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Atrioventricular septal defect



Atrioventricular septal defect Definition


Atrioventricular septal defect formerly known as "common atrioventricular canal" (CAVC) or "endocardial cushion defect" distinguished by a deficit of the heart's atrioventricular septum. It results from an abnormal or insufficient union of the lower and higher endocardial cushions with the middle part of the atrial septum and the muscular part of the ventricular septum. The Atrioventricular septal defect is divided into two forms which are “partial” and “complete” forms. In partial AVSD there is a partial defect in the primum or lower portion of the atrial septum but does not have straight intraventricular communication while in complete AVSD, there is a huge ventricular element underneath each or both the higher or lower bridging leaflets of the AV valve.


Atrioventricular septal defect Diagnosis


Can be detected by cardiac auscultation Cardiac ultrasound – to confirm findings from cardiac auscultation which is less invasive and cardiac catheterization is also used but is more invasive. Utero via fetal echocardiogram – can be done for tentative diagnosis An AVSD diagnosis done ahead of birth is an indicator for Down syndrome, though additional signs and added testing are necessary prior to any classic evidence of either can be made.


Atrioventricular septal defect Prevalence


According to the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) it is listed as a “rare disease” which indicates that less than 200,000 people are affected in US population.


Atrioventricular septal defect Treatment


Surgery - entails closing of the atrial and ventricular septal abnormalities and reinstallation of a capable left AV valve as far as is possible. A heart-lung machine is needed when open surgery is done with a median sternotomy. Percutaneous endovascular procedures – less invasive, performed on a beating heart but are merely appropriate for certain patients. Rates of death during surgery in experienced centers is less than 10% that is for complete abnormalities and not more than 5% for partial abnormalities. For infants that are newly born they are not immediately operated rather close attention is needed to monitor the condition of the infant. Operation is not yet done until the initial signs of the lung distress and heart failure occur.


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