test. The disease can be caused by one of three factors: excessive liquid consumption, a disability in the production of the antidiuretic hormone, or if the cause lies in the kidney's reaction to the antidiuretic hormone. The test also makes use of a desmopressin stimulation to help in determining the main cause for the patient's condition. Should the patient be suspected of having central diabetes insipidus, further hormone testing of the pituitary is done. A magnetic resonance imagine, or MRI, is also conducted to determine what process is influencing the functions of the pituitary. Patients, including those with gestational cases, who are tested positive of central diabetes insipidus are treated with desmopressin. Those who develop gestational diabetes may also acquire the disease in their other pregnancies. For those who are diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the desmopressin treatment will not be effective. [read more]

  • Central Diabetes Insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is the body's deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, causing too much production of extremely dilute urine. It is uncommon, and involves intense thirst and over urination. The condition indicates the kidney's inability to balance urine concentration. [read more]

  • Central Pontine Myelinolysis
    Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurological condition caused by damages incurred by the pons, the myelin sheath wherein the nerve cells in the brainstem are located. [read more]

  • Central serous chorioretinopathy
    Central serous chorioretinopathy is a condition of the eye wherein the central macula leaks fluid from the choriocapillaris, resulting in blurry vision. The word serous means serum, which is thin and watery-like in texture. The blurry vision is called metamorphopsia. Sometimes the patients see gray or blind spots, as well as occurring photopsia, or flashes of light. [read more]

  • Central Sleep Apnea
    Central sleep apnea is a condition characterized by breathing disturbances in sleep, often as a result of respirator weakness. [read more]

  • Centronuclear myopathy
    Centronuclear myopathy belongs to a group of rare diseases called congenital myopathies. Congenital myopathies are conditions wherein the cell's nuclei is located within the skeletal muscle cells, an abnormal condition. Normally, the nuclei would be positioned in the periphery of the cell, but with centronuclear myopathy the nuclei is in the center, hence the name. [read more]

  • Ceramidase deficiency
    Ceramidase deficiency, also known as Farber's Disease, is a group of genetically predisposed metabolic diseases named lipid storage diseases. The diseases characterize a condition wherein excessive amounts of lipids, such as fatty acids, oils, and other related substances, accumulate to harmful levels in the central nervous system, tissues, and joints. This may also affect the liver, heart, and kidneys. Ceramidase deficiency occurs in children when both parents have the protein-regulating gene sphingomyelin. Their children have a 25% chance of acquiring the disease, and a 50% chance of bearing the gene. [read more]

  • Ceramide trihexosidosis
    Ceramide trihexosidosis is also known as Fabry's disease, and is a condition wherein an enzyme deficiency causes a fat storage disorder. This is because the enzyme deficiency affects the lipid biodegradation functions of the body. [read more]

  • Ceraunophobia
    Ceraunophobia, known as the fear of lighting and thunder, is also known as astraphobia, tonitrophobia, and brontophobia. This specific type of phobia causes people distress and extreme upset when they encounter thunder or lightning. [read more]

  • Cercarial Dermatitis
    Cercarial dermatitis is a skin condition characterized by an itchy rash caused by certain parasites. It is also commonly referred to as “swimmer' itch”. [read more]

  • Cerebellar hypoplasia
    Cerebellar hypoplasia is a condition which affects the development of the cerebellum. The developmental problem actually results in an underdeveloped cerebellum, smaller than usual in size. Cerebellar hypoplasia may result because of genetics, or can also occur sporadically. The condition is associated with other diseases such as the Walker-Warborg syndrome, Dandy Walker Syndrome, and the Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome. [read more]

  • Cerebellar Vermis Agenesis
    Cerebral vermis agenesis refers to the partial or complete malfunction of the brain's cerebellum due to the agenesis of the vermis. It is a congenital disorder. [read more]

  • Cerebral Abscesses
    Cerebral or brain abscess is a mass of materials such as pus or immune cells that grow inside the brain due to fungal or bacterial infections. [read more]

  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition that affects the small blood vessels of the brain, wherein the amyloid protein associated with the Alzheimer's disease is deposited in the vessel walls. This may result in brain diseases such as dementia, brain hemorrhage, and stroke. Patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy are usually older than 65 years old, although it may also occur in those who are around 45 years of age. The disease prevalence increases with age, and equally affects both men and women. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is responsible for 5-20% of brain hemorrhage occurrences, and 30% of lobar hemorrhage. [read more]

  • Cerebral aneurism
    A cerebral aneurism occurs when the cerebral artery's wall weakens, causing the blood vessel to balloon abnormally and be filled with blood. This aneurism may put pressure on the tissue surrounding the brain, or the nearby nerves; it can also result in a rupture, called a brain hemorrhage. These can occur anywhere in the brain, but usually in the under part of the brain by the skull's base known as the Circle of Willis. When cerebral aneurisms are very small, they can go on without causing any problems. [read more]

  • Cerebral cavernous malformation
    Cerebral cavernous malformation, sometimes known as cavernous angioma, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease may occur sporadically or may be inherited. When one has the disease, there are groups of abnormal blood vessels located in the brain and spinal cord, although in rare cases they are also located in other parts of the body. A cerebral cavernous malformation resembles a raspberry, although it varies in size. The small bubbles are filled with blood, and a special layer of cells called endothelium lines the bubbles. [read more]

  • Cerebral Edema
    Cerebral edema is an inflammation of the brain tissue due to pressure brought about by massive fluids that are collected within the brain. This condition can cause neurological problems and eventual death. [read more]

  • Cerebral gigantism
    Cerebral gigantism, also known as Sotos syndrome, is a rare hereditary disease characterized by excessive abnormal growth during birth, and extreme physical growth during early childhood years. The growth is purely physical, as there is no increased serum growth hormone levels. Sometimes, the condition may be accompanied by various levels of mental retardation, hypotonia, hindered motor, social, and cognitive development, and speech problems. Children born with cerebral gigantism are larger than normal during birth, and also possess a condition called macrocrania, where their heads are larger than normal. The disease may occur sporadically, or it can also occur in familial cases. [read more]

  • Cerebral hypoxia
    Cerebral hypoxia occurs when the brain cannot get sufficient oxygen supply. Four classifications divide the other forms of cerebral hypoxia. A milder form of the disease is known as diffuse cerebral hypoxia, wherein brain impairment occurs due to low blood oxygen levels. Focal cerebral ischema is a localized reduction in the transport of oxygen from the blood to the brain. Mild strokes may occur, and the neuron damage in this case is irreversible. Cerebral infarction occurs when the oxygen flow from blood to a part of the brain is completely stopped, causing significant and irreversible brain damage. Global cerebral ischema is the last category, wherein the blood completely stops flowing to the brain. [read more]

  • Cerebral palsy
    Cerebral palsy is a group of diseases that are non-progressive and non-contagious. The word cerebral refers to the cerebrum, and palsy means disorder of movement. Cerebral palsy is characterized by damaged motor control centers in the brains of young children. The brain damage that occurs does not worsen over time, although orthopedic difficulties may accompany the condition. There are 4 common classifications of cerebral palsy according to the damaged area of the brain. These are spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, ataxic, and mixed. Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type, and this type of cerebral palsy affects the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, or pyramidal tract, which leads to neuromuscular conditions. Patients with this type of CP also are hypertonic. Athetoid or dyskinetic type of CP have mixed muscle tone, and have either hypertonia or hypotonia. Ataxia, the least most common type of cerebral palsy, is characterized by tremors, hypotonia, and possibly some difficulties with motor skills. [read more]

  • Cerebral Thrombosis
    Cerebral thrombosis is defined as blood clot that takes place in the cerebral vessel. It is more commonly known as stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack or TIA. TIA is a “mini” or “warning” stroke, but doesn't have lasting damage. There are strokes that damage part of one's brain, and some have permanent injury. TIA is important in foreseeing if a “stroke” will happen and the chance to prevent it. They may occur several days, some weeks, or even a few months prior to a major cerebral thrombosis attack. In approximately half of the cases, stroke happens within a year from TIA. [read more]

  • Cerebrocostomandibular Syndrome
    Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is exhibited by a small jaw, palate deformities, improper positioning of the tongue and misplaced rib development. Some patients with this disorder soon develop mental retardation. [read more]

  • Cerebrohepatorenal Syndrome
    Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by the lack of peroxisomes, the cell structures that remove toxic substances from the body. Peroxisomes are found in the kidneys, liver and brain. [read more]

  • Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis
    Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare metabolic disease that affects the body's lipid storage system. [read more]

  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal
    Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal is also known as Batten Disease and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. The name constitutes a family of 8 or more different neurodegenerative disorders which occur when lipopigments called lipofuscin, accumulate in the body's tissues. Fats and proteins make up the lipopigments, and they can accumulate in cells of body parts including the brain, eyes, muscle, and skin. The disease is quite rare, although they can occur in more than one member in a family if they possess the defective gene. The disorder is autosomal recessive in nature; meaning that if a child acquires the disease, both his parents have the defective gene. Parents who carry one defective gene result in each child having a one in four chance of inheriting the disease. Each of them also has a one in two chance of inheriting a copy of the gene. In adults, the CLN may be autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant form of the disease. [read more]

  • Cerumen Impaction
    Cerumen impaction pertains to an abnormal accumulation of earwax in the external ear canal. The earwax becomes too tightly packed to the point of causing an obstruction in the said canal. [read more]

  • Cervical cancer
    Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that affects the cervix, located in the lower part of the uterus. Cervical cancer falls under two classifications: squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. The cancers are classified according to how they look under a microscope, and squamous cell carcinoma occurs in 80-90% of cases. [read more]

  • Cervical Dystonia
    Cervical dystonia pertains to a painful condition characterized by involuntary contraction of neck muscles, which cause the head to twist or turn to one side. Cervical dystonia is also referred to as torticollis or spasmodic torticollis. [read more]

  • Cervical Osteoarthritis
    Cervical osteoarthritis also known as cervical spondylosis is the deterioration of the bones and cartilage of the backbone and neck. The condition sometimes leads to the formation of bone spurs or irregular bony outgrowths. [read more]

  • Cervicitis
    It is an inflammation of the cervix. [read more]

  • Cestodes
    Cestodes are parasitic internal parasites commonly known as tapeworms. They thrive on the feces of their host, and are a potential cause of gastrointestinal diseases. Cestodes also thrive in the gastrointestinal tract where they lay eggs. [read more]

  • Chagas disease
    Chagas disease is a form of tropical parasitic disease, affecting persons in the Americas but most commonly in South America. The infectious agent in the disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, which latch on to humans through the assassin bugs of the Triatominae. The disease is transmitted to humans through contamination in food, blood transfusion, and fetal transmission. [read more]

  • Chalazion
    A chalazion is a cyst that grows in the eyelid caused by the inflammation of the meibomian gland. These cysts vary in styes and are usually painless until they start to swell. They eventually heal and disappear on their own after a few days or weeks, but oftentimes it needs treatment in order to heal faster. [read more]

  • Chancroid
    Chancroid is a kind of sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. This STD is common in hot, tropical countries, and is characterized by open, painful sores in the genital area. When left untreated chancroid may give way to ulcers that may persist in the affected area for up to several months. [read more]

  • Chandler's Syndrome
    Chandler's Syndrome (CS) is an eye disease which eats up the lining of cell inside the cornea causing the iris to dry up. This rare eye disorder is characterized by the swelling of the cornea as well as glaucoma. One of the three syndromes that dwell on the eyes, CS is more common to females than with males. At most times CS only affects one eye, but when left unattended, the other eye may be infected as well. Because of the glaucoma and leaking of fluids throughout the cell membrane would cause extreme pain and impaired vision. [read more]

  • Chaotic Atrial Tachycardia
    Chaotic Atrial Tachycardia, also known as Multifocal Atrial Tachycaridia is a disorder characterized by abnormal rapid heart rate. The fast heart rate occurs when too much electrical impulses flow to the different chambers of the heart, making it function faster than normal. It is as well linked to other heart disorders such as atrial fibrillation. This heart disorder produces a rhythm of varying P-wave morphology at irregular PP intervals. The heart rate is usually between 100 and 140 beats per minute, but in a Chronic Atrial Tachycardia, multiple locations within the atria rev up and initiate electrical impulses. These impulses are sent to the ventricles, leading to a faster heart rate from 100 to 250 beats per minute. This very fast rate then increases the heart's workload. Chronic Atrial Tachycardia is common in elderly patients especially those with pre-existing health problems and COPD. [read more]

  • Chapped Lips (cheilitis)
    Lips that appear scaly, dry and may have one or more small cracks (fissures) are called chapped lips (cheilitis). They are often painful and there may or may not be swelling and redness. [read more]

  • Charcot Disease
    Charcot's Disease, or more commonly known as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the gradual death of motor neurons which control muscle movement. This illness usually causes muscle weakness and progressive atrophy, making the person lose his ablity to make voluntary movements in all parts of his body except for his eyes. Eventually the disease can lead to dementia and death. [read more]

  • Charcot Marie Tooth Disease
    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited heterogeneous disease characterized by the death of muscle tissue and loss of touch sensation. It usually attacks the legs and feet but also triggers the arms and hands as the disease progresses. It is also known as Peroneal Muscular Atrophy or Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy, and is incurable at present. The disease is named after scientists who took the effort to do research on it, Jean-Martin Charcot and his student Pierre Marie, as well as Howard Henry Tooth. [read more]

  • CHARGE Syndrome
    CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder which consists of a set of congenital defects on newborn babies. It was first discovered in 1979 and the acronym was coined in 1981. The acronym CHARGE stands for Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the nasal choanae, Retardation of growth, Genital abnormalities and Ear problems. [read more]

  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an inherited disease that attacks the nervous and immune systems which results to pale-colored eyes, hair and skin. [read more]

  • Chemodectoma
    A chemodectoma is a benign, non-chromaffin tumor that dwells in the carotid artery. Sometimes called as the non-chromaffin paraganglioma, chemodoctoma is usually found in the head and neck area. [read more]

  • Chemophobia
    Chemophobia literally means a fear of chemicals. It is a fully-developed psychological fear of chemical substances due to pre-existing beliefs and hearsays about the negative effects of chemicals to one's body. However, some experts do not consider chemophobia as a psychological condition, but rather a term marketing analysts and advertisers coined in order to widen the market of the products they are selling. [read more]

  • Chen Kung Ho McAlister Syndrome
    The Chen Kung Ho Kaufman McAlister Syndrome is a congenital defect where children are born with micrognathia, Wormian bones, cleft palate, congenital heart disease, dislocated hips, preaxial polydactyly of the feet, bowed fibulae, missing tibia and abormal skin patterns. It is a rare disease with an unknown etiology. The syndrome was first described in 1975 by Chen-Kung Ho, RL Kaufman and WH McAlister at the Washington University. [read more]

  • Cherry Hemangioma
    A small non-cancerous, red-purple bump on the skin that is typically seen in older adults is called a cherry hemangioma, which is formed from an overgrowth of small veins. [read more]

  • Cherubism
    Cherubism is a genetic defect which consists of the protruding bone tissue at the lower part of the face, particularly at the jaws. At the beginning of one's childhood, his upper and lower jaw grow at an abnormal rate and will soon be replaced by cyst-like bones. Because of this sudden enlargement of the jaws, the person's cheeks become swollen and rounded just like that of a cherubim, and will soon face problems with tooth growth. The condition varies among people; some cases of cherubism are quite mild and in fact unnoticeable, but in others the defect is so severe they even encounter difficulties in chewing, talking and seeing. However, these growths become replaced by normal bones as the children enter adulthood, and they will soon have a normal appearance as they reach maturity. [read more]

  • Chest Pain
    It is a sudden feeling of pain in the chest. [read more]

  • Chest Wall Pain
    Chest wall pain is also referred to as costosternal syndrome, costosternal chondrodynia, or costochondritis. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Chiari Malformation
    Chiari malformation is the displacement of brain tissue into the spinal canal. [read more]

  • Chickenpox
    Chickenpox is a classic infectious disease common among children. It is a rarely fatal illness that is characterized by red spots on the different parts of the body and become itchy over time. Persons that acquire chickenpox as well obtain lifelong immunity from the disease once it heals after a few weeks. [read more]

  • Chikungunya
    Chikungunya is a rare viral fever spread by mosquitoes that contain an alphavirus. Its name comes from a Makonde word that literally means 'that which bends up', as the arthritic symptoms of the disease result to a stooped posture on the patient. It was first discovered in 1955 after 1952 outbreak along the Makonde Plateau, which is located in between Tanganyika and Mozambique. [read more]

  • Childhood Asthma
    Childhood asthma is a kind of asthma present in children. It features the same attributes to that of adult asthma, except that it occurs more frequent due to the child's activities. Childhood asthma is present in children with a weak heart or lungs. [read more]

  • Childhood disintegrative disorder
    Childhood disintegrative disorder or CDD is a condition that consists of a child's delayed development in social function, motor skills and language. It is also known as disintegrative psychosis or Heller's syndrome. It is similar to autism, but normal development is first seen before a sudden regression occurs. It is not easy to detect CDD on children during its early stages; the disorder would only be obvious when the child starts to lose his language skills. Some children seem to react to seizures and hallucinations, much to the surprise of their parents. This is often described as a devastating condition, since it affects the family's future. Child disintegrative disorder was first described by Thomas Heller in 1908. [read more]

  • Childhood Leukemia
    Childhood leukemia is one of the most common cancers that affect children. In this cancer, white blood cells dominate the bone marrow, wherein the red blood cells are produced. The lack of red blood cells in the body is life-threatening since it is the main factor that makes up the blood. This is a well-known cause of death when the disease is not treated. [read more]

  • Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome
    Childhood nephrotic syndrome is an illness characterized by the kidney's loss of protein in the urine. The condition then causes the blood protein to decrease allowing water movement into the tissues of the body resulting to edema or swelling usually around the eyes, belly, and legs. Children doen't go to the bathroom and gain weight because of the swelling. [read more]

  • Childhood Schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness that causes people to communicate and behave differently than most other people through disorganized, detached, paranoid, or illogical behaviors. [read more]

  • Chimerism
    Chimerism is a rare disorder wherein chromosomes mix in a single organism. Because of this, a person with chimerism would have two DNA sets, as well as organs that do not match the person's DNA. Chimerism can be exhibited in hermaphrodites, in which the affected organism has both male and female sex organs. This disorder develops during the earliest stages of embryonic growth. Once chimerism forms two non-identical twin embryos merge as one rather than growing separately. [read more]

  • Chinese Restaurant Syndrome
    The Chinese restaurant syndrome is a collection of ailments experienced by a person due to the lack of Vitamin B6. Some of these ailments include flushing, sweating, headache and pressure on the face or mouth. Most people believe that this syndrome is caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG), but scientific research has found no link between the two. [read more]

  • Chlamydia
    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria. A common STD, Chlamydia can cause serious complications which may lead to damages in the female reproductive organs. It can also bring forth permanent problems such as infertility in both males and females. This disease is regarded to be a “silent killer” because around 75% of infected people notice no symptoms. If the signs do surface, these are usually noticed a few weeks after the disease is acquired. [read more]

  • Chlamydia trachomatis
    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial specie under the genus Chlamydia. Unlike the two other species, Chlamydia trachomatis cannot be detected by using the Gram stain. It is the first kind of Chlamydia found in humans, and was discovered in 1907. C. trachomatis is made up of a pair of human biovars, trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum. [read more]

  • Choking
    Choking is the reaction of the larynx due to the obstruction of normal breathing due to pressure from a foreign substance or another force. Choking must be treated immediately to avoid asphyxia. Death can result to asphyxiation. [read more]

  • Cholangiocarcinoma
    Cholangiocarcinoma is a kind of cancer affecting the bile ducts. It is a rare form of cancer linked with other diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, congenital liver dysfunction, and infection with liver flukes. [read more]

  • Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a kind of cholangitis caused by an autoimmune reaction. It is an inflammation of the liver's bile ducts and leads to cholestasis, or the blockage of the bile transport towards the gut. This progresses to the accumulation of bile fluids which creates severe damages to the liver as well as jaunice and liver failure. The exact causes of PSC are not yet known. It is oftentimes linked with ulcerative colitis. PSC however differs from ulcerative colitis as it continues to thrive in the body even after the colon has been surgically removed. [read more]

  • Cholecystitis
    Cholecystitis is a disease characterized by the inflammation of the gall bladder. It is mainly caused by gallstones or choleliths which block the cystic duct. The blocking of the bile ducts leads to complications such as bile stasis, inspissation of the bile, and infection done by gut organisms. The disease takes place when the gall bladder's wall becomes swollen. Sometimes this inflammation may develop into necrosis and damage other structures such as the bowel and diaphragm. [read more]

  • Cholelithiasis
    Cholelithiasis is the process of forming gallstones or choleliths in the body through accretion of bile components. They can develop anywhere in the biliary area such as a gallbladder and the bile duct. Once the bile duct becomes affected by this process it can cause choledocholithiasis, while obstruction of the biliary tree can lead to jaundice. The gallstones can also reach the pancreas, thus resulting to pancreatitis. [read more]

  • Cholera
    Cholera is a contagious kind of gastroenteritis caused by a bacterium named Vibrio cholerae. It is transmitted to humans via contaminated food or water. The cholera-causing bacterium produces an enterotoxin that obstructs the small intestine leading to diarrhea. Cholera is one of most fatal diseases in history, and it can transform a healthy person into a hypotensive one in a matter of hours. When not treated immediately, patients may die from the disease within three hours after diagnosis. [read more]

  • Cholestasis
    Cholestasis is a medical condition where the bile fluids cannot pass from the liver to the duodenum. This condition occurs when gallstones block the bile ducts due to side effects from other diseases or as a genetic defect in a person's DNA. [read more]

  • Cholestasis Of Pregnancy
    Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition of intense itching particularly on the hands and feet in late pregnancy. [read more]

  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease
    Cholesteryl ester storage disease is a rare medical condition resulting from the accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the blood, lymph and lymphoid tissue. It is a kind of acid lipase deficiency, similar to the Wolman disease. Children affected with this disorder have an enlarged liver which leads to cirrhosis and eventual chronic liver failure. They may as well have calcium deposits in their adrenal glands which may create jaundice. There is no current cure for the cholesteryl ester storage disease. [read more]

  • Chondroblastoma
    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare but benign bone tumor which grows slowly in the affected part of a person's body. It comes from chondroblasts or cartilage cells and usually leads to the deterioration of muscles, extreme pain in the bones and immobility of the joint. When not treated, chondrolastoma may affect other organs particularly at the lungs. [read more]

  • Chondrocalcinosis
    Chondrocalcinosis is a kind of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is rheumatologic condition due to the development of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the tissues. [read more]

  • Chondrocalinisis
    Chondrocalcinisis, also known as gout and peudogout, is an inflammation of the joints. This condition is characterized mainly by joint pains and calcifications that destroy the joint cartilage. [read more]

  • Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis
    A painful inflammatory condition affecting the ear is called chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis (CNH) or it is sometimes called Winkler disease. Often seen in middle-aged or elderly men but may also affect women and younger adults, CNH results in a benign tender lump in the cartilaginous portion of the ear. [read more]

  • Chondrodystrophy
    Chondrodystrophy is a skeletal disorder caused by several genetic mutations that affect cartilage formation. It is characterized by a normal-sized body trunk but with shortened extremeties and limbs. People in this condition are often referred to as dwarves, and almost 1 out of 25,000 children is born with this disorder. In a normal cartilage development, hyaline cartilage covers the long bones as well as the spinal cord, and the limbs grow at the end of the long bones. The cartilage then develops into bone joints, but for a person with chondrodystrophy, this process would not happen and would lead to skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Chondroectodermal dysplasia
    Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a kind of skeletal dysplasia caused by a genetic disorder. [read more]

  • Chondroma
    A chondroma is a benign tumor with a lobular growth pattern. It is made up of tumor cells that produce the cartilaginous matrix, of amorphous, basophilic material. A chondroma has vascular axes within it, and is made up of cartilaginous cells. This tumor is commonly found on small bones in the hand or feet, as well as in tubular bones like the ribs, humerus and femur. [read more]

  • Chondromalacia
    Chondromalacia is a degenerative condition of the cartilage cover at the patella or kneecap. It gives dull pain and persistent discomfort around the affected area, and is common among young adults and active people like soccer players, ballet dancers, rowers and tennis players. This condition happens when the kneecap is exposed to great stress or as a result of an injury in the patella. [read more]

  • Chondromalacia Patella
    Chondromalacia patella is a condition indicating damage to the cartilage under the kneecap. It is also referred to as patellofemoral pain. [read more]

  • Chondrosarcoma
    Chondrosarcoma is a kind of bone cancer that comes from the cartilage tissue. It affects mostly the pelvic area, femur, arm, humerus, ribs and spine. [read more]

  • Chordoma
    Chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm originating from the cellular sheddings of the notochord. The tumor thrives along the neuroaxis, and is commonly found at clivus and sacrum areas. It has three histological variants namely, classical, dedifferentiated, and chondroid. [read more]

  • Chorea
    Chorea refers to an involuntary movement abnormality, a neurological disorder under the group dyskinesias. It is characterized by the sudden movements of the hands or feet without being controlled. [read more]

  • Chorea Acanthocytosis
    Chorea acanthocytosis is an inherited illness caused by a genetic mutation that disrupts the proteins in red blood cells. When a blood sample is observed under a microscope, some of the red blood cells look thorny, and these are called acanthocytes. [read more]

  • Choriocarcinoma
    Choriocarcinoma is a kind of malignant cancer under the group of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). This cancer targets the placenta, and commonly attacks women, rather than men. [read more]

  • Chorioretinitis
    Choriorentinitis is an inflammatory illness involving the eye's retinal vessels. It is caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infections. When not treated, choriorentinitis may completely damage the retina and cause poor visions for the person with the said disease. [read more]

  • Christmas disease
    Christmas disease, scientifically known as Hemophilia B, is a blood-clotting illness brought about by a mutation in the Factor IX gene which causes the lack of Factor IX. It is the second and less prevalent form of Hemophilia named after Stephen Christmas, the first patient diagnosed with the disease. [read more]

  • Chromhidrosis
    Chromhidrosis is a chemical condition in which a person secretes colored sweat. There are two kinds of sweat glands, the eccrine glands which produce clear fluid and works to control body temperature; and apocrine glands thich secrete milky sweat that becomes the cause of body odor. [read more]

  • Chromomycosis
    Chromomycosis, also known as chromoblastomycosis, is a fungal infection common in places of tropical climate. It can be caused by different types of fungi that thrive under the skin and spreads slowly and becomes difficult to treat. [read more]

  • Chromosomal Translocations
    Chromosomal translocation is a genetic defect in which chromosomes break apart and reconnect with other chromosomes resulting to certain disorders. Chronic myelogenic leukemia and hemophilia are examples of chromosomal translocations. [read more]

  • Chromosome 15q partial deletion
    Chromosome 15q partial deletion is a rare genetic condition produced by a chromosomal aberration wherein the long arm (q) of one copy of the some chromosome 15 is either partially or completely deleted. Angelman syndrome is formed when the mother's copy of the chromosome arm is deleted, while Prader-Willi syndrome is produced. Aside from the deletions, the uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 leads to the same genetic disorders. [read more]

  • Chromosome 15q trisomy
    Chromosome 15q trisomy is genetic disorder wherein the end of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q) appears thrice instead of only twice in the body cells. This results to growth delays either before or after birth as well as mental retardation and malformations in the head and face. Other abnormalities are a short neck, disfigured fingers or toes, scoliosis and other skeletal malformations. Males with this condition suffer from genital problems, and cardiac illnesses. In most cases, Chromosome 15q trisomy is a result of a translocation of chromosome balance in one of the parents. [read more]

  • Chromosome 22 microdeletion 22q11
    Chromosome 22, microdeletion q11 syndrome, also known as Di George Syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome and Strong syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small part in chromosome 22 and occurs near the midsection of the chromosome located at q11.2. [read more]

  • Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency
    Adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease or hypocortisolism, is a disorder resulting from the adrenal glands' insufficient production of certain hormones. [read more]

  • Chronic berylliosis
    Chronic Berylliosis is the inflammation of the lungs due to inhaling fumes or dust contaning the element beryllium. This metal can be found in coal, soil and volcanic dust and is used in manufacturing and aerospace industries. This disease may appear even after 20 years after exposure to the said element. [read more]

  • Chronic Cough
    A chronic cough is a cough that lasts for eight weeks or longer. It physically drains the affected individual and may have major repercussions. [read more]

  • Chronic Daily Headache
    Chronic daily headaches are incessant head pains experienced daily occur at least 15 days a month, for more than three months. [read more]

  • Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome
    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that results from too much exercise or overusing the muscles resulting to pain, swelling, and sometimes disability in the affected leg and arm muscles. The condition is also called chronic compartment syndrome or exercise-induced compartment syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic fatigue disorder
    Chronic fatigue syndrome is a complex disorder where in one suffers from recurring fatigue which cannot be improved by rest and can be aggravated by mental or physical activity. People suffering from CFS do not engage in lots of activities because they easily get tired. CFS can last for years and there are no specific tests available to diagnose this disorder. [read more]

  • Chronic granulomatous disease
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of hereditary illnesses wherein some cells in the immune system have a difficulty producing reactive oxygen compounds the body uses to kill ingested pathogens. This dyfunction leads to the presence of granulomata in the different organs of the body. [read more]

  • Chronic hiccup
    A chronic hiccup is a condition where a person experiences hiccups for an abnormally long period of time. A hiccup is an involuntary spasm made by diaphragm. It may occur several times a minute, but it resolves by itself after some time. It is caused by the sudden rush of air to the epiglottis, causing it to close. Hiccups may occur due to some activities like laughing too hard, drinking too much alcohol and eating spicy food. They are usually treated by drinking a glass of water until the spasm subsides. Chronic hiccups meanwhile last from weeks to months and even years for some cases. [read more]

  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that attacks the peripheral nervous system but as well involves the central nervous system. It is sometimes known as chronic relapsing polyneuropathy and is related to Guillain-Barre syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic Kidney Failure
    Chronic kidney failure is a form of kidney failure which develops gradually with few signs and symptoms in the early stages. Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to filter fluid and waste resulting in their accumulation to dangerous levels in the body. [read more]

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of leukemia which attacks a particular lymphocyte called the B cell, which can be found in the bone marrow, whose task is to fight infections. A person with CLL has a damaged B cell, thus it cannot fight infections and rather eats up other blood cells that are able to fight infection. [read more]

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis
    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that results when the body's immune system inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland. This causes damage to your thyroid cells and upsets the balance of chemical reactions in the body. The condition is also known as hashimoto's disease [read more]

  • Chronic mountain sickness
    Chronic mountain sickness is a dsease developed during a long period of stay in high altitudes. It is also known as Monge's disease. It can develop several years after living at a high place, and high places are defined to be at over 2500 meters above sea level. [read more]

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    Chronic myelogenous leukemia or CML is a rare kind of blood cell cancer. It is considered as chronic leukemia due to its slow progression pattern, sometimes over a period of years. CML isn't solid tumor that may be removed surgically. Fortunately, prognosis for individuals with CML might be improving due to new medications for treatment of the condition. [read more]

  • Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is an illness wherein cells that normally develop into monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils become cancerous. This is a slow-progressing kind of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative illness where countless white blood cells called myelomonocytes are present in one's bone marrow, and crowds out the normal blood cells. [read more]

  • Chronic Necrotizing Vasculitis
    Chronic necrotizing vasculitis is the destruction and inflammation of “blood vessel walls”, leading to termination of the related tissue. [read more]

  • Chronic Neutropenia
    Chronic neutropenia is a disorder of the blood wherein there is a decreased number of the neutrophils, which has an effect on the ability of the body to battle infection. Neutrophils act as the body's major defense against particular fungal infections and acute bacterial. When their count goes under 1,000 cells for every blood microliter, the danger of infections somewhat increases. [read more]

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the continual obstruction of the brochial airflow, which is usually occurring with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or both. It leads to persistent decrease in airflow rate from one's lungs when they exhale. The disease is second to heart disease, and often affects men than women. [read more]

  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
    Chronic pelvic pain refers to any pain in the pelvic region lasting six months or more. It may be a symptom of another disease, or designated as a condition in its own right. [read more]

  • Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplagia
    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplagia is autosomal recessive mitochondrial defect characterized by mitochondrial DNA deletions found in the skeletal muscle. Persons with the disease usually show signs of ataxia, neuropathy, depression, hearing loss and weakness of the external eye muscles. [read more]

  • Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis
    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is an ailment wherein the bones of a child become painful and inflamed. The condition ‘comes and goes', meaning there can be times when one doesn't have symptoms but experience occasional flare-ups. [read more]

  • Chronic Renal Failure
    Chronic renal failure is the progressive and steady loss of the kidney's capability of excreting waste, concentrating urine, and conserving electrolytes. It's defined as permanent decrease in Glormerular Filtration Rate or GFR. This decrease in GFR is adequate enough to produce noticeable alterations in organ function and well-being. The condition is also known as Chronic Kidney Failure. [read more]

  • Chronic Sinusitis
    Chronic sinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes in the sinuses causing fluid buildup that plugs the sinus cavity and prevents normal mucus drainage. The condition recurs or stays longer than 12 consecutive weeks. [read more]

  • Chronic Spasmodic Dysphonia
    Chronic spasmodic dysphonia is a long-term voice disorder wherein there is an involuntary or excessive laryngeal muscle contraction when talking. The vocal cords' movement is strained and forced resulting in quivery, jerky, tight, groaning, or horse voice. [read more]

  • Chronic Vulvar Pain
    Chronic vulvar pain or Vulvodynia is a pain in the area around the vagina opening that lasts for months. [read more]

  • Churg-Strauss Syndrome
    Churg-Strauss syndrome is among the several types of vasculitis, wherein there's an abnormal over-activation of an asthmatic person's immune system. The syndrome occurs in people having an allergy or asthma history. There is a swelling of the blood vessels in one's lungs, abdomen, nerves, and skin. [read more]

  • Chylous Ascites
    Chylous ascites is an uncommon disorder that involves the drainage blockage of the abdominal lymph glands, resulting in the accumulation of milky chyle in the abdominal cavity. [read more]

  • Cicatricial pemphigoid
    Cicatricial pemphigoid is a comparatively rare blistering disease involving the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, throat, nose, and genitals. The disease is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system generates antibodies that attack certain proteins that attach the epidermal cells to each other. The disrupted connection causes the cell to separate from the skin's lower layers, thus blisters form. [read more]

  • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a type of marine toxin disease connected with eating a contaminated fish. The poisonous component is ciguatoxin. The poison is produced in small quantities by specific algae and other algae-like organisms known as dinoflagellates. Larger fish that are contaminated with ciguatoxin can build up poison to a hazardous level that can make a person sick if ingested. [read more]

  • Cinchonism
    Cinchonism is defined as a pathological disorder involving a prolonged or excessive use of a white-crystalline alkloid component called quinine, or its natural supplier -the cinchona bark. Quinine is primarily used for treating resistant malaria, night-time muscle cramps, as well as can act as an “abortifacient”. It can harmfully affect nearly all body system, the most common being cinchonism or quinine poisoning. [read more]

  • Cirrhosis
    Cirrhosis is the condition in which the liver has incurred severe damages due to inflammation or fibrosis. In this state the liver is already scarred and nodules have formed in and around it. When left untreated cirrhosis can cause death as the liver can no longer deliver its normal functions. [read more]

  • Citrullinemia
    Citrullinemia is defined as a hereditary condition in which the mutations of genes cause ammonia and some other harmful substances to build up in the blood. There are two kinds of Citrullinemia, Type I and Type II. The disorder is categorized under disorders of the urea cycle, which is a series of chemical reactions taking place inside the liver. [read more]

  • Clap
    Clap is a contagious sexually-transmitted disease commonly known as gonorrhea. It is an infectious disease characterized by swelling, pain and abnormal discharge in the genital areas. [read more]

  • Clarkson's disease
    Clarkson's disease, also known as capillary leak syndrome with monoclonal gammopathy is a rare medical disorder characterized by an increased number of certain blood proteins and blood leaking out of the blood vessels. It may develop into plasma cell leukemia when left undiagnosed. [read more]

  • Claudication
    Claudication is a leg pain that is often a symptom of peripheral arterial disease, which is a potentially serious but treatable circulation problem. [read more]

  • Cleft Lip
    Cleft lip is a type of birth defect that happens when a fetus' nose and upper jaw tissues don't attach as expected at the time of fetal development, which results in a cleft or split lip. Generally, cleft lip doesn't lead to health problems and it's treatable. In a few cases, some cleft lip infants have trouble feeding. [read more]

  • Cleft palate
    Cleft palate is a type of congenital defect that results from an abnormal facial development that occurred during the gestation period. It can occur together with a cleft lip. The cleft is defined as a division in the natural structure of the human body. The cleft palate occurs when the two plates of the skull that form the roof of the mouth are divided. The cleft palate can be a complete or incomplete occurrence. . [read more]

  • Cleidocranial Dysplasia
    Cleidocranial dysplasia is an inherited condition that mainly affects bone development. It is distinguished by an absence or incompletely developed collar bones, as well as facial and cranial abnormalities. [read more]

  • Click Murmur Syndrome
    Click-murmur syndrome, also known as Mitral valve prolapse, is a heart disorder in which the valve between the left upper chamber of the heart and its left lower chamber does not close properly. [read more]

  • Clinical Depression
    Clinical depression is a medical illness involving the mind and body, affecting how an individual thinks and behaves. The condition causes various emotional and physical problems and may hinder the individual's usual daily activities. [read more]

  • Cloacal exstrophy
    Cloacal exstrophy is a rare although severe birth defect where most of the abdominal organs, including the bladder and intestines, are exposed. The condition is named so, because the cloaca refers to the area in the embryo which eventually forms into the lower abdominal wall structures. When a child is born with cloacal exstrophy, a part of the large intestines is located outside of the body, and on one side lies the bladder in halves. In males, it occurs that the penis is short and flat, and sometimes cut in half; while with females, the clitoris is also cut in half. The condition may also result in two vaginal openings. [read more]

  • Clostridium Difficile Infection
    Clostridium difficile infection is a contagious disease present among closed spaces such as hospitals. This disease commonly affects the colon causing rectal and gastrointestinal complications. [read more]

  • Clubfoot
    Clubfoot is a congenital defect wherein the foot is inverted and down. It is a common defect, occurring in one in every 1,000 births. The condition more commonly afflicts males than females. When untreated, those who have clubfoot will seem like they are walking on their ankles. [read more]

  • Cluster Headache
    Cluster headache is defined as intense pain felt at one's temple or area surrounding the eye on any side of the head. The pain lasts moderately short, and usually happens in clusters for six- to eight-week period. This disorder is comparatively rare, and mostly affects men above thirty years old. [read more]

  • CMV Antenatal Infection
    CMV antenatal infection is an uncommon disorder wherein a fetus is infected with cytomegalovirus through its mother. Cytomegalovirus or CMV originates from a virus of the same name, belonging to herpes family. This infection can be passed on through human contact. [read more]

  • Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis
    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis or Black Lung Disease is an illness that affects the lungs, wherein coal dust deposits spread throughout the organ resulting from prolonged inhalation of coal dust. Coal dust can block airways. The disease develops into more serious illness called progressive massive fibrosis. [read more]

  • Coats Disease
    Coats disease is an uncommon eye condition that causes partial or full blindness. It is distinguished by an abnormal growth of blood vessels at the back of the retina, causing retinal detachment. [read more]

  • Coccidiodomycosis
    Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungus. [read more]

  • Coccidioidomycosis
    Coccidioidomycosis is an infectious condition brought about by fungus known as coccidioides immitis found in soil. The disease affects the skin and lungs, and is distinguished by too much nodules and sputum. It may occur as a severe or mild, progressive infections spreading all through one's body. Coccidioidomycosis' progressive form can often be fatal. [read more]

  • Cockayne's Syndrome
    Cockayne's syndrome is defined as an uncommon genetic disorder involving ‘progressive multisystem degeneration'. The DNA or genetic material inside body cells is harmed by ultraviolet radiation. Generally, the body is able to repair the damaged DNA, but individuals with the syndrome are deficient of this ability. [read more]

  • Coeliac Disease
    Celiac disease, or coeliac disease, is an illness that affects various organs in the body. In this condition, the body responds negatively to a certain kind of protein that interferes with absorption of nutrients, causing developmental delay and dysfunctional body organs. [read more]

  • Coffin-Lowry Syndrome
    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is an uncommon genetic condition linked with delayed development and mental retardation. It is also distinguished by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. Males are typically more extremely affected compared to females. The syndrome is inherited in a pattern known as X-linked. [read more]

  • Coffin-Siris Syndrome
    Coffin-Siris syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder distinguished by absent or underdeveloped toenails and fifth finger, as well as coarse features of the face. [read more]

  • Cogan Syndrome
    Cogan syndrome is defined as a rheumatic disease that may lead to hearing loss, dizziness, and vision difficulty. The syndrome can also be linked to blood-vessel swelling in other parts of the body; this may cause damage of major organs and even death. [read more]

  • Cohen Syndrome
    Cohen syndrome is an uncommon genetic condition characterized by obesity, prominent frontal teeth, and decreased muscle tone. In some individuals, there is a low level of white blood cells. Its transmission is in an autosomal recessive manner with variable expression. [read more]

  • Cold Agglutinin Disease
    Cold agglutinin disease is a form of hemolytic anemia, wherein there is a decrease in the levels of red blood cells caused by malfunction of the body's immune system. The body mistakenly creates antibodies that destroy healthy red blood cells during cold temperatures. Red blood cells normally have a 120-day lifespan before being disposed by the body's spleen; however, in people with the disease, they are prematurely destroyed and production in bone marrow can't compensate for the loss. [read more]

  • Cold Contact Urticaria
    Cold contact urticaria is defined as a long-term or chronic condition in which the skin forms hives that become very itchy and red when exposed to cold. The hives are generated through rapid histamine release caused by eosinophils and IgE antibodies in response to cold stimulus. Rapid cooling from evaporation after an individual gets out from the swimming pool may trigger the condition even during warm days. [read more]

  • Cold Sores In Children
    Cold sores in children are blisters that appear on the corners of the mouth that result to painful lesions and irritating discomfort. These blisters are caused by the herpes virus. [read more]

  • Colibacillosis
    Colibacillosis is an infection brought about by the Escherichia coli, or E. coli bacteria. [read more]

  • Colic
    Colic is the condition wherein babies seem to cry and fuss a lot despite of the fact that they are perfectly healthy, well-fed and well taken care of; one of the most worrisome and difficult problems in infancy that is very disappointing for parents; usually common in both breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. [read more]

  • Colitis
    Colitis is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract primarily distinguished by colon inflammation. The disease causes sores and swellings, known as ulcers, in the large intestines' top layer lining. [read more]

  • Collagenous Colitis
    Collagenous colitis is an inflammatory bowel disorder, causing chronic ‘watery diarrhea'. It is also referred to as microscopic colitis, as there's no sign of swelling on the colon's swelling when viewed with colonoscopy. [read more]

  • Collapsed Lung
    It is a condition in which a lung or both lungs collapse due to air pressure that leaks into the chest cavity. [read more]

  • Coloboma, Ocular
    Coloboma, Ocular is an uncommon chromosomal disorder that involves Chromosome 22 abnormalities. The eye has a hole in one of its structures, such as in the lens, iris, eyelid, optic disc, retina, or choroids. The disorder is inborn, and may be due to a gap known as choroids fissure in between the eye's two structures. This gap exists early during development inside the uterus, failing to completely close before an infant is born. It can affect both or only one of the eyes. [read more]

  • Colon Cancer
    Colon cancer is malignancy (cancer) of the large intestine; which is the lower part of the digestive system; usually starting as small, benign cell appearing in clusters known as adenomatous polyps. [read more]

  • Colon polyps
    Colon polyps are small clusters of cells that form on the colon lining. Even though this condition is not harmful it can also develop as cancer over a period of time. [read more]

  • Colon Polyps
    Colon polyps is a clump of cells on the colon lining. [read more]

  • Colonic Ischemia
    Colonic ischemia is a medical condition mostly found in adults at 50 years of age or older. It is a condition in which the colon is inflamed and injured. The condition is also called ischemic colitis. [read more]

  • Color blindness
    Color blindness or otherwise color vision deficiency is characterized as the ability of the individual to perceive and distinguish color differences. This medical condition is mostly genetic in nature, and can also be due to certain eye, brain and nerve damage as well as exposure to harmful chemicals. Some individuals with color blindness have normal vision but simply have difficulty in distinguishing color variance. [read more]

  • Colorado tick fever
    Colorado tick fever (CTF) is defined as a tick-borne viral illness that was largely suffered by humans in the United States. This medical condition is usually caused by an infection that is directly related to the Colorado tick fever virus, which is recorded to be a type of Coltivirus genera.. [read more]

  • Colorectal Cancer
    Colorectal cancer is the medical term for both colon cancer and rectal cancer. The former is cancer of the colon, while the latter is cancer of the colon's last 6 inches. [read more]

  • Coma
    Coma is a state in which an individual is unconscious for a prolonged length of time due to a variety of problems such as a stroke, traumatic head injury, brain tumor, or an underlying illness such as an infection or diabetes. [read more]

  • Combined hyperlipidemia, familial
    Familial combined hyperlipidemia is categorized as a disorder brought about by abnormally high levels of high blood triglycerides and cholesterol. This type of medical condition is typically passed down or an inherited disorder through family generations. [read more]

  • common cold
    A common cold is characterized as an infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, throat and nose. This condition is usually harmless and is known to be self-limiting. There are about 200 viruses that are known to cause common colds, making this condition highly prevalent among adults and children alike. [read more]

  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency
    Common Variable Immunodeficiency is type of disorder that is characterized by extremely low levels of serum immunoglobulin or what is known as antibodies as well as the increased susceptibility to infections. The underlying cause if this medical condition is not known, but is known to be a relatively common type of immunodeficiency. [read more]

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a respiratory tract illness in which the alveoli in the lungs are filled with water, making the oxygen unable to enter the lungs for respiration. It is a common disease among the elderly, but it can affect people of all ages. [read more]

  • Compartment syndrome
    Compartment syndrome is categorized as an acute medical disorder that usually develops after surgery and injury, where the increase in pressure that is usually caused by inflammation within the body's fascial compartment. Without prompt treatment, this condition can lead to muscle death and nerve damage. [read more]

  • Complex regional pain syndrome
    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is categorized as a highly uncommon and chronic condition that typically affects the patient's leg or arm. Seldom, the disease may spread and affect other areas of the body. The very nature of this medical condition is this not clearly understood up this day. [read more]

  • Complicated Grief
    Complicated grief is painful, complicate, and debilitating reaction to grief caused by distress and other emotional experiences. [read more]

  • Compulsive Gambling
    Compulsive gambling is an impulse-control disorder in which an individual cannot resist the temptation to perform a harmful act to oneself or another individual. [read more]

  • Compulsive Hoarding Syndrome
    Compulsive hoarding syndrome is an individual's excessive collection of items that may or may not have value and inability to inability to discard these things. [read more]

  • Compulsive Overeating
    Compulsive overeating is a condition in which an individual cannot resist the regular consumption of unusually large amounts of food. It is also called binge-eating disorder. [read more]

  • Compulsive Sexual Behavior
    Compulsive sexual behavior is an individual's preoccupation and overwhelming urge for sex. It is also called hypersexuality, nymphomania, or erotomania. [read more]

  • Compulsive Skin Picking
    Compulsive Skin Picking or Dermatillomania is an obsessive compulsive disorder characterized by the urge to repetitively pick one's own skin resulting to damage to the skin and skin bleeding; which is often followed by depression or hopelessness when the damage has been done to the skin. [read more]

  • Compulsive Stealing
    Compulsive stealing or kleptomania is a serious mental disorder in which an individual cannot resist the urge to steal items often with little value. [read more]

  • Concussion
    Concussion is a condition that interferes with how the brain works affecting a person's memory, speech, judgment, balance, and coordination. [read more]

  • Conduct Disorder
    Conduct disorder is the most severe psychiatric disorder usually affecting children and adolescents involving persistent antisocial behavior violating the rights of others; characterized by activities such as stealing, truancy, substance abuse, and vandalism. These behavior patterns are usually exhibited at home, school, and even in social functions and causes significant impairment the family, social, and academic performance of the child or adolescent. [read more]

  • conductive hearing loss
    A conductive hearing loss is characterized as one that greatly affects the ear structures that is used to conduct the sound into the person's inner ear, which include both the outer and middle ear. Infections in the middle ear are among the most common causes of this hearing impairment. [read more]

  • Condyloma
    Condyloma is more popularly known as genetal wart, categorized as a sexually transmitted disease that has external manifestations most particularly in the genitalia and anal area. Internal warts grow on the cervix and the upper vagina as well as in the male urethra. The lesions usually appear raised and pinkish in color but do not usually produce any other symptom. [read more]

  • Condyloma acuminatum
    Condyloma acuminatum is more popularly known as genital warts and is largely categorized as a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus. The estimated incubation period of this disease is approximately three months and is known to be highly contagious. The warts usually grow on the perianal and vulva areas, the cervix and vagina walls as well as the penis shaft for males. Lesions appear to be wart like and can be easily recognizable upon application of acetic acid or vinegar during examination. [read more]

  • Cone dystrophy
    Cone dystrophy is categorized as a genetic form of blindness which typically results in the impairment of the patient's photoreceptor cone cells, which is an essential part of the human vision. [read more]

  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is characterized by a number of genetic conditions that directly affects the adrenal glands. This medical condition can significantly interfere with normal development and growth among children. This includes the normal development of the patient's genitals, both affecting men and women. [read more]

  • Congenital afibrinogenemia
    Congenital afibrinogenemia is categorized as an extremely rare disorder that involves the inability to produce fibrinogen, an essential element of the blood clotting process. This is considered as an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Congenital Amaurosis
    Congenital amaurosis is another name for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). It is a degenerative eye disease characterized by the inflammation of the retinal ganglion cells. This condition may lead to permanent loss of vision. [read more]

  • Congenital amputation
    Congenital amputation is characterized as the absence of a fetal part or limb at birth. This congenital condition is said to be a result of possible constriction of the fibrous bands inside the membrane surrounding the fetus. It can also be due to the exposure to certain substances that are known to cause birth defects. Genetics can also play a factor. [read more]

  • Congenital antithrombin III deficiency
    Congenital antithrombin III deficiency is defined as the lack of the potent inhibitor for the coagulation cascade. This is categorized as a non-vitamin K-dependent protease that is known to exhibit the coagulation through lysing factor and thrombin. This type of deficiency is categorized as an autosomal dominant disorder that an infant can inherit through a copy of a defective gene. For severe congenital antithrombin III deficiency, the neonate has inherited 2 types of defective genes and is often easily noted during infancy stage. [read more]

  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome
    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, or CCHS, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease is characterized by an impairment or absence in the body's automatic control for breathing. The patient's body forgets to breathe, even during sleep. The symptoms for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can be mild or severe, but typical symptoms include abnormal pupils, which occur in 70% of cases; poor breathing functions especially during sleep, lack of spontaneous breathing, and bluish color in lips, nails, and skin due to breathing problems. Half of the patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can breathe almost normally when they are awake; however, it is during sleep when they encounter difficulty breathing. Other characteristics to watch out for when diagnosing one with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome are: no muscular or respiratory problems that may cause the breathing difficulty; no heart disease; consistent poor breathing during sleep, and that the symptoms are noticed when the child is less than a year old and continues. Early diagnosis of the disease is important, because when it goes undetected, this may result in death. Once it is determined that a patient has congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, they can seek treatment for the disease. Prior to treatment, the patient will undergo a variety of tests, among the first will determine the severity of the problem. Other tests will determine the respiratory aspects of the disease, as well as neurological and cardiac tests. During the course of treatment, the patient will use breathing support apparatus, such a respirator. Some children may need to use it for 24 hours of the day. In more severe cases, patients undergo surgery that will allow them to use a surgical implant that provides electrical stimulation to the diaphragm muscle to help improve breathing. Studies show that genetics plays a role in the occurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Research also shows that since 20% of the cases are accompanied by Hirschsprung disease, that there is an underlying connection that can be found in the genetics of the patients. Children born with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can still lead normal and active lives; however, extra supervision is needed during certain activities such as swimming when the body can forget to breathe when in the water. [read more]

  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM) is categorized as a highly distinct entity, which was discovered way back in 1949. CAM is characterized as a developmental hamartomatous, an abnormality of the lung that comes with an adenomatoid abundance of cysts that resemble bronchioles. [read more]

  • Congenital deafness
    Congenital deafness may or may not be inherited or genetic in nature. It can also be dues to the exposure of the pregnant mother to infections such as the rubella virus. Roughly about 80% of the congenital deafness cases that are-syndromatic, which are highly heterogeneous but the mutations in the Connexin 26 molecules usually account to almost half of the patients. [read more]

  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is the medical term used to refer to a number of different congenital birth defects that usually involve the highly abnormal development of the child's diaphragm. Among the most common deformity in majority of the cases is malformation of the diaphragm. Newborns with CDH typically suffer from severe respiratory pain which is considered as a life-threatening case unless treatment is administered appropriately. [read more]

  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
    The congenital erythropoietic porphyria is categorized as an extremely rare case of autosomal recessive condition, and is more popularly known as Gunther's disease. This serious medical condition is a cause of various gene mutations in which the symptoms are known to development as early as the infancy stage. Congenital erythropoietic porphyries is often marked a cause of the patient's anemia among fetus even before birth. [read more]

  • Congenital facial diplegia
    Congenital facial diplegia or more popularly known as Mobius syndrome is categorized as an extremely rare genetic disorder that causes facial paralysis among newborn babies. This is known to be caused by the underdevelopment of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves that are known to control the facial expression and eye movements. [read more]

  • Congenital heart disease
    Congenital heart disoder is a kind of heart ailment diagnosed in newborns, and usually includes some structural defects that often lead to arrhythmia as well as the possible malfunctioning of the heart muscles. This disease normally appears when the heart of the fetus is not able to function properly because of incomplete development or some irregular structure of the valves. [read more]

  • Congenital heart septum defect
    Congenital heart septum defects one of the most common types of heart disorders that involves the septum and diagnosed at birth. This defect is characterized by a hole in the wall of the infant's heart that divides the left and right chambers and allows the blood to freely flow through that hole. [read more]

  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis
    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an extremely rare form of hereditary disorder that is characterized by the detection of a periportal fibrosis with some marked unevenly shaped producing bile ducts, as well as esophageal varices and intrahepatic portal hypertension. Congenital hepatic fibrosis is often associated with renal function disorder that is typically due to an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. [read more]

  • Congenital herpes simplex
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the highly identified common infection carriers among humans of all ages. This type of virus usually occurs globally and produces a large variety of illnesses such as infections of the CNS, mucocutaneous infections, as well and sporadically infections affecting the visceral organs. [read more]

  • Congenital hip Dysplasia
    Congenital hip dysplasia is abnormal formation of the hip joint wherein the ball on top of the thighbone is not stable in the socket that is present since birth, which is characterized by irregularity of leg positions, asymmetric fat folds, and reduced movement in the affected side. [read more]

  • Congenital hypothyroidism
    Congenital hypothyroidism is also medically referred to as endemic cretinism which is characterized by the inadequate production of thyroid hormone among newborn infants. This typically occurs due to an anatomic defect in the infant's gland, which is categorized as an inborn defect of iodine deficiency or thyroid metabolism. [read more]

  • Congenital ichthyosis
    Congenital ichthyosis is primarily characterized by the deep thickening of an infant's keratin layer of the skin. Babies with this medical condition usually have massive, horny and plate-like scales with marked abnormalities of the ears, eyes, mouth, as well as appendages. This type of armor significantly limits the movement as well as compromises the protective barrier of the skin, and makes infants more susceptible to infection and metabolic abnormalities. [read more]

  • Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis
    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a identified as an extremely rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the nervous system, preventing the sensations of cold, heat and pain. An individual afflicted with CIPA will not be able to detect pain or even differentiate intense temperatures. [read more]

  • Congenital Megacolon
    Congenital megacolon is more popularly known as the Hirschsprung's disease, which is characterized by a congenital deficiency of nerves in a certain part of the colon. This is usually detected in neonates during the very first 24-hours of the infant's life. This disorder generally causes constipation and difficulty in bowel movements, which can possible develop to stool blockage in the intestine. [read more]

  • Congenital mesoblastic nephroma
    Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is a type of tumor of the kidney that is usually detected before birth through ultrasound, typically during the first three months of fetal development. The tumor contains fibroblastic cells or the connective cell tissues and may continue to spread to the other kidney or neighboring tissues. This congenital disorder has been found to be more prevalent among males. [read more]

  • Congenital microvillus atrophy
    Congenital microvillus atrophy is identified to be one of the leading causes of secretory diarrhea during the infant's first weeks of life. A The medical term microvillus atrophy was initially used to categorize the disease way back in 1982. The typical clinical presentation of congenital microvillus atrophy includes the profuse watery secretory diarrhea that usually starts in the first few hours of life. [read more]

  • Congenital Myopathy
    Congenital myopathy is characterized by a muscle disorder that is already present at birth, and this includes a great number of highly distinct neuromuscular syndromes and disorders. In most cases, congenital myopathies do not display any evidence of progressive dystrophic progress or any inflammations. This comes with the marked muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone that significantly delays motor development of babies such as learning how to walk. [read more]

  • Congenital nephrotic syndrome
    Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the kidney and is characterized by the presence of protein in the urine. This is a rare form of disease that is usually seen among Finnish families. This condition is primarily caused by nephrin in the kidney. [read more]

  • Congenital rubella
    Congenital rubella usually affects the developing fetus during pregnancy when the mother is exposed to the rubella virus, especially the first trimester, as this is known to be highly crucial stage. [read more]

  • Congenital Syphilis
    Congenital syphilis is an intense, disabling, and frequently life-threatening infection reported in infants. Syphilis may be spread through an infected pregnant woman's placenta and pass on to the unborn child. Almost fifty percent of the children infected with the disease at the time of development die shortly prior or after their birth. [read more]

  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
    Congenital toxoplasmosis is defined as a set of symptoms and traits caused by fetus infection with an organism called Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually mild for the mother, and might not even be evident. However, the infected fetus can be the cause of many problems. Early pregnancy infection results in serious health troubles compared to getting the disease later in pregnancy. [read more]

  • Congestive Heart Disease
    Congestive heart disease is a disorder that may result from any type of functional or structural disease, which impairs the heart's ability to pump or fill sufficient quantity of blood all through the body. The term “congestive” is taken from blood ‘backing up' or ‘congesting' into the abdomen, liver, lungs, and lower extremities. [read more]

  • Conjoined Twins
    Conjoined twins are identical twins that have failed to completely separate into two individuals usually joined at the chest, head, or pelvis. Some may even share one or more internal organs. [read more]

  • Conjunctivitis
    Conjunctivitis is an infection or inflammation of the eyelids' membrane lining known as conjunctiva. This tissue aids in maintaining the eyeball and eyelid moist. The disease is among the most treatable and widespread infections in adults and children. It is also frequently called “pink eye”. [read more]

  • Conn's Syndrome
    Conn's syndrome is an infection of the adrenal glands, wherein there is too much ‘aldosterone' hormone secretion. The hormone is responsible for regulation of chief bodily functions, for instance blood pressure, correct electrolyte balance, and secondary water retention. The excessive secretion increases potassium loss and raises sodium re-absorption. The condition is also known as primary hyperaldosteronism. [read more]

  • Constipation
    Constipation is one of the most common problems in the digestive system characterized by infrequent bowel movements, passing hard stools, and straining when moving a bowel resulting to feeling bloated, lethargic, and feelings of discomfort or pain. [read more]

  • Constipation In Children
    Constipation in children is a condition where children find it difficult to defecate. This is characterized by hard solid stool and stiff bowel movement. [read more]

  • Constitutional Growth Delay
    Constitutional growth delay or CGD is used to define the temporary delay in growth of the skeletal system, resulting to pubertal delay and short stature. Children with CGD have normal birth length and weight, but at one point of their growing years, there is a slow down in development. Some teens have normal growth rate as younger kids, but lag behind and do not begin pubertal development and growth spurt like most teens. Individuals with CGD are often referred to as “late bloomers”. [read more]

  • Contact Dermatitis
    Contact dermatitis is a skin condition showing a red, itchy rash resulting from direct contact with certain substances such as cosmetics, soap, jewelry, or weeds including poison ivy or poison oak. [read more]

  • Contact Lens Solution Toxicity
    Contact lens solution toxicity generally refers to the eye conditions that develop due to unwanted reactions to contact lens solutions. This type of reaction if often categorized as a form of allergy and is inflammatory in nature. [read more]

  • Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity Syndrome
    Continuous muscle fiber activity syndrome, also known as neuromyotonia, is a rare illness characterized by abnormal movements of the muscles due to impaired impulses at the peripheral nervous system. These abnormal impulses may continue even during one's sleep. Long term cramps, muscle pain and stiffness may be encountered at random instances, making it difficult for the muscles to relax. [read more]

  • Conversion Disorder
    Conversion disorder is defined as a psychiatric disorder wherein people convey emotional distress through ‘physical' manifestations and symptoms. The symptoms appear involuntarily, while medical examination doesn't explain any clear-defined root of the dysfunction. [read more]

  • Cooley's Anemia
    Cooley's anemia, also called Thassalemia, is a hereditary blood disorder distinguished by less number of red blood cells and less hemoglobin in the body. Due to the decreased amount of red blood cells, the condition leads to anemia. [read more]

  • Copper Transport Disease
    Copper transport disease is a hereditary disorder involving copper metabolism, passed on as X-linked trait. Copper builds up at unusually low levels in the brain and liver, but higher level than normal in the intestinal lining and kidney. [read more]

  • Coproporhyria
    Coproporhyria, also known as Porphria, is a term used to define a set of hereditary disorders arising from troubles in the body's manufacture of a substance identified as ‘heme'. Heme is present in each body tissue. The body utilizes enzymes to transform ‘porphyrins' into heme. When one of the enzymes has an inherited deficiency, the process of transformation is interrupted. This causes porphyrins to accumulate in one's body, which in turn leads to the symptoms of Coproporhyria. [read more]

  • Cor Pulmonale
    Cor pulmonale as defined, is a change in function and structure of the heart's right ventricle resulting from a respiratory system disorder. It is a condition wherein the heart's right side fails, caused by lengthened high blood pressure in right ventricle and pulmonary artery. [read more]

  • Corneal Abrasion
    A corneal abrasion is characterized by a very painful scratch or scrape on the surface of the cornea. This is the transparent window covering the iris, which is the circular colored portion of the eye. Since the cornea has nerve endings just below the surface, even the slightest damage on the surface can be very painful. [read more]

  • Corneal Dystrophy
    Corneal dystrophy is defined as a disorder wherein one or more portions of the eye's cornea lose normal clarity, resulting from an increase of a cloudy material. There are more than twenty types of corneal dystrophies affecting all parts of a cornea, including keratoconus, Fuch's dystrophy, lattice dystrophy, and map-dot fingerprint dystrophy. [read more]

  • Corneal Erosion, Recurrent
    Recurrent corneal erosion is characterized by a disorder that affects the eyes. This condition is caused by the failure of the epithelial cells in the cornea to attach to the underlying basement membrane. Patients would usually feel frequent pain and loss of the cells that ultimately causes the exposure of the cornea. [read more]

  • Corneal Foreign Body
    A corneal foreign body typically occurs when the person's cornea has a certain piece of foreign matter that is lodged in it. Among the most common foreign bodies identified include paint chips, metal and wood debris, dust particles and plant materials. [read more]

  • Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a very uncommon disorder that involves delayed physical growth, as well as a variety of malformations of the face, limbs, and head. The traits of this condition vary expansively among affected people, and differ from fairly mild to serious. [read more]

  • Corns
    Corns are primarily characterized by the small and often very rough mounds of dead skin that usually forms between and on the toes. These are usually hard, firm and have a waxy core that bores down into the skin of the toes and pressing into the underlying nerves and tissues, causing extreme pain. [read more]

  • Coronary Artery Disease
    Coronary artery disease is the obstruction of blood flow through the coronary arteries. [read more]

  • Coronary Heart Disease
    Coronary heart disease is a condition in which the arteries responsible for supplying blood to the heart muscle, harden and narrow. This is the result of a plaque on its inner walls. This plaque leads to less blood flow throughout the arteries, which in turn causes the heart muscle to not get the oxygen it requires. The condition is also known as ‘Coronary Artery Disease'. [read more]

  • Corpus Callosum Agenesis
    Corpus callosum agenesis is an uncommon congenital disorder, wherein there's a partial or complete absence of an area of the brain that connects its two cerebral hemispheres known as ‘corpus callosum'. [read more]

  • Cortical dysplasia
    Cortical dysplasia is a congenital disorder characterized by the failure of neurons usually found near the brain's celebral cortex to migrate in the proper formation in utero, causing the neurons to grow larger than normal. This is found to result to disorganization of the normal structure of the cerebral cortex, causing seizures and developmental delays. [read more]

  • Corticobasal degeneration
    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is an incurable neurological disorder that manifests itself through muscle rigidity and speech problems. Symptoms usually begin surfacing when patients reach 60 years old, affecting one side of the body and eventually progressing to both sides in 6 to 8 years. It may affect speech first before interfering with muscle movement. [read more]

  • Costello Syndrome
    An extremely rare disease with only 200 to 300 cases reported worldwide, Costello Syndrome is a genetic abnormality that slows down development and causes mental retardation. Patients share the same facial features, with loose skin and flexible joints, and are more prone to develop certain diseases like heart abnormalities, non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, and cell carcinoma. Individuals affected by this condition are relatively short and may possess lesser levels of growth hormones. [read more]

  • Costochondritis
    Costochondritis (or Costal chondritis) is a mild inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. It is also called Tietze's syndrome after the German surgeon who first described the disorder, Alexander Tietze. Depending on the severity of the case, swelling may or may not be present in the cartilage. It causes sharp pain, not unlike that of a heart attack. [read more]

  • Costosternal Chondrodynia
    Costosternal chondrodynia is also referred to as costosternal syndrome, costochondritis, or chest wall pain. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Costosternal Syndrome
    Costosternal syndrome is also referred to as costosternal chondrodynia, costochondritis, or chest wall pain. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Cot Death
    Cot death, also known as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is an unexplained death among infants ranging from 1 to 12 months old. This condition is common among infants with low birth weight. [read more]

  • Cote Adamopoulos Pantelakis syndrome
    Cote Adampoulos Pantelakis syndrome is a disease that develops before birth causing multiple joint contractures and characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis. It is a rare disorder affecting the jaw, spine, shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, hips, knees, ankles, feet and toes. These contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness, limiting movements further. [read more]

  • Couvade Syndrome
    Couvade syndrome is also known as sympathetic pregnancy, pregnant dad syndrome, and male pregnancy experience is a condition wherein the expectant father is experiencing some of the physical pregnancy symptoms prior the birth of the baby. The condition is usually common in first-time fathers; however there are also cases involving fathers who had previous children. [read more]

  • Cowden's disease
    The genetic disorder Cowden's disease causes the tumor-like growths called hamartomas to develop on one's skin or mucous membranes. Noncancerous and small, this may also grow in various areas of the body including the intestinal tract. Patients with Cowden syndrome are much more likely to contact uterus cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer. [read more]

  • Cowpox
    Cowpox or catpox is now an uncommon skin disease caused by a virus called cowpox that is transmitted by touching infected animals. In the 18th century, the disease was contracted when a person touches the udders of cow that are infected. Today, however, this disease that causes hands to develop postular lesions and the skin to have red blisters is usually transmitted by touching cats, hence it is also called cat pox. Interestingly, the cowpox virus proved to be useful in the past two centuries when it became the first vaccine for the smallpox. [read more]

  • Coxsackievirus Infection
    Coxsackievirus infection, also known as the Keshan disease, is an inflammation of the heart due to the Coxsackie virus. When not treated, the disease can be fatal. It is an illness endemic in some parts of rural China. Research studies have also shown that the disease is triggered by low selenium levels in the body. Selenium supplements are likewise administered to treat the disease. [read more]

  • Cranial Arteritis
    Cranial arteritis is a condition in which the lining of the arteries is inflamed. Affect arteries may be in the neck, upper body and arms, but usually occurs in the head especially the arteries in the temples. The condition is also called giant cell arteritis, temporal arteritis, or granulomatous arteritis. [read more]

  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia
    Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD or lionitis) is an uncommon hereditary autosomal recessive bone disorder characterized by deposits of calcium in the skull, causing the size of cranial foramina and the hole in the cervical spinal canal to shrink. This deforms facial features of the patients, who in most cases die at an early age. [read more]

  • Craniofacial dysostosis
    Craniofacial dysostosis is a disorder that was first described by a French doctor named Octave Crouzon. The doctor found out that the patients who are affected by the disorder are a mom-and-daughter tandem, suggesting that craniofacial dysostosis is of genetic basis. [read more]

  • Craniofrontonasal Dysplasia
    Craniofrontonasal dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal structure of the head and face, as well as the hands, feet and some skeletal bones. Among the symptoms of the disorder are widely spaced eyes, a cleft structure on the nose, an abnormally wide mouth, deformities in the fingers and toes, and sometimes underdeveloped parts of the face. The skull may as well suffer from certain malformations due to the premature joining of the sutures. It is currently described as an autosomal dominant disorder. [read more]

  • Craniostenosis
    Craniostenosis is the disorder wherein an infant's or child's skull sutures close prematurely thereby interrupting normal skull growth and brain development. [read more]

  • Craniosynostosis
    Craniosynostosis is a condition that arises when one or more sutures that join the skull of an infant or child close(s) prematurely, resulting to complications in normal growth of the skull and brain. It can cause craniostenosis, a skull deformity, and increased intracranial pressure. It affects one in 1,800 to 2,200 infants. [read more]

  • CREST syndrome (Calcinosis Raynaud's Esophagus Sclerodactyly Telangiectasia)
    CREST syndrome (Calcinosis Raynaud's Esophagus Sclerodactyly Telangiectasia) is a disorder caused by a glitch in our connective tissues, the substance found outside our cells that hold the tissues and organs of our bodies together. It can be a benign condition that won't affect our bodily functions, yet in some cases it can be serious and fatal. A subset of sleroderma, it causes problems in the skin and blood vessels, and in extreme cases, lungs, digestive tract or heart. [read more]

  • Cretinism
    When not remedied, congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones causes cretinism, a disorder characterized by extremely stunted physical and mental growth. [read more]

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    The fatal and rare denerative brain disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by proteins called prions that multiply exponentially by refolding native proteins to infected state. Disrupting cell function, CJD results to cell death, rapid and progressive dementia, loss of memory, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Death can occur in as little as four months after the onset of the first symptoms. [read more]

  • Cri du chat
    Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic abnormality caused by the partial deletion of the chromosome number 5. Its name is French for cry or call of the cat in reference to the meowing sound the infant makes when crying, a manifestation of the infant's larynx and nervous system problems. [read more]

  • Crib Death
    Crib Death, which is also called as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or cot death, is the sudden and unexplained death of a healthy baby that occurs while sleeping. [read more]

  • Crigler Najjar Syndrome
    Crigler Najjar Syndrome (CNS) is a serious disorder that interferes with the metabolism of bilirubin, a chemical formed from the breakdown of blood, usually afflicting new borns. This causes an inherited form of non-hemolytic jaundice, which may often result to brain damage in infants. [read more]

  • Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever
    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever It is the viral haemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group though it is mainly a zoonosis, erratic cases and outbreaks of CCHF can also affect humans. [read more]

  • Crohn's Disease
    Crohn's disease is a chronic, inflammatory disorder most usually affecting the gastrointestinal tract. It can constrict the bowel and thus cause bowel obstruction, make abnormal passageway between the bowel and other body parts such as the skin, and result to inflammation without causing strictures or fistulae. Among the parts afflicted with this disorder are the ileum and the large intestine, as well as any part of the digestive system including the mouth and the anus. [read more]

  • Cronkhite-Canada disease
    The rare syndrome Cronkhite-Canada is a disorder prevalent among individuals 50 to 60 years old and characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in our digestive tract. The polyps affect the large intestine, stomach, small intestine and esophagus, causing gastrointestinal disturbances, malnutrition, malabsorption and even colorectal cancer. The polyps are hamartomas, growths which are often non-cancerous. [read more]

  • Croup
    Croup refers to diseases of the respiratory system which are caused by inflamed upper airway. Characterized by sneeze and barking cough, vomiting, nausea, fever and high pitch sound the child makes when inhaling, Croup is often a benign condition that is treatable at home. Croup diseases are spasmotic croup, laryngotracheobronchopneumitis, acute laryngotracheitis, laryngeal diptheria and laryngotracheobronchitis. Laryngotracheobronchopneumitis and laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by bacterial infection and often severe. [read more]

  • Crouzon Syndrome
    The hereditary disorder Crouzon syndrome arises when the bones of a baby's skull and face close early or are incapable of expanding. This abnormal bone development is caused by disturbances in the development of the branchial arches and leads to malformation of the skull and facial features. Typically, individuals with Crouzon syndrome have low-lying ears and malformed ear canals that cause hearing loss. [read more]

  • Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome
    Crouzondermoskeletal syndrome is a rare disorder not unlike Crouzon syndrome because it is caused by specific bones in our skull that join prematurely. It is distinguished from Crouzon syndrome by other disorders that also afflict patients with Crouzondermoskeletal, such as skin condition acanthosis nigricans, which is characterized by dark and thick skin in our body folds, changes in the vertebrae on x-rays, and the probable development of noncancerous cementomas during adulthood.. [read more]

  • Crow-Fukase Syndrome
    The rare medical condition called Crow-Fukase syndrome is also called POEMS syndrome after the clinical features that distinguish it from other diseases – Polyneuropathy (peripheral nerve damage), Organomegaly (abnormal enlargement of organs), Endocrinopathy (damage to hormone-producing glands)/Edema, M-protein (an abnormal antibody) and Skin abnormalities (including hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis). [read more]

  • Cryoglobulinemia
    The precipitation of the proteins called cryoglobulins in low temperature can cause serious health problems for some people. The condition is called cryoglobulinemia and it occurs when there are huge deposits of cryoglobuline in the blood, damaging organs and causing illness. It could be linked to multiple myeloma, liver disease, lymphoma, and infection. More women are afflicted with the disease. [read more]

  • Cryptococcosis
    Cryptococcosis is an infection arising from the inhalation of the soil contaminated with fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is characterized by pulmonary infection, meningitis, viscera, pneumonia as well other organ disorders. Disorders such as AIDS and Hodgkin's disease increase the risk of acquiring cryptococcosis. In fact, it used to be a rare infection before the start of AIDS epidemic. [read more]

  • Cryptorchidism
    Cryptorchidism, also referred to as undescended testicle, is a condition in which the testes did not completely descend into the scrotum. [read more]

  • Cryptosporidiosis
    Cryptosporidiosis is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract characterized predominantly by diarrhea usually starting when a tiny one-celled parasite called Cryptosporidium enter the body and travel and hollow out in the small intestinal wall and force out of the body by means of feces. [read more]

  • Cryptosporidium Infection
    Cryptosporidium infection is a gastrointestinal disease. [read more]

  • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
    The cubital tunnel syndrome is a nerve disorder wherein stiffness and pain occurs in the cubital tunnel, or the ulnar nerves. Pain is severely felt at the back part of the elbow, which is commonly known as the funny bone. [read more]

  • Currarino's triad
    Currarino's triad is characterized as a complex malformation that typically consist of anorectal and sacral defects as well as the formation presacral mass. Imaging would often show some sacral bony malformations and may be associated to some urological abnormalities of the neurogenic bladder or vesicouretereric reflux. [read more]

  • Cushing's Syndrome
    Cushing's Syndrome is also known by other medical terms such as hyperadrenocorticism and hypercortisolism, which is characterized as an endocrine disorder that is primarily caused by the high levels of cortisol in the patient's blood. There are a number of underlying causes and medical conditions that triggers Cushing's Syndrome such as ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenal hyperplasia, and iatrogenic or use of steroid. This disease is also quite common among dogs and horses, often characterized as the deposition of fat in the body. [read more]

  • Cutaneous anthrax
    Cutaneous anthrax was once known as a rather obscure disease is now a household name, largely owing to the media hype since it was used bioterrorism agents in the past. There are three different types of anthrax: gastronintestinal, inhalational and cutaneous. Anthrax is actually categorized as a zoonotic disease, which means, it mainly affects animals and not humans. This disease can be contracted through handling contaminated excrement from the infected animals. [read more]

  • Cutaneous Horn
    A cutaneous horn, is also medically known as cornu cutaneum, which primarily refers to a partcular appearance of skin lesions that is manifested by a cone-shaped protuberance that arises on the skin. This is usually caused by an overgrowth of the superficial layer of skin or the epidermis. Although it may appear as a lesion, a cutaneous horn is actually the reaction to the pattern of the skin and may overlie skin cancer. [read more]

  • Cutaneous larva migrans
    Cutaneous larva migrans or CLM,is a type of skin disorder that occurs among humans. Sometimes termed as ground itch pr creeping eruption, this disease is also known as sandworms in reference to the "fondness" of larvae for sandy soil. [read more]

  • Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is categorized as a type of lupus that primarily involves the patient's skin but may also be a precursor to another systemic form of the disease. There are three different types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: chronic lupus erythematosus, subacute lupus erythematosus and e types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Dark skinned women individuals are more prone to Cutaneous lupus erythematosus especially between ages 20-60. [read more]

  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is considered an extremely rare disease, and is usually occurs in people between the ages 40-60, primarily affecting the skin. This medical condition is caused by the uncontrollable development of within blood cells on the skin, which is known as T-cells. Among the most common types cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides. [read more]

  • Cutis laxa
    Cutis laxa (CL) is an extremely rare disease that can either be acquired or inherited disorder of the connective tissue. This is characterized by marked inelasticity of the skin that usually hangs in folds. In both inherited and acquired cutis laxa, the internal organs may also be affected. [read more]

  • Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
    Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita or CMTC is quite rare and uncommonly reported. This is categorized as congenital and sporadic cutaneous disorder that comes with the persistent telangiectasia, cutis marmorata and phlebectasia. This comes with ulcerations of the skin as well as cutaneous atrophy. Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenital is also usually associated with several other congenital anomalies. [read more]

  • Cutis Rhomboidalis Nuchae
    Cutis rhomboidalis nuchae medically refers to the skin appearance after a long-term, as well as the prolonged sun exposure, resulting to damage of the skin. This usually occurs on the back of the neck. [read more]

  • Cutis verticis gyrata
    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is considered as the medical descriptive term for a scalp condition that is characterized with furrows and convoluted folds that form from a thickened area of the scalp that resembles the cerebriform pattern. [read more]

  • Cyclic neutropenia
    Cyclic neutropenia is categorized as a rare blood disorder that is characterized by some recurrent episodes of abnormally low white blood cell levels called neutrophils. These are primarily responsible for warding off infections as well as in destroying bacteria that may invade the body. In most cases, people with cyclic neutropenia suffer from recurrent infections. [read more]

  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a chronic vomiting disorder having no identified cause. It is most common in children ages 3-7 years which they will outgrow in teenage years. But since it is recurring, it can occasionally happen in adults as well. [read more]

  • Cyclospora Infection
    Cyclospora infection is an infection of the intestine due to a one-celled parasite. [read more]

  • Cyclothymia
    Cyclothymia is also known by the medical term cyclothymic disorder. This disease is characterized by a mild type of bipolar disorder. Similar to bipolar disorder, cyclothymia is known as a chronic mood disorder that results to emotional highs and lows. Patients with this condition experience short periods of emotional ups believing they are on top of the world and followed by emotional downs that often leave them feeling suicidal and depressed. [read more]

  • Cyclothymic Disorder
    Cyclothymic disorder also called as cyclothymia, is a mild form of bipolar disorder; a chronic mood disorder causing emotional ups and downs. The condition is usually characterized by short episodes of emotional highs when feeling on top of the world followed by extremely low feeling that can possibly lead to hopelessness or suicide, if left uncontrolled. [read more]

  • Cystathionine Beta Synthase Deficiency
    Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency disease is a genetic metabolic disorder that involves the amino acid methionine. [read more]

  • Cystic Fibrosis
    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease common in Caucassians which directly affects the digestive system and the lungs and is considered life-threatening. Because of a defective gene called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the mucus, digestive juices, sweat and saliva become thick and sticky, obstructing the passageways especially in the lungs and pancreas. [read more]

  • Cystic hygroma
    Cystic Hygroma is a fluid filled sac that came about from an obstruction in the lymphatic system. It can either be single or multiple cysts found in the neck area. Cystic Hygroma can be congenital or it could develop at any time in a person's life. [read more]

  • Cystinosis
    Cystinosis is categorized as an inherited disorder that affects chromosome 17, under which the amino acid cystine is not properly transported out of the patient's body cells. This would cause organ and tissue all damage throughout the body and may begin to manifest at any age, affecting both male and female. This mutated gene CTNS is an autosomal recessive, which means both parents are carrier of this gene resulting to the child to inherit to defective gene copies. [read more]

  • Cystinuria
    Cystinuria is an type inherited metabolic disorder, where the natural reabsorption and filtration of amino acid, cystine, lysine and aginine by the patient's kidney are defective. This would cause the urine to contain elevated levels of cystine that causes the formation of kidney stones. This medical condition account to about 1% of kidney stones and usually occurs to 1 per every 7,000 people and are more common among Jews. [read more]

  • Cystitis
    Cystitis is a medical term used to characterize the inflammation of the bladder. Majority of the time, this inflammation is typically caused by some form of a bacterial infection, which may be commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection (UTI). This bladder infection often causes pain and discomfort and can even lead to serious health complications if infection reaches the kidneys. [read more]

  • Cystitis, Interstitial
    Interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome is characterized by experiencing pain in your pelvis ranging from discomfort or mild burning to severe pain, letting you think that you have a urinary tract infection. The pressure or pain in your bladder awakens you, not letting you get a good night's sleep and the first thing you will do is find the nearest toilet location. [read more]

  • Cystocele
    A cystocele, sometimes called prolapsed bladder is characterized when the wall between a woman's bladder and the vagina stretches and weakens, letting the bladder bulge into the vagina. [read more]

  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
    Cytomegalic inclusion disease is an infection or condition resulting from a form of herpes virus called ‘cytomegalovirus'. This virus leads to cell enlargement of a number of organs, as well as the growth of ‘inclusion bodies' in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells. A trademark of this infection is the episodic recurrence of symptoms all through life, due to its virus cycles of latency periods and active virus. [read more]

  • Cytomegalovirus
    Cytomegalovirus is a disease infecting cells and causing them to be enlarged. Individuals are typically infected when they're two years old or through teenage years. A lot of people become infected with CMV and do not even realize they have it. The disease doesn't cause chronic problems, but they do cause troubles in newborns if their mothers become infected during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Cytomegalovirus Cysts
    Usually described as interstitial pneumonia or pneumonitis, such lung disease is caused by the perinatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV). Lung cysts in newborns are diagnosed as including CMV infection. [read more]

  • Dandruff
    Marked by itching and excessive flaking of the scalp, many people have this chronic scalp disorder called dandruff. It may be embarrassing to have dandruff which is surprisingly persistent, it is not contagious and is rarely serious. [read more]

  • Dandy Fever
    Dandy fever is another name for dengue fever. It is a contagious epidemic disease caused by mosquito bites of two species under the genus Aedes. [read more]

  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome
    Dandy-Walker syndrome is defined as a brain deformity that involves the ‘cerebellum' and the fluid that fills the space surrounding it. The malformation happens before birth; thus, it's submitted as a ‘congenital malformation'. The syndrome is characterized by enlargement of the brain's fourth ventricle, complete or partial absence of cerebellar vermis, and a formation of cyst near the skull's internal base. There is also increased fluid size and pressure increase in the fluid spaces around the brain. [read more]

  • Darier's Disease
    Darier's disease is defined as a genetic disease or inherited dermatitis characterized by ‘dark crusty patches' on skin, which sometimes contain pus. These patches are known as keratosis follicularis or keratotic papules. Although complications are uncommon, the disease can cause bacterial sepsis, as well as Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. [read more]

  • Daytime Sleepiness
    Prolonged nighttime sleep or recurrent episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness are among the characteristics of Hypersomnia. [read more]

  • De Lange Syndrome
    De lange syndrome, or Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), is a rare congenital disorder that affects a person's physical features and developmental processes. [read more]

  • De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
    De Quervain's tenosynovitis is characterized by the abnormal pain experience on the hand and wrist area. The pain is generally caused by the swelling of the sheath of tendons located on the thumb side of the wrist. This causes the pain and discomfort for every turn of the wrist, clenching the fist and grasping anything. [read more]

  • De Sanctis-Cacchione Syndrome
    De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome is a very uncommon disorder distinguished by eye and skin manifestations of XP or xeroderma pigmentosum, occurring in involvement with mental retardation, neurological abnormalities, underdeveloped ovaries or testes, and abnormally short stature or dwarfism. [read more]

  • Deafblindness
    Deafblindness is the condition characterized by a combination of hearing and vision losses, which causes difficulty in communication, access to information, and mobility. Causes of the condition are classified into two categories; congenital and acquired. Deafblindness can be acquired through illness, injury or due to old age. Congenital blindness can be a result of prenatal infection, chromosomal syndromes like Down's syndrome, birth trauma or heavy alcohol and drug use of a pregnant mother. [read more]

  • Decubitus Ulcer
    Decubitus ulcer is the medical term used to describe bed sores. It can be treated by constant cleaning of the wounds. [read more]

  • Deep Skin Infection
    Deep skin infection, or cellulites, is the inflammation of the connective tissues underneath the skin. It is a bacterial infection brought about by exogenous bacteria due to previous wounds, bites, sores or lacerations. This infection, when not treated, may lead to necrotizing fasciitis, wherein the bacteria eats away the affected tissue resulting to amputation. [read more]

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
    Deep vein thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by blood clot formation in any deep veins of the body; usually occurring on the leg. The condition is considered as a serious condition because there is a possibility that it may lead to pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot that had travelled and reached the lung. [read more]

  • Deerfly Fever
    Deerfly fever is otherwise known as Tularemia which is characterized by a rare and infectious disease that primarily attacks the eyes, skin and lungs. There are less than 200 reported cases of this disease annually, and is known to affect mostly the south-central and western states. Deerfly fever spreads through humans though a number of routes, including direct exposure and insect bites from an infected animal. [read more]

  • Degenerative Joint Disease
    Degenerative joint disease, also known as osteoarthritis, is the inflammation of the joints. It affects various joints such as the back, neck, knees, fingers, and hips. The disease occurs mostly people over the age of 45. [read more]

  • Degenerative Nerve Disease
    Degenerative nerve disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a progressive fatal illness that affects the motor neurons that control the body's skeletal muscles. It is characterized by paralysis and weakening of the voluntary muscles. It is also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. [read more]

  • Degos Disease
    Degos disease is an uncommon systematic disease that involves the medium and small sized arteries, wherein these arteries become blocked. The disease typically progresses into two stages. The first stage is characterized by the appearance of distinguishing skin lesions that may stay for some time, ranging from a few weeks to several years. Lesions inside the small intestines often mark the second stage, and other organs can also be affected. [read more]

  • Dejerine-Sottas Disease
    Dejerine-Sottas disease is an uncommon genetic motor and sensory polyneuropathy that manifests progressive effects on mobility. The peripheral nerves thicken and enlarge, leading to weakness of the muscle. The progress of this disease is irregular, as well as frequently accompanied by numbness, pain, weakness, and a burning, prickling, or tingling sensations in one's legs. [read more]

  • Delayed Gastric Emptying
    A condition in which the muscles of your stomach don't function normally is called gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying. Usually, strong muscular contractions propel food through the digestive tract, and if the muscles in the wall of the stomach work poorly or not all, it would prevent the stomach from emptying properly and therefore, letting one would experience delayed gastric emptying. [read more]

  • Delirium
    The word "delirium" typically hints a state of feverish ecstasy that is believed to fuel some sort of artistic creation or some form of spiritual awakening, it can actually be clearly defined as a form of medical condition. Delirium is basically characterized a decline in attention, mental clarity and awareness that is often known to be triggered by a serious illness. [read more]

  • Dementia Senilis
    Dementia senilis, or senile dementia, is a mental illness common among the elderly. It is characterized by loss of attention span and short-term memory. It is considered an effect of Alzheimer's disease. [read more]

  • Demodicidosis
    Demodicidosis is an infection that's parasitic, caused by Demodex mite that normally lives without risk in hair follicles, particularly those on one's facial area. This mite may cause manifestations in immunocompromised people. The mites implant themselves in one's skin or hair follicles. An infestation of an abnormally huge number of this mite, typically associated with improper skin cleansing, can have a ‘rosacea-like' appearance. [read more]

  • Demyelinating Disease
    Demyelinating disease is defined as any type of nervous system condition wherein the neurons' protective covering, called myelin sheath, is damaged. This causes impairment in the transmission of signals within affected nerves, which in turn results to damage in movement, cognition, sensation, or other bodily functions, depending on the nerves involved. Some common demyelinating disease includes multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, devic disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. [read more]

  • Dengue Fever
    Dengue fever is defined as a disease involving four connected viruses being multiplied by a specific mosquito species. The fever ranges from severe to mild; mild dengue results to rash, joint and muscle pain, and high fever. Its severe forms can additionally result to sudden blood pressure drop, severe bleeding, and death. [read more]

  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a severe and even potentially deadly form of infection that is spread by certain types of mosquitoes. [read more]

  • Dent's Disease
    Dent's disease, also known as Dent Disease, is a rare X-linked recessive condition that is hereditary. It affects the Kidney and is one of the many causes of Fanconi syndrome. It is characterized by hypercalciuria, tubular proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, chronic renal failure and calcium nephrolithiasis. Because it it only associated with the X-chromosome, this disease is most common to males. Studies show that more men (9 out of 15) suffer from this disease compared to women (1 out of ten) at an average age of 47 [read more]

  • Dental Fluorosis
    Dental Fluorosis is a condition that affects the teeth caused by excessive intake of flouride. It is characterized by yellowish color of the teeth, presence of white spots, and discolorations like brown spots. It can also cause pitting and is often affects young teeth that has not yet erupted into the oral cavity. [read more]

  • Dental Plaque
    Dental plaque is the hardened yellowish coating on the teeth caused by the food people eat. Dental plaque contains bacteria, which can cause tooth decay. The plaque can be removed by constant oral hygiene and regular cleaning done by a dentist. [read more]

  • Dentinogenesis imperfecta
    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of tooth development brought about by abnormal genetic mutations in the DSPP gene. It causes discolorations in teeth and development of abnormally weak dentin causing teeth to break easily, and break easily as well. It is otherwise called as hereditary Opalescent Dentin. Researchers have identified three types of this disease. [read more]

  • Depersonalization Disorder
    Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) is a special type of dissociative disorder where an afflicted individual suffers from recurrent and resistant feelings of depersonalization. This is characterized by a sense of automation as well as the feeling of disconnection from the body, often making it difficult to relate to reality. [read more]

  • Depression In Children
    Depression in children is a form of emotional disorder that affects the child's psychological, emotional and social behaviors. This kind of depression sets the pace towards the child's outlook in life, and can be the cause of his erratic behavior upon reaching adulthood. [read more]

  • Depression In Older People
    Depression in older people is a stage where an adult, who has gone past his prime years, experiences anxiety and long-term sadness due to a series of reflections of the things that happened in the past. [read more]

  • Dercum's Disease aka Adiposis dolorosa
    Dercum's disease is also known as Ander's disease or Adiposis dolorosa. It is a rare chronic disease associated with multiple painful fatty tissues during adult stage and usually affects obese women. [read more]

  • Dermatitis herpetiformis
    Dermal herpetiformis is a disorder of the skin, chronic in nature and is characterized as extremely itchy rash. Otherwise known as Duhring's disease, this condition is associated to a person's sensitivity to gluten in cereals specifically the intestine. The rashes is consist of papules and a fluid-filled blister or vesicle. It usually is common on men and women in their twenties. It is also often connected to celiac disease which is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel. [read more]

  • Dermatitis Statis
    Hugely affecting your legs that may appear to have red and often itchy rash on the lower part of your body is a disorder called statis dermatitis. It often occurs after a long-term swelling of the legs that could be caused by poor blood circulation. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Nipple
    Nipple dermatitis is characterized itchiness as well as the soreness of one or even both nipples. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Nummular
    Nummular dermatitis is categorized as a particular form of eczema, or what is known as a type of atopic dermatitis, which is characterized by seemingly coin-shaped and raised bumps on the surface of the skin. These growths are often scaly. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Perioral
    Perioral dermatitis is characterized as a type of facial rash that usually tends to occur just around the mouth region. Most skin condition manifests as red and often slightly bumpy or scaly in texture. It can gradually spread up around the nose area, and even move up to the eyes. [read more]

  • Dermatofibroma
    Dermatofibroma is a lesion or a dermal tumor, mostly benign, laid ot by fibroblasts. It is characterized by hard papules in different colors ranging from brown to tan. In some cases, Dermatofibroma can become itchy and tender. It is also believed to be a reaction of the skin to previous injuries. Some are rare malignant fibrohistocytic tumors whuch are usually deep penetrating. [read more]

  • Dermatographia
    Lightly scratching your skin that may cause red lines on the area where you've scratched is a condition called dermatographia. It can be uncomfortable though it's not serious. Upon scratching, the skin cells are overly sensitive to minor injury with this kind of disorder. [read more]

  • Dermatographic urticaria
    Dermatographic urticaria is a disorder of the skin characterized by swelling of the skin when rubbed with dull objects. The swelling is caused by mast cells in the surface of the skin causing the release of histamines without antigens because of weak membranes that surrounds the mast cells. This disease is also called dermatographism or skin writing. This is not a life threatening disease. [read more]

  • Dermatomyositis
    Dermatomyosis is a disease of the connective tissues associated with muscles and skin inflammation. Juvenile dermatomyositis affects young children often associated with pink patches in the knuckles, abnormal and painful erection of the penis that can last for a long period of time, and groton's papules. It is one type of autoimmune disease of the connective tissue which is related to polymyositis characterized by many inflammations of the muscles, and the related disease that attacks the arm and leg muscles called Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis. [read more]

  • Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
    Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is a congenital disorder most common in women. It is a rare type ectodermal dysplasia disorder. Although most cases are reported in Europe, there is not enough evidence to say that the disease is associated with any race. [read more]

  • Dermatophytids
    Dermatophytids are skin lesions and erruptions that is occurs as an allergic reaction to the ringworm infections. These lesions, however are free of fungal forms and are generally vesicular, and papular in some cases. Dermatophytes often occur in the feet and hands. It also resembles erythema nodosum [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis is a skin disorder caused by a parasitic fungus called Dermatphyte. Dermatophyte feeds on keratin that usually found in the ectoderm or the outer layer of the skin, nails and hair. [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis, similarly known as athlete's foot is a common fungal infection among many people. It usually affects spaces in between your toes but it can spread to your soles, toenails and the sides of your feet. [read more]

  • DES Syndrome
    DES syndrome is a term used to describe the abnormalities suffered by an infant due to diethylstilbestrol (DES) medications the mother used to take during pregnancy to avoid miscarriage. [read more]

  • Desmoid tumor
    Desmoid tumor is a tendon-like benign fibrous neoplasms. It originates from the musculoaponeurotic structures found in the entire body. It appears as firm overgrowths of tissues, usually fibrous, locally aggressive, well differentiated and infiltrative. Other terms used for this disorder are deep fibromatosis, nonmentastasizing fibrosarcoma or aggressive fibromatosis. It mostly grows from the abdomen and rectus muscle after giving birth or in scars from cuts during abdominal surgery. These tumors may also grow in bone muscles. [read more]

  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor
    Also known as DSRCT, it is a very aggressive tumor that occurs rarely, a type of cancer that always grows in the abdomen and spreads locally to the lymph nodes. It can also spread to other parts of the body like the lungs, bones, and liver, chest walls, spinal cord, large and small intestine, skull, bladder, brain, ovaries, pelvis and testicles. This is most common in males especially in the young adolescent stage. This is a life threatening disease. This tumor is also called desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor, desmoplastic cancer, intraabdominal desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor or desmoplastic sarcoma. [read more]

  • Developmental Delay
    Developmental delay is a disorder in which a child goes through an abnormally slower process of development than expected. His mental and physical skills develop very slowly. This condition is also called cerebral palsy. [read more]

  • Devic syndrome
    Devic syndrome is an autoimmune disease that attacks the protein of the central nervous system which is called aquaporin. This is a condition in which the fatty covering of the spinal cord is destroyed and the nerves in the eyes are affected causing sight loss and pain. A form of multi sclerosis that is rare and is rapid and severe. Patients having this disease will experience paralysis at different degrees. [read more]

  • Dextrocardia
    Dextrocardia or Dextrocadia Situs Inversus is a medical term use to describe the location of the heart which is in the right chest instead being normally at the left side. Patients with this condition may grow and develop normally and live an equally normal life if there are no complications brought about by the heart's position. Limitations only come from other defects of the heart, lungs or chest. If there are no defects in the heart, this condition doesn't require surgery or any medication. [read more]

  • Dextrocardia with Situs Inversus
    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare state where the heart's apex is positioned abnormally towards the right side, other than the heart the liver and the spleen are reversed too. This condition is not a life threatening disease and most patients are capable of living a normal life. [read more]

  • Diabetes insipidus
    Diabetest insipidus is a condition wherein a patient losses a lot of water through the diluted urine. It cause severe dehydration and a patient may feel the urge to drink lots of water due to the very large volume of liquid that is urinated. This disease is rare and may occur in young children. [read more]

  • Diabetes mellitus
    Diabetes mellitus, popularly known as "diabetes" is a chronic disease. It is associated with very high levels of the glucose sugar present in our blood. There are two mechanisms for diabetes, patients may experience either of the two to suffer from this disease. The first is that there is not enough production of insulin produced by the pancreas as a result, blood glucose level are lowered or type 1. The second is that the cells is not sensitive enough to the action of insulin or type 2. [read more]

  • Diabetes, insulin dependent
    Diabetis insulin dependent is also known as diabetes mellitus type 1. This is a chronic disorder of our system's failure to produce inadequate amount of insulin. Characteristics of this disease is loss of the beta cells which are responsible for producing insulin. These cells are found in the islets of Langerhans in our pancreas. This loss leads to insulin deficiency. There is no known measure to prevent this disease. Affected people mostly are healthy when this disease occurs. The cells sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are not abnormal. This type of diabetes can affect both children or adults, although it was previously called "juvenile diabetes" as it usually affects children. [read more]

  • Diabetic angiopathy
    Angiopathy refers to any disease associated with the blood vessels or the lymph vessels. When angiopathy is caused by diabetes, it is called diabetic angiopathy. Similar to most complications brought about by diabetes, diabetic angiopathy is primarily due to hyperglycemia or the high levels of blood sugar known to us as glucose. This disease can occur in any part of the body where the effect of high glucose level resulted to clogged up due to build up of plaque in the inner walls of the vessels. There are two types of this disease, macroangiopathy or microangiopathy. [read more]

  • Diabetic Coma
    Having a dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) when you have diabetes can lead to a diabetic coma which is a life-threatening diabetes complication and when left untreated can be fatal. [read more]

  • Diabetic Dermopathy
    Diabetic dermopathy is also commonly known as shin spots or the pigmented pretibial patches. This is a skin condition that is usually found to develop on the lower legs of people who have diabetes. This medical condition is often the result of changes in the small blood vessel, which are primarily responsible in supplying the skin blood products. [read more]

  • Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome
    Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome is characterized by an abnormally high blood sugar, ranging up to 600 milligrams per deciliter. In this case, the blood becomes syrupy and thick. This excess sugar in the blood passes on to the urine, which then triggers the filtering process, which will draw a great amount of fluid from the body. [read more]

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    A serious complication of diabetes develops when you have too little insulin in your body, and is called diabetic ketoacidosis, for without enough insulin, glucose can't enter your cells for energy. Your body begins to break down fat for energy and your blood sugar level will rise, and if left untreated may let you lose consciousness. [read more]

  • Diabetic nephropathy
    Diabetic nephropathy or nephropatia diabetica is also called Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome. Another term is intercapillary glomerulonephritis. It is a kidney disease, which is progressive in nature and is caused by angiopathy of the capillaries in kidney glomeruli. It occurs because of diabetes mellitus that has been in the patient for a long period of time already. [read more]

  • Diabetic neuropathies
    Diabetic neuropathies is a microvascular trauma that involves capillaries and venoules that provides blood and nutrients to the nerves, it is cause by diabetes melllitus. [read more]

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    A complication resulting from damage to the blood vessels of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina) is called diabetic retinopathy, which at first my cause only mild vision problems or no symptoms at all. [read more]

  • Diamond blackfan disease
    Diamond-Blackfan Disease (DBA) is also called congenital erythroid aplasia that is present in infancy. That is caused by low red blood cell counts or anemia. [read more]

  • Diaper Rash
    After solid foods are added to your baby's diet, when your baby is taking antibiotics or when breast-feeding mothers eat certain foods are the common factors for babies to have diaper rash – a common form of inflamed skin (dermatitis). [read more]

  • Diaphragmatic hernia, congenita
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a collective term for different birth defects brought about by congenital factors which involves the abnormal development of the baby's diaphragm. [read more]

  • Diarrhoea
    Diarrhoea in children is a condition where children suffer from loose bowel movement. Watery, semisolid stool is released frequently during the onset of the condition. When not treated, this can lead to dehydration. [read more]

  • Diastrophic dysplasia
    Diastrophic dysplasia or DD is considered to be an uncommon kind of dwarfism. Occuring only once out of 500,000 births (in the U.S.), it is the top three among all types of dwarfism. [read more]

  • Dibasic aminoaciduria type 2
    Dibasic aminoaciduria type 2 also called lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) or familial protein intolerance is an amino acid transport disorder. The excretion of cationic amino acid (composed of ornithine, arginine, and lysine) in the kidney is increase. Cationic amino acid is a kind of amino acid does not absorb well in the intestine. Deficiency of arginine and ornithine stops the urea cycle which will cause hyperammonemia after protein rich intake [read more]

  • Diffuse Astrocytomas
    Diffuse astrocytomas are adult brain tumors that develop on the brain tissues. They grow slowly and are diagnosed only when the cysts are already in the advanced stages. Young adults are prone to this kind of tumor. It can be diagnosed by CT scan and MRI, and can be removed by surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. [read more]

  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis
    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is the hardening of the bony ligaments that are attached to one's spine. [read more]

  • Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD)
    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) also known as Interstitial lung disease, is refers to obstructive airway diseases of the lungs. It affects the alveolar epithelial lining, pulmonary capillary epithelium and its basement mambrane. [read more]

  • DiGeorge Sequence
    DiGeorge sequence (DGS), is an abnormal developmental condition that involves the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. [read more]

  • DiGeorge Syndrome
    DiGeorge Syndrome also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Strong Syndrome is a disorder known by total or partial absence or defective chromosome 22. [read more]

  • Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. It is characterized by an absence or a significantly decreased activity of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, which is an enzyme involved in the metabolic process of uracil and thymine. Individuals having this condition may develop toxicity, which may lead to death, after their exposure to 5-fluorouracil. 5-fluorouracil is a drug that is used in chemotherapy to treat of cancer. [read more]

  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) also known as congestive cardiomyopathy, is refer to enlargment and weakening of the heart that leads to decrease cardiac output and affects other body organs. DCM is one of the cause of congestive heart failure (CHF). This condition also occurs in yound adults and children. [read more]

  • Dimitiri Disease
    Dimitiri disease, also known as Struge-Weber syndrome, is a congenital disorder characterized by excessive bundles of blood vessels and calcium deposits in the brain. Seizures and unusual facial birthmarks can be found to persons in this condition. Angiomas can also develop inside the brain, face, eyes and jaws. [read more]

  • Diphallia
    Diphallia is also known as penile duplication (PD), dophallic terata or diphallasparatus. It is a disorder of male infant born with two or more penis. This disorder commonly accompanied with congenital anomalies like renal and anorectal duplication. A Diphalilic patient have high risk to develop spina bifida, a congenital defect that has incomplete closure of the empbryonic neural tube that allow spinal cord to protrude through the opening. It also has higher death rate because of its complicated renal and colorectal structures that results infection. [read more]

  • Diptheria
    Diptheria is a communicable disease of upper respiratory tract it is caused by an anaerobic Gram- positive bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. it is spread through direct contact. Vaccine of this bacteria is recommended for children after four weeks of birth, it has 3 dosage with 3 weeks interva. It also recommended to travellers. Incubation period of Diphtheria is from 2 to 5 days. [read more]

  • Discitis
    Discitis is the term used to describe the infection of the invertebral disc space causing severe back pain. Symptoms of the infection include stiffness and immobility of the spine to move. The exact causes for the disease are unknown, but studies show that it is linked with hematogenous seeding of certain harmful organisms. Discitis is treated with antibiotics and cast support for the back. it can as well be diagnosed by X-rays, CT scan and MRI. [read more]

  • Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
    Discoid Lupus Erythematosus or Systemic Lupus Erythamatosus is a systemic disorder cause by autoimmune response of the body. The immune system fights against own body cells that leads to inflammation of the tissues that affects different parts of the body. It occurs in unexpected times, this period is called "flares". [read more]

  • Disintegrative Psychosis
    A condition in which young children develop normally until age 3 or 4 but then demonstrate a severe loss of communication, social and other skills is called a childhood disintegrative disorder. It is also known as Heller's syndrome. [read more]

  • Dislocated Shoulder
    Your shoulders are prone to injury as they have the ability to move in any directions and they are your body's most mobile joints. An injury in which your upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket that's part of your shoulder blade is called a dislocated shoulder. [read more]

  • Dislocation
    A point where two or more of your bones come together is called a joint. An injury to your joint in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions is called a dislocation. As a result from the injury which temporarily immobilizes and deforms your joint you may experience sudden and severe pain. [read more]

  • Disorganized Schizophrenia
    A chronic illness that causes altered perceptions of the world is called schizophrenia and disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of such disorder. People who have disorganized schizophrenia display grossly disorganized behavior, disorganized thinking and an absent or inappropriate emotional expression. [read more]

  • Dissecting Aneurysm
    Dissecting aneurysm is also called an aortic dissection, characterized as a serious condition in which a tear develops in the inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel branching off the heart. [read more]

  • Dissociative Amnesia
    Dissociative Amnesia is characterized by the pervasive loss of one's memory on a significant personal information. Unlike other forms of amnesia, in this case, the person is unconsciously blocking out a particular traumatic or stressful memory and does not result from any medical trauma. [read more]

  • Distal myopathy
    Distal Myopathy are also known as distal muscular dysrtophy is a hereditary disease that causes weakness of muscuskeletal system at the distal area, it includes the hands and the feet .There are Different types of distal myopathy: the miyoshi myopathy, limp-girdle muscular dystrophy, welander distal myopathy and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset. [read more]

  • Diverticulitis
    Diverticulitis is a very common disease in the digestive system, specifically in the large intestine. This disorder developed from diverticulosis involving the formation of diverticula on the colon particularly on the outside part. It occurs if one of these many pouches or diverticula swells. [read more]

  • Dizziness
    One of the most common reasons why older adults visit their doctors is due to dizziness. Your brain processes a variety of information from your nervous system, your eyes and your inner ears, keeping your sense of balance. But if the brain can't process signals from all of these locations, or if your sensory systems aren't functioning properly, or if the messages are contradictory, then you may experience dizziness and loss of balance. [read more]

  • Dizziness in children
    Dizziness is common sensation characterized by unsteadiness and a moving vision of one's surroundings. Children, like adults, may experience dizziness every once in a while. [read more]

  • Dominant Ichthyosis vulgaris
    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a disorder tha occurs in the skin causing it to be dry, with scaly appearance. It is considered to be the most common form of skin disorder (ichthyosis) that affects one in every 250 people. Because of this, it is also called common ichthyosis. Some refer to it as fish skin disease because of its scaly characteristics. Usually, it is an autosomal inherited disease and often dominant. Often times, it is also associated with filaggrin. Although there is another version of this disease which is non-heritable but does not occur often. It is called acquired ichthyosis vulgaris. [read more]

  • Double outlet right ventricle
    Double Outlet Right Ventricle or DORV often coincides with a defect in the ventricular septal area (VSD), which is characterized by an opening in the heart septum which is not normally there. This allows the blood to pass in between the right and the left ventricles. In DORV, a VSD is helpful since it allows the blood carrying the oxygen from the left ventricle to pass to the right ventricle to other parts of the body but these blood mix with other blood poor in oxygen. As effect, the heart must work very hard in order to maintain proper and adequate circulation. [read more]

  • Double Uterus
    Double uterus or uterus didelphys is a condition characterized when the tubes (which start out as two small tubes in a female fetus) don't join completely to create one hollow organ which is the uterus, but instead each one develops into a separate cavity as the fetus develops. [read more]

  • Douche, Vaginal
    A vaginal douche is device used to stream fluid in or out of the vagina, for medical or hygienic purposes. Some women use a vaginal douche to insert medications to treat vaginal diseases, or to stream water out of the vagina cavity. It is also used to stream menstrual flow during intercourse as well as a birth control method. However, the vaginal douche can also bring about certain bacterial infections, especially when it is not cleansed properly. [read more]

  • Downs syndrome
    Down syndrome otherwise known as trisomy 21 is a disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. This disorder was termed as chromosome 21 trisomy in 1959 by J?r?me Lejeune. It is characterized by major and minor structural differences. Down syndrome is always associated with impairments of the cognitive ability and the physical growth. Facial appearance also is different. This disorder can be known even during pregnancy or right at birth. [read more]

  • Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy
    Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy is a condition that occurs as a reaction of the Doxorubicin. In this case, it targets the heart. [read more]

  • Dracunculiasis
    Dracunculiasis also more commonly called and known by people as Guinea worm disease (GWD), is a kind of infection that is caused by the parasitic organism Dracunculus medinensis. It is also alternately known as "Guinea worm" or "Medina worm" or "fiery serpent" in English. The name reflects the word, which is Latin, Dracunculus. This means "little dragon". [read more]

  • Dressler's Syndrome
    Dressler's syndrome is the medical term that refers to the health complication that typically occurs after a heart surgery or heart attack. This is characterized by the inflammation of the pericardium or the sac that surrounds the heart. This is primarily caused by the reaction of the immune system after weeks or several days of contracting heart injury. [read more]

  • Dropsy
    Dropsy refers to the inflammation of the tissues due to accumulation of excess fluids. This condition is more popularly known as edema. [read more]

  • Drug Eruption
    Drug eruption is characterized by an adverse reaction to medication. This is known as the undesirable and unintended reaction to certain drugs, causing side effects. In such cases, the skin is the most common affected area of the body and often forms rashes and other visible skin conditions. [read more]

  • Drug Induced Liver Disease
    Drug-induced liver disease is the term used to describe liver illnesses brought about by certain prescribed medications, vitamins, hormones and recreational drugs. [read more]

  • Dry Mouth
    Dry mouth is also known as xerostomia, characterized by the abnormal lack of saliva resulting to the dryness of the mouth. This condition is quite common and can be a nuisance since it generally affects the sense of taste as well as the health of the teeth. An important reminder for people who regularly experience such condition is to seek medical help and not just simply ignore it. [read more]

  • Dry Skin
    Dry skin is also known by a medical term xerosis, which is ordinarily not considered to be a serious problem. However, in most cases it can be rather unsightly or uncomfortable as it is known to shrivel plump skin cells creating wrinkles and fine lines. [read more]

  • Dry Socket
    Dry socket is a form of dental condition that usually occurs when the site of the tooth extraction has dislodged the blood clot, thereby exposing the nerves and bones. This causes a more intensified pain. This dental complication is quite common after tooth extraction. [read more]

  • Duane syndrome
    Duane syndrome or DS is a very rare, congenital disorder that affects the eye movement. It is ofte times characterized by the eye's inability to turn out. It is named after Alexander Duane who made a very comprehensive discussion of the disorder back in 1905. Other terms referring to this condition also include Congenital retraction syndrome, Eye Retraction Syndrome, Duane's Retraction Syndrome or DR syndrome, Retraction Syndrome, and Stilling-Turk-Duane Syndrome. [read more]

  • Dubin-Johnson syndrome
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a disorder usually autosomal and recessive. This condition causes an increase of bilirubin without elevation of the liver enzymes ALT and AST. This condition is often associated with the inability of hepatocytes to secrete produced conjugated bilirubin to the bile in the liver. It can be diagnosed in early infancy. Building up of biliburin in the bloodstrean cause yellowish color of the eye and skin. [read more]

  • Dubowitz syndrome
    Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder. It is often characterized by microcephaly, slow to very retarded growth and a rather unusual facial appearance like having small or round or even triangular shaped with a pointed chin with either a broad or wide-tipped nose, and eyes which are usually wide-set and drooping eyelids. It was first described by English physician Victor Dubowitz in 1965. Majority of cases are from the Russia, United States, and Germany. It also appears to have an equal affect to different ethnicities and even genders. [read more]

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    is a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by decreasing muscle mass and progressive loss of muscle function in male children [read more]

  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterized by the abnormal multiplication of cells and the gradual formation of a growth within a milk duct of the breast. This medical condition may be difficult to detect. However, this is normally not a fatal condition since it is not a form of cancer but would still require a form of treatment. [read more]

  • Dumping Syndrome
    Dumping syndrome is characterized by a group of symptoms that are known to likely develop following a surgery that removes a certain part of the stomach. This is also known as the rapid emptying of the undigested contents in the stomach. [read more]

  • Duodenal Atresia
    is the congenital deficiency or complete closure of a part of the lumen of the duodenum. [read more]

  • Dupuytren's contracture
    Dupuytren's contracture is characterized of a fixed flexion contracture of the person's limbs where the fingers tend to bend towards the base of the palm and cannot be fully extended or straightened naturally. It disorder is named in honor of a particular surgeon named Baron Guillaume Dupuytren, who was the first to define a surgical operation to correct the said affliction. [read more]

  • Dust Mite Allergy
    Dust mites are microscopic organism that is somehow related to spiders and are usually found in most homes. These organisms are too small to see, and thrive in warm and humid environments. They feed on dead skin cells and nests in fabrics, beddings, furnishings and other dust-collecting objects. As the dust mites leave their residue such as decaying bodies and feces, it freely floats in the air and become an allergen. While not all people are allergic to dust mites, it can be a serious bother to people who are allergic to it. [read more]

  • Dwarfism
    Dwarfism is a medical condition that refers to a condition of extremely small stature of an effected animal or even plant. Any known type of the marked human smallness is typically regarded as dwarfism in the much older, popular as well as the medical usage. The term as actually related to human beings that are often used to refer specifically to such forms of extreme shortness that is characterized by disproportionate body parts, which is believed to be typically due to a genetic disorder of the bone or cartilage development. [read more]

  • Dysautonomia
    is any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This typically includes the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome orPOTS, neurocardiogenic syncope, pure autonomic failure as well as autonomic instability and several number of a much lesser-known disorders. Other type of disorders, such as the multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome) as well as the chronic fatigue syndrome, both have dysautonomia as one of the many system malfunctions. [read more]

  • Dysbarism
    Refers to a medical condition that is often a result from the series of changes in environment's pressure. There are various strenuous activities that are associated with pressure changes such as scuba diving, which is said to be the most frequently cited example, but pressure changes would also affect people who are working in pressurized environments such as the line workers that are assigned in the decompression areas along with people who move between different altitudes like in mountain climbing. [read more]

  • Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica
    Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica is not an ordinary ailment and is characterized by a severe genetic disorder that primarily affects the kidney along with some related cystic dysplasia, that causes the malfunctioning of the central nervous system and can eventaully create several hepatic developmental defects. [read more]

  • Dysfibrinogenemia, familial
    Dysfibrinogenemia, familial is a type of familial medication condition that is not common. It is associated with an abnormal fibrinogen. Dysfibrinogenemia, familial involves several types and subtypes including Detroit, Wiesbaden, and Amsterdam dysfibrinogenemia. [read more]

  • Dysgerminoma
    Dysgerminoma is considered to be the most common classification of malignant form of germ cell ovarian cancer. Dysgerminoma usually occurs in adolescence and early adult life; about 5% occur in pre-pubertal children. Dysgerminoma is known to be an extremely rare medical condition that usually occurs after age 50. Dysgerminoma occurs in both sections of the ovaries in more than 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor found to have developed in the other ovary. [read more]

  • Dysgraphia
    Dysgraphia generally refers to extreme difficulty in handwriting. The condition is defined as a learning disability as a result of difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. [read more]

  • Dyshidrosis
    Dyshidrosis, is also known by another medical term called dyshidrotic eczema or pompholyx. This is characterized by a skin condition where there is a development of small, fluid-filled blisters that usually occur on the palms of the hands or the soles the feet, or even both. [read more]

  • Dyskeratosis congenita
    Dyskeratosis congenita is also referred to as Zinsser-Engman-Cole Syndrome. It is a type of rare disease that is characterized by a gradual failure of the bone marrow. [read more</