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Bradykinesia Causes

Bradykinesia can be caused by functional disorders and Parkinson's disease.

Bradykinesia Definition

In medicine (neurology), bradykinesia means "slow movement". Its etymology is brady = slow, kinesia = movement. It is a feature of several of diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the basal ganglia. Rather than being a slowness in initiation (related to hypokinesia) bradykinesia describes a slowness in the execution of movement.

Bradykinesia Symptoms and Signs

Bradykinesia is one of the constituents of Parkinson's disease, although it is also associated with other diseases. For patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, it is generally the most tiring and frustrating of the associated conditions. Small muscle movement is one of the first affected areas of the patient's body. Therefore, a common test is to ask the patient to tap his finger. Normal individuals tap their fingers at 4 or 5 Hz, while someone afflicted with bradykinesia can usually manage only up to 1 Hz.(3) There is are no known cures for bradykinesia. Certain surgeries may help lessen the effects of the condition. Hope remains for the future while researchers continue to explore different possibilities, examining causes and treatments that can lead to a cure and to more clues about Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and other conditions with which bradykinesia is associated. Not only does bradykinesia affect the speed of movement, the person's ability to complete a motion is also affefted. While walking, the patient's arms no longer swing, but remain lax at the person's sides. If a person with bradykinesia is asked to make a fist without looking, he can tell that his movements are slow. The individual does not, however, realize that he never makes a complete fist. The fingers may be only bent slightly. Slowness of movement not bradykinesia. It can be associated with depression, stroke, or any kind of injury to the brain. The motion may be slow, but it is still done completely. The slow, shuffling stride of a Parkinsonian and the monotonous voice are examples of bradykinesia. In this condition, not only is the person moving the feet and legs slowly, they are unable to make a full stride. Most cases of bradykinesia do not affect the entire body, but it is likely for the whole body to be afflicted. In extremely severe cases, patients have a noticeable, unnatural stillness. While seated, they don't make any movements the way normal individuals move, such as crossing and uncrossing legs, crossing and uncrossing arms, shifting the angle of their head, or tapping their fingers. Bradykinesia affecting the face can lead to what is called "mask face" because of the constant lack of expression. Loss of voice volume and missing intonation are common occurrences in those with bradykinesia. Since the most apparent symptoms of bradykinesia can apply to other diseases, and there are several causes for the condition, it is important that all bases are checked, including a thorough family history, drug use, and any pre-existing conditions must be considered. MRI typically rules out stroke and tumor. A lumbar puncture is sometimes taken to measure the presence of metabolites and neurotransmitters in order to rule out metabolic disorders such as dopa-responsive dystonia. Drugs such as neuroleptics, calcium-channel blockers, and serotonin-reuptake inhibitors can be causes of bradykinesia. Other causes include depression, dementia, dementia, drug-induced parkinsonism, and repeated head trauma.

Bradykinesia Treatment

Many adults with idiopathic adult-onset Parkinson's disease have benefited from deep-brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the internal globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus. Whether this procedure will be helpful for children with bradykinesia is unknown.

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