Lithiasis, Renal Causes
Kidney stones take place when the components of urine Ч fluid and various minerals and acids Ч are out of balance. When this happens, urine contains more crystal-forming substances, such as calcium and uric acid, than the available fluid can dilute.
Lithiasis, Renal Definition
Kidney stones (also called renal lithiasis) are small, hard deposits of mineral and acid salts on the inner surfaces of the kidneys.
Lithiasis, Renal Diagnosis
Many kidney stones go unnoticed until they cause acute symptoms Ч specifically, the pain of a stone going through the ureter. Occasionally, however, kidney stones are discovered in the course of looking for the cause of chronic urinary tract infections or blood in the urine.
Lithiasis, Renal Symptoms and Signs
Until a kidney stone moves into the ureter Ч the tube connecting the kidney and bladder Ч the patient may not know he has it. At that point, these signs and symptoms may occur: pain in the side and back, below the ribs; fluctuations in pain intensity, with periods of pain lasting 20 to 60 minutes; pain waves radiating from the side and back to the lower abdomen and groin; bloody, cloudy or foul-smelling urine; and pain on urination.
Lithiasis, Renal Treatment
Treatment for kidney stones varies, depending on the kind of stone and the cause. The person may be able to move a stone through the urinary tract simply by drinking plenty of water Ч as much as 2 to 3 quarts (1.9 to 2.8 liters) a day Ч and by staying physically active.