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Bladder Neoplasm

Bladder Neoplasm Causes

Exposure to environmental carcinogens of different types is responsible for the development of most bladder cancers. Tobacco use (specifically cigarette smoking) is thought to cause half of bladder cancers discovered in male patients and 30% of those found in female patients Thirty percent of bladder tumors most likely result from occupational exposure in the workplace to carcinogens such as benzidine. Occupations at risk for bladder neoplasm are metal industry workers, rubber industry workers, workers in the textile industry and people who work in printing. Some studies also suggest that auto mechanics have a higher risk of bladder cancer due to their frequent exposure to hydrocarbons and petroleum-based chemicals. Hairdressers are thought to be at risk for the disease as well because of their frequent exposure to permanent hair dyes. It has been proposed that hair dyes are one of the risk factors, and some have shown an odds ratio of 2.1 to 3.3 for risk of developing bladder cancer among women who use permanent hair dyes, while others have shown no association between the use of hair dyes and bladder cancer.

Bladder Neoplasm Definition

Bladder neoplasm (or bladder cancer) is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply and grow in number without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine and is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer starts in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called urothelial cell or transitional cell carcinoma (UCC or TCC).

Bladder Neoplasm Diagnosis

The best way to diagnose bladder cancer is through urine cytology and transurethral (through the urethra) cystoscopy. Urine cytology can be obtained in excreted urine or at the time of the cystoscopy (bladder washing). Cytology is very specific may suffer from low sensitivity. There are newer urine bound markers for the diagnosis of bladder neoplasm. These markers are more sensitive but not as thorough as urine cytology. They cost much more than a cytology as well.

Bladder Neoplasm Symptoms and Signs

Bladder neoplasm characteristically causes blood to mix with the urine; this may be visible to the naked eye (frank haematuria) or seen only by microscope (microscopic haematuria). Other possible symptoms of bladder neoplasm include pain during urination, frequent urination or feeling the need to urinate without results. These signs and symptoms are not specific to this bladder disease, and are also caused by non-cancerous conditions, including prostate infections and cystitis. Other symptoms include blood in the urine, darker and reduced urine, pain during urination, frequent urination, frequent urge to urinate whether producing urine of not, bladder pain, and abdominal pain. A later symptom of bladder neoplasm is weight loss.

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