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Poland Syndrome

Poland Syndrome Causes

The condition does not have a known cause. The prevailing theory however, is that at about the 6th week of embryonic development, blood flow to the arteries under the collarbone was interrupted.

Poland Syndrome Definition

Poland syndrome is a physical condition in which an individual has one-sided congenital malformations of the body characterized by underdeveloped chest muscles and webbed fingers. The abnormalities usually occur on the same side of the body.

Poland Syndrome Diagnosis

Poland syndrome can be diagnosed in infancy using x-rays, computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging studies to ascertain the anatomy of the affected parts to guide the reconstructive surgery procedure. Other cases may be noticeable only upon maturity or puberty due to the body's different development particularly breast development in female patients.

Poland Syndrome Symptoms and Signs

Some symptoms may include an abnormal gastrointestinal tract, absence of pectoral muscles, syndactyly of fingers, or an abnormal rib. Affected individuals usually do not have nipples. The malformations usually appear on the right side of the body. Males are often affected than females.

Poland Syndrome Treatment

Poland syndrome is usually treated by reconstructive surgery. Bioengineered tissue may also be implanted to give the affected part a normal appearance. Male patients as young as 13 years old may undergo reconstructive surgery. While reconstructive surgery for female patients is postponed to await the complete breast development on the unaffected side. In the case of missing areola and nipple, therapeutic tattooing is also used.

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