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VKH Causes

It is a rare cause of bilateral granulomatous posterior or Panueitis.

VKH Definition

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome or Uveodematologic Syndrome or just VKH for brevity, is an immune-mediated disease. It is a rare condition which may affect both dogs and human and involves melanocyte-containing organ, which is characterized by the inflammation of the inside of the eye or the uveitus, occurrence of poliosis or the whitening of the hair, vitiligo or the loss of the pigmentation of the skin and even meningitis. The mechanism of the disease is said to be the T helper cell mediated autoimmune attack of melanocytes in the skin and uvea and in the central nervous system and inner ear of human (Sigle K, McLellan G, Haynes J, Myers R, Betts D (2006). "Unilateral uveitis in a dog with uveodermatologic syndrome". J Am Vet Med Assoc 228 (4): 543-8).

VKH Diagnosis

Its diagnosis is based on the recognition of pathognomonic clinical features. Fluorescent Angiography characteristically reveals multifocal areas of leakage at the level of RPE. Biopsy is also used to confirm the condition. Its diagnosis is often exluded if there is history of ocular trauma preceding the onset of the ocular disease. (Steidl, S., Hartnett, M.E (2003) Clinical Pathways in Vitreoretinal Disease, Theime Medical Protocols, p. 329-330).

VKH Symptoms and Signs

Clinical manifestation of VKH vary and the complete syndrome does not always develop inasmuch as some patients shows characteristic ocular signs and symptoms but do not have skin or auditory involvement while others have typical ocular findings plus skin or auditory involvement (Garner, A., Klintworth, G. (1994) Pathobiology of Ocular Disease: A Dynamic Approach, Informal Health Care, p. 174). However, common symptoms include decrease in vision, floaters, ocular pain, redness and photopobia.

VKH Treatment

Corticosteroids are the most common treatment for patients presenting bilateral retinol detachments. High Dose steroids or intravenous methyl-prednisolone followed by an oral taper may also be required.

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