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Hepatorenal syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome Causes

In some patients, HRS may arise spontaneously, whereas in others, it may be associated with infections, acute alcoholic hepatitis, or large-volume paracentesis without albumin replacement. Hepatorenal syndrome occurs when there is a decrease in kidney function in an individual with a liver disorder. The most common symptom is the reduction in urine production. As a result of reduced elimination of urine, nitrogen-containing waste products collect in the blood stream.

Hepatorenal syndrome Definition

Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) refers to acute renal failure that arises in the setting of cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure associated with portal hypertension, generally in the absence of other disease of the kidney.

Hepatorenal syndrome Diagnosis

The major criteria include liver disease in the setting of portal hypertension; renal failure; the absence of shock, infection, recent treatment with medications that affect the kidney's function, and fluid losses, among others.

Hepatorenal syndrome Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms include: decreased urine production; dark-colored urine; yellow skin; weight gain; abdominal swelling; change in mental status (dementia, delirium, confusion); caorse muscle movements (jerking); and nausea and vomiting.

Hepatorenal syndrome Treatment

Treatment is aimed at improving liver function and ensuring that the amount of blood in the body and the heart pumping action are enough. The disorder is typically treated in the same manner as kidney failure from any other cause. Dialysis may generally improve symptoms. There are medications such as albumin, octreotide, and dopamine which may be used as a temporary measure to improve kidney function.

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