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Bacterial pneumonia



Bacterial pneumonia Definition


Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria. The most common cause is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13.) which is also common in all ages except for newly born babies. Another type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is the Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) these bacteria are classified as Gram-positive bacteria. For Gram-negative bacteria it is seen less regularly like Klebsiella pneumoniae (J15.0), Haemophilus influenzae (J14.), Escherichia coli (J15.5), Moraxella catarrhalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (J15.1) are the most usual bacteria. The gut is where these bacteria reside and enters the lungs when the lung's content is inhaled like vomit. Not unlike typical bacteria, “atypical” bacteria are commonly seen in young adults and teenagers and are less sever and needs various antibiotics. Examples of “atypical” bacteria are Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Coxiella burnetti, Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7).


Bacterial pneumonia Pathophysiology


Bacteria are usually acquired through inhaling the bacteria though they can get into the lungs by way of the bloodstream if other portions of the body are already infected. Usually, bacteria reside in the upper part of the respiratory tract and are constantly inhaled into the alveoli. If they are already inside the alveoli, bacteria go into the gaps among the cells and among the parallel alveoli by way of the connecting pores. The immune system then reacts to the invasion by sending white blood cells whose function is to attack microorganisms to the lungs. The microorganisms are killed by the white blood cells though it also releases cytokines that is causes the general opening of the immune system. Impaired oxygen transportation results from the neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid that escaped from adjoining blood vessels fill the alveoli.


Bacterial pneumonia Test


Chest x-rays Blood tests Sputum tests


Bacterial pneumonia Treatment


Antibiotics – is the choice of treatment for bacterial pneumonia. But it depends on the origin of the pneumonia, the most common microorganisms that caused pneumonia in geographical region and the status of the immune system, and the initial health of the individual. Amoxicillin – this is the widely used antibiotics in the UK to patients affected by bacterial pneumonia and sometimes taken in with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin, azithromycin, or fluoroquinolones are the widely used antibiotics in North America where the “atypical” kind of pneumonia is becoming more common. When initiating pharmacotherapy, local patterns of the antibiotic-resistance must always be considered. The range of antibiotics is determined in hospitalized patients or those that have immune deficiencies. These chosen antibiotics are commonly specified by way of intravenous line.


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