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Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome Clinical presentation

Below is the list of clinical findings on Carcinoid syndrome: Diarrhea and abdominal pain Right sided heart disease - tricuspid valve fibrosis Bronchoconstriction abdominal pain because of desmoplastic response of the mesentery in nearly all patients, augmented urinary secretion of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a deprivation result of serotonin Serotonin is the reason for tricuspid and pulmonary valves fibrosis Flushing of the skin

Carcinoid syndrome Definition

Carcinoid syndrome points to the collection of symptoms that happen next to carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid tumors happen together along with gastrointestinal tract (GI) that are distinct, colored yellow and well-circumscribed tumors. The tumors usually affect the ileum, appendix and rectum and it is usually distinctive and endocrine in nature. The tumors produce hormones into the blood stream that go through to the end organs and operates then by proper receptors. Though it fairly unusual, out of 15 cases per 1,000,000 population carcinoid tumors report for 75% of GI endocrine tumors.

Carcinoid syndrome Diagnosis

Measuring of plasma levels of the produced glycoprotein Chromogranin A together with 24 hours measuring of urine levels of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) which is a result of serotonin breakdown. Octreoscan ? An imaging method used for the localization of both main metastasis and lesions. In this method the indium labeled somatostatin analogues are utilized in scintigraphy for locating tumors that conveys somatostatin receptors. CT scan ? usually one will see a spider-like/crab like transformation in the mesentery because of the fibrosis from the secretion of serotonin. PET scan ? assesses for augmented glucose metabolism, can also help in localizing the carcinoid laceration or metastases evaluation. Prognosis The prognosis varies from patient to patient. It varies from a 95% 5 year survival for disease that are localized to a 20% 5 year survival for those with metastases of the liver. The common survival time from the start of the treatment of octreotide has augmented to about 12 years.

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