ILLNESSOPEDIA

Free Online Database Of Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments

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1151 results found for "go"



  • 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency
    17 Alpha hydroxylase deficiency syndrome is a very rare disorder of the genes (specifically on steroid biosynthesis) which causes reduced production of sex steroids and glucocorticoids while the mineralocorticoid precursors are observed to have increased synthesis. It is, therefore, an autosomal recessive condition. The absence or deficiency of 17 hydroxylase results into many sexual malformations and illnesses. [read more]

  • 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3B HSD) is a very rare disorder of the genes involving steroid biosynthesis. This deficiency results into the decrease on the production of adrenal steroid groups which are inclusive of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and the sex steroids. A decrease on the secretion of mineralocorticoid would result into various salt wasting degrees in males and females. And for the 46 XY males, a deficiency in androgen would result into ambiguous genitals (the females are seen with enlarged clitoris). [read more]

  • 3 methylglutaconyl coa hydratase deficiency
    The enzyme called 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase is involved in amino acid (Leucine) metabolism. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria together with other enzymes of catabolic leucine. When an individual has a deficiency of 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase, 3-methylglutaconic acid is excreted massively and the impaired leucine breaks down. Very few patients have been reported with this type of deficiency but its occurrence is a reality, nonetheless. There a few severe clinical cases that have been reported which resulted because of this deficiency. Some patients have developed severe cardiopulmonary manifestations as soon as they were born; others have been reported to have psychomotor retardation; other cases include hypotonia, seizures, spasticity and thriving failure. Carnitine levels are at their lowest with this deficiency occurs. There are also rare cases of recurrent acidosis (seen in cases of fasting that has been prolonged). There was also a reported case of speech retardation. [read more]

  • 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency
    LCHAD or the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of the components of the trifunctional protein of mitochondria. When a person becomes deficient of LCHAD activity, he will soon show various manifestations of his inherited condition. [read more]

  • 3-methyl crotonyl-coa carboxylase deficiency
    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency is known by many names. It is also called as 3MCC deficiency, Methylcrotonylglycinuria type 1, or BMCC. This is a disorder that can be inherited where the human body becomes incapable of properly processing some proteins. Those who suffer from this deficiency have an insufficient supply of leucine-breaking enzyme. Leucine is an amino acid which is a protein base. [read more]

  • 3-methyl glutaconic aciduria
    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria also known as MGA is a term that is used to depict at least 5 varying disorders which makes the body incapable of creating mitochondrial energy. Due to this impairment, 3-methylglutaric acid and 3-methylglutaconic acid create a buildup and their presence can be detected in the patient's urine. 3-Methylglutaconic acid, by classification, is an organic acid. The potency of this acid is made possible by the roles of the double carboxylic acids. The acid function makes the 3-methylglutaconic acid detectable. [read more]

  • 3M Syndrome
    3M syndrome is known by many names. It can also be called as Three M syndrome or dolicospondylic dysplasia; le Merrer syndrome or gloomy syndrome (because prevalent symptoms show malformities on the patients' faces). This is a very rare illness where only 32 patients have been reported to have acquired it. Its name originated from the names of the authors who first described the characteristics of the illness. The authors' names were Miller, J.D., Malvaux P. and the third is McKusick, V.A. No mental retardation has been mentioned as a result of 3M. This disorder is known as an autosomal recessive trait of the genes and can be inherited. [read more]

  • 46,xx gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid
    46 Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid can be best described as a female in her adolescent period that experiences no changes even during this age of puberty. This is because this disorder is a type of female hypogonadism. When this disorder is acquired, the ovaries do not develop and function to perform their duties. With this type of disorder, female patients experience a deficiency in their supply of estrogen while the LH and FSH levels are at their peak. It is advisable to give the patient hormonal treatments such as the introduction of estrogen and progesterone to the body. [read more]

  • 47 XXY Syndrome
    47 XXY syndrome is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome, or simply, the XXY syndrome. Chromosome aneuploidy causes the occurrence of this condition. The male patients develop an extra X chromosome. Typically, males should have one each of the X and the Y chromosomes. Patients who suffer from this condition have smaller testicles when compared to their normal male counterparts and thus, they acquire problems on infertility. There are very few symptoms to this syndrome and the cases vary among boys and men. The term for this illness was named after an endocrinologist, Harry Klinefelter. 1942 was the year when he first described the XXY syndrome. The patients who suffer with XXY syndrome are called XXY males or 47,XXY males. [read more]

  • 47 XYY Syndrome
    The XYY syndrome should never be interchanged with the XXY syndrome which is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome. XYY syndrome is a condition when a male patient acquires an extra Y chromosome in addition to the normal one X and one Y chromosomes. It is often argued whether the term ‘syndrome' should be used in connection to the XYY condition since the patients' phenotypes are normal and they do not have knowledge of their karyotype. [read more]

  • 48,XXXX Syndrome
    48 XXXX syndrome is a very rare disorder of the chromosomes where the normal XX combination becomes a quadruple X grouping. This condition is also called tetrasomy X, 48, XXXX or quadruple X and is only seen among females as there is no Y chromosome involved. The first occurrence of this disorder was discovered in 1961 and since then, there are about 100 reported cases globally. [read more]

  • 48,XXYY Syndrome
    Previously known to be a variant or type of the Klinefelter's syndrome, this condition is an anomaly of the sex chromosome. The features usually include gynecomastia (having enlarged male breasts), ulcers of the skin, deformed craniofacial features, and being unusually tall. It is also believed to affect 1 in every 17,000 male babies that are born. XXYY is just one of the many variations of chromosomal defects which include the following: 47 xxy, xy, xxxxy, and xxxy; also the xyy. These syndromes affect males whereas female counterparts include the Turner syndrome and other varieties with added X chromosomes. [read more]

  • Aagenaes syndrome
    Aagenaes syndrome is a condition which is characterized by inborn hypoplasia of the lymph vessels. This eventually causes recurring cholestasis on the formative years lymphedema on the legs. This could develop into hepatic cirrhosis and giant cell hepatitis (which could occur with portal tract fibrosis). The name of Aagenaes syndrome was derived from a pediatrician in Norway named Oystein Aagenaes. The name was finalized in 1968 when the condition was first described by Aagenaes. It is sometimes called cholestasis-lymphedema syndrome or simply CLS. [read more]

  • Aarskog Ose Pande Syndrome
    Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is a rare type of medical disorder where the main symptoms include lipodystrophy on the buttocks and face. Since this is an adipose tissue defect, the loss of body fat in the body could get severe and this state could progress extensively. There are three kinds of lipodystrophy: localized lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and total lipodystrophy. One other symptom is Rieger anomaly. This anomaly is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of teeth (it could also mean the delay of tooth eruption) and some abnormalities of the eyes and face. Having sparse hair is also a common sign. This does not only mean hair on one's head but also body hairs. Other defects include retardation of bone age and abnormal motion of the joints (which could eventually lead to dislocation). This syndrome could begin to affect the patient as early as the fetal stage. It could ruin the growth of the fetus in the uterus by slowing its development. When this happens, many other systems are affected. Development of the patient's skills on speech could also be delayed when this disorder is acquired. This and all other symptoms are similar to characteristics of many other diseases that is why the physician should perform a thorough checkup of the patient to be able to diagnose the real condition. Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is also considered as a variant of Short syndrome. This symptom does not only mean having a short stature but also having low weight at birth and fat losses on the skin. [read more]

  • Aarskog Syndrome
    Aarskog syndrome is an inherited disorder that is often characterized by abnormalities of the face, short stature, genital abnormalities and mucoloskeletal anomalies. [read more]

  • Aase Smith syndrome (or Aase syndrome)
    Aase Smith syndrome also known as Aase syndrome is a very rare disorder that can be inherited. It is often characterized by skeletal and joint defects. Aase syndrome is known as an autosomal dominant condition. The genetic origin of the illness is still not known. Anemia which results from this syndrome is often caused by the underdevelopment of bone marrows. These bone marrows are where formation of blood cells takes place. The syndrome was named after two pediatricians who were David Weyhe Smith and Jon Morton Aase. [read more]

  • Abasia
    Abasia is a condition where the patient is unable to walk due to impaired muscle synchronization. This means that the patient lacks motor synchronization in walking. With this condition, the foundation of gait (this is the distance of the two feet when measured sideways) is not constant or cannot be measured. This often leads the patient to sway from side to side or in any other direction, nearly falls, only to recover in the end. There are many other medical conditions that are connected to this disorder: choreic abasia (brought about by chorea of the leg); paralytic abasia (this is a paralysis of the muscles in the legs); spastic abasia (a condition where the leg muscles stiffen because they do not coordinate properly); ataxic abasia (legs become ataxic); paroxysmal trepidant abasia (a condition where the legs become spastic); trembling abasia (by its name, it means trembling legs). Abasia often comes with astasis (this is the state of being unable to stand). This condition is also referred to as astasia-abasia. [read more]

  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be diagnosed on anyone but the most viable candidates are men aged over 60. Couple this range of age with some of the common risk factors and the patient is on his way to developing this condition. This disorder happens when a blood vessel enlarges abnormally or causes a protrusion. The abdominal aorta, which is a huge blood vessel, is the one responsible in supplying blood to the abdomen, the legs and the pelvic area. When this abdominal aortic aneurysm raptures, is truly becomes life-threatening and should be attended to immediately. [read more]

  • Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma
    Cystic lymphangioma is a very rare tumor (comprises just about 6% of tumors that are benign in children) which is often located in the axillary or cervical regions. Sometimes, there are exceptional cases where it is situated in the abdomen. When it is situated in the abdomen, it becomes a rare type of benign tumor which often appears in infants and some children under the age of 5. Boys are more vulnerable to this disease. Abdominal cystic lymphangioma happens when there is an inborn defect in the link of central connecting structure and the primary lymphatic channel. This manifests in abdominal tumors which could occur even without any compression from structures that are adjacent to that part. When clinically tested, these cysts appear as pseudo appendices or pseudo-ascites syndrome. [read more]

  • Abdominal Defects
    Defects of the abdominal wall are comparatively common fetal abnormalities. It occurs in about 1 in every 2,000 births. Majority of these defects of the abdominal wall cannot be detected early on in pregnancy. When a defect is detected, it is necessary to pinpoint what type of defect it is so that proper medication and treatments can be done. There are many types of abdominal wall disorders. Some examples include: gastroschisis, omphalocele, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia. [read more]

  • Abdominal Pain
    Abdominal pain is is a medical condition that is characterized by the occurrence of the pain felt in the abdomen. [read more]

  • Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome or AMS is a very uncommon genetic disorder that can be inherited. This syndrome is characterized by various physical defects which usually affect areas of the face, fingers, skin, and the genitalia (penis symptoms and some defects on the testes). Patients of AMS could also have other malformations on their abdominal walls or on their nipples. Other traits include having underdeveloped eyelids (or Ablepharon); the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes; mouths that look like that of a fish's (also known as Macrostomia); cracked skin; ears that appear to be low-set (also known as pinnae). The eye defects could appear due to ablepharon. Some people with AMS could also have very thin or sparse hair (alopecia); their skin appears to be wrinkled, dry, coarse, or thick; their fingers could also be webbed and with inadequate extension; the genitalia could have external malformations. In very few cases of Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome, the patient could have little or no nipples at all (having small nipples is known as hypoplastic nipples). One of the worst characteristics could be the protrusion of some parts of the large intestine through a dilated portion of the abdominal wall (this condition is called ventral or abdominal hernia). Infants and children who suffer from AMS may have some delays on the development of their language skills. Some of them may manifest signs of mild retardation of the mind while others may grow up to be normal. A disorder that appears to have the same features as Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is the Barber-say syndrome. The latter is characterized by laxity of the skin; ablepharon; hypertelorism, macrostomia, telecanthus, acute hirsutism, and helix agenesis of the pair of ears. Less common signs of AMS include undescended testes and hernia on the umbilicus. [read more]

  • Abscess Bartholin
    Abscess, bartholin (Bartholin's abscess) is characterized by the accumulation of pus that results in the formation of a lump or swelling in one of the Batholin glands, which are located on each side of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Absent T lymphocytes
    The deficiency or absence of T lymphocytes is a rare immuno-deficiency condition which is characterized by the lack of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the absence or depression of the function of the T cell. A mutation of the gene for ZAP-70 (tyrosine kinase which has notable effects on indicating through the T cell receptor) has been associated with this syndrome. T cells are cells that belong to a cluster of white blood cells which are known as the lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are responsible in cell-mediated immunity. They are distinguished from the other types of lymphocytes (the NK cells and the B cells) through the presence of a specific receptor on the surface of these cells. This receptor is called as T cell receptor or the TCR. The T abbreviation in T cell refers to thymus which is the primary organ in the development of the T cell. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis
    Acanthocytosis is a phenotype of the red cell which can be found in different fundamental conditions. Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome or Abetalipoproteinemia; and an acute disease of the liver (spur cell hemolytic anemia) are the most common conditions that can be associated with acanthocytosis. Acantha is a Greek word for thorn and it is fitting that it is given to name the spur cells that have projections of different sizes which are the acanthocytes. These cells appear to be contracted, irregular, and dense. The formation of these cells depends on the alteration of the fat composition and the fluidity of red cell's membrane. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis chorea
    The mean age of the start of chorea-acanthocystosis or ChAc is approximately at age 35. There are a few cases, though, where it can occur as early as the initial decade or it can be as late as the 70th year of life. It runs a persistent progressive course and it may end up as a major disability in just a few years. Some patients become dependent on wheelchairs or become bedridden just on the third decade. It is certain that the individual's life expectancy will be reduced; there are even cases of unexplained or sudden deaths when the patient goes through an epileptic seizure. The range of the patients' ages at death is at 28-61 years. [read more]

  • Acanthosis nigricans
    Acanthosis Nigricans is a dermatological condition where the skin appears to be brown to black in color. It also appears to be poorly defined, often velvety and is considered to be a state of hyperpigmentation. This is usually present in the lateral and posterior folds of the groin, the neck, the axilla, the umbilicus, and also some other areas. The changes on the skin's pigment are the sole signs of acanthosis nigricans. It can be noticed that it appears very slowly (sometimes it can take months or years). It is very rare that the affected areas may itch. This condition can begin at any age but it is more evident among darker-skinned individuals. [read more]

  • Accessory pancreas
    Accessory pancreas is a medical condition that is rare and in which there are little clusters of pancreatic cells that are distinct from the pancreas. This condition could occur in the mesentery of small intestines, duodenal walls, the upper portion of the jejunum or, in its rarest form—in the stomach walls, spleen, ileum or gallbladder. Accessory pancreas was first observed and described in 1859 by Klob. [read more]

  • Achalasia
    Achalasia also called esophageal achalasia; cardiospasm, achalasia cardiae; dyssynergia esophagus or esophageal aperistalsis; is an esophageal motility disease. This disorder manifests an impaired peristalsis of the smooth muscle level of the esophagus. Peristalsis is the term used to describe the muscular capability of the esophagus to make the food move down to the stomach). Also, a patient with achalasia has a lower esophageal sphincter or LES that cannot relax which is its normal response to swallowing. The most common form of this disorder is primary achalasia. This form has no recorded underlying cause. Esophageal cancer (Chagas disease in South America) could be a result of achalasia. [read more]

  • Achard-Thiers syndrome
    The Achard Thiers syndrome, also called the Diabetic Bearded Woman syndrome or diabete des femmes a barbe, is a rare disease which occurs commonly among women who are in their postmenopausal stage. Its name was derived from the combination of the names of Joseph Thiers and Emile Achard. This is characterized by insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (an example is glucosuria) and also indications of excess in androgen. This syndrome has the combined features of Cushing syndrome and Adrenogenital syndrome. It is a form of virilizing disease which is adrenocortical in origin. And since androgen is excessive on this disease, the common manifestations are masculinization (the voice pitch is lowered) and menstrual disorders (the menstrual flow can be sparse or non-existent). There are also cases of growth of ‘manly hair' all over the body. The most common complication of this disorder is hirsutism. [read more]

  • Acheiropodia
    Acheiropodia is a disorder that is autosomal recessive in nature and which results into hemimelia (or the lack of distal extremities formation). This is an inborn defect consisting of aplasia of the patient's feet and hands and also distal lower and upper extremities bilateral amputations. This disease is found almost solely in Brazil. Other terms for this disorder include Acheiropody, Horn Kolb syndrome and Aleijadinhos (the Brazilian kind). [read more]

  • Achondrogenesis
    Marco Fraccaro was the very first person to observe and record the description of achondrogenesis in the year 1952. Fraccaro used this name in description of a stillborn female who was afflicted with acute micromelia and apparent changes on her histological cartilage. This term was then coined to characterize many more acute kinds of chondrodysplasia among humans. The conditions were invariably lethal on pre and post births. When the 70's came, researchers have concluded that the disorder is a part of a heterogenous cluster of chondrodysplasias that are fatal to neonates. Histological and radiological measures have distinguished the achondrogenesis type 1 (which is the Fraccaro-Houston-Harris kind) and the type 2 (or the Langer-Saldino kind). 1983 marked a new radiological category of the disease (Types 1-4). This was done by Gorlin and Whitley and was adapted by the McKusick catalog. This classification describes types 1 and 2 as having similar femoral cylinder indeces (or Clfemur which is calculated as the length of the femur bone divided by the range of the width of the same bone. Both kinds have stellate elongated bones and crenated ilia. Both types 1 and 2 are characterized by several rib fractures. Type 3 has ribs that are non-fractured, mushroom-stemmed elongated bones, halberd ilia, and a Clfemur 2.8 to 4.9. The last type (type 4) has sculpted ilia, long bones that are well-developed, non-fractured ribs and Clfemur measured at 4.9 to 8.0. The late 80's was the time when mutations on the collagen II structure were depicted to cause achondrogenesis type 3 (which might also correspond to type 2). At present, only 3 variants of the disorder have been identified and they are type IA or the Houston-Harris type; type IB (or the Parenti-Fraccaro type); and type II (or the Langer-Saldino type). [read more]

  • Achondroplasia
    Achondroplasia is a kind of autosomal disorder of the dominant genes which commonly causes dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs are short in stature and their average height when they reach adulthood is at 123 centimeters (about 4 feet and 0.6 inches) for females and 131 centimeters (about 4 feet and 3.8 inches) for males. [read more]

  • Achondroplastic Dwarfism
    Achondroplastic Dwarfism is a medical condition characterized by the occurrence of the disturbance of the growth of the bones. [read more]

  • Achromatopsia
    Achromatopsia or ACHM is a condition where the patient is unable to perceive color. Although this name may also be used to refer to acquired defects such as cerebral achromatopsia or color agnosia, it normally refers to a congenital disorder of the vision which is autosomal recessive in nature. It can also be called rod monochromacy or total inborn color blindness. Patients with this kind of disorder manifest total absence of the cone cell activity through electroretinography. At least 4 causes are listed as congenital ACHM: ACHM2 and ACHM3; the third type is a cone photoreceptor transducin called GNAT2, ACHM4; the last cause is still unknown. [read more]

  • Acid maltase deficiency
    Acid maltase deficiency or AMD is a type of autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by an extreme buildup of glycogen contained by vacuoles (in almost all cell types) that are lysosome-derived. Quantities of free extralysosomal glycogen that are in excess have also been depicted. AMD was first observed and described by JC Pompe in 1932 at Amsterdam. He reported a case of a baby girl, aged 7 months, who became chronically ill from what they believed to be pneumonia. The autopsy that was done later showed an uncommonly engorged heart but with normal valves. This condition was called cardiomegalia glycogenica diffusa by Pompe. He considered it as a disorder that is analogous to the von Gierke syndrome. This very first article was soon followed by reports that seemed similar. The two other authors described the children as afflicted with cardiomegaly and acute muscle weakness. They died in their early infancy. Their disease was linked to an excess in the deposition of glycogen in numerous tissues. This disorder was then named the Pompe disease and by the year 1957, it was typified as type 2 glycogenosis by GT Cori. [read more]

  • Acidemia, isovaleric
    Isovaleric Acidemia or isovaleric aciduria is an autosomal metabolic illness which prevents or disturbs the normal metabolism of branched-chain amino acid leucine. It is a traditional form of organic academia. [read more]

  • Acidemia, propionic
    Propionic acidemia also known as propionic aciduria or ketotic glycinemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder which is characterized by the deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase (an enzyme that is involved in breaking down the amino acids). It is categorized as branched-chain organic acidemia which often presents symptoms early on in the neonatal period which comes with progressive encephalopathy. [read more]

  • Acne
    Acne vulgaris or just acne is a common skin disease which is caused by changes on the pilosebaceous units (structures of the skin which consist of sebaceous gland and a hair follicle). The severe cases of acne are often inflamed but it can also show up as non-inflamed. Lesions are common and they are called spots, zits or pimples. This condition is common during the stage of puberty (affecting about 85% of teeners) while some cases carry on to adulthood. Most acne cases diminish and then disappear over time and this begins during the early twenties of an individual's life. There are no means of predicting when the disease will totally disappear because some cases continue even when the person is already in his thirties or forties. Acne is an altered form of the Greek word akun (or skin eruption). The vernacular name bakne or bacne is used often to specify acne that is found at the back of a person. [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma also known as a vestibular schwannoma is a primary intracranial tumor that is benign. This is a tumor of the cells that form myelin of the CN VIII or vestibulocochlear nerve. Neuroma is a derivation of a Greek word which means ‘tumor of the nerve'. The name ‘acoustic' is a misnomer because the tumor hardly occurs from the cochlear or acoustic part of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The precise medical name is vestibular schwannoma. This is because it engages the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve and it occurs from schwann cells (the cells that are responsible for the peripheral nervous system myelin sheath). [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma is a medical condition that is characterized by the growth of a tumor that usually develops in nerves near the ear. is a benign, usually slow-growing tumor that develops from certain nerves in the inner ear. No one knows exactly what causes acoustic neuroma. As an acoustic neuroma develops, it presses against the nerves related to balance and hearing, causing early symptoms such as: one-sided or high-tone hearing loss, ringing in the ear, dizziness, and problems with balance. Once a diagnosis of acustic neuroma is made, the doctor can describe the available treatment options. [read more]

  • Acquired Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis is an inherited disorder of the skin. This disorder is an extreme type of ichthyosis which can afflict both sexes all over the world. When this disease is acquired because of a causal disorder, although, it is very rare; it is still not known how this occurs. But there are studies that claim that it can result from mutations of the genes. The mutated genes can be passed from one generation onto the next. The mutation is believed to cause the abnormality in the skin's standard lifecycle. Normal people shed dead skin cells unnoticed but patients of ichthyosis produce new cells of the skin at a rate where their rate of shedding could not cope. This way, there is a dead skin cell buildup and the patient's skin would then appear to be dry or scaly. Acquired ichthyosis often occurs in adulthood. It could occur before or after a systemic condition diagnosis. [read more]

  • Acquired Syphilis
    Syphilis is a venereal medical condition which is and which comes in two categories: acquired or congenital. Acquired syphilis is further divided into sub-categories which are early and late. The early stage consists of the primary, secondary and the early latent less than two years of being infected. The late sub-category is described as late latent greater than two years, tertiary which includes gummatous, neurological and cardiovascular involvement, the two latter forms are also termed as quartenary syphilis. [read more]

  • Acrocyanosis
    Acrocyanosis refers to a condition where the hands, feet or even the face persistently appear to have cyanotic or blue discoloration. The bluish color is caused by the lowered oxygen levels on the patient's extremities (some areas that can also be affected are the nipples, just the nose, or lips). The condition may not only manifest the pallor on the extremities but this discoloration could be accompanied by feelings of numbness, pins and needles sensation, soreness or even pain. The toes or fingers could also appear to be shiny and the tight-skinned. Acrocyanosis could also cause vasomotor disturbance (such as in the case of Raynaud's disease). This is a disease of the arterioles of the hands and feet that are exposed which also involves unusual contraction of the arteriolar walls which are magnified by exposing the areas to cold. This exposure results into the blue, mottled skin, sweating of the feet or hands, and chilling. It has been observed that patients who suffer from acrocyanosis may have acquired this condition because of the occurrence of other conditions before it such as emotional or mental disturbance. Neurocirculatory asthenia could also be an underlying cause. This condition can be subdivided into two forms: acrocyanosis (non-benign) with a sign which could allude to a more chronic medical concern; and acrocyanosis (benign) which is the more common condition which requires very little, if any, medical treatment. Females who are in their 20's are more vulnerable to the illness. The good thing about this condition is, it can improve as the patient ages. [read more]

  • Acrofacial dysostosis, Nager type
    Acrofacial dysostosis or Nager syndrome is a term that was coined by Nager and DeReynier in 1948. This condition is described as a syndrome which involves the upper limbs and skull. The most ordinary type of acrofacial dysostosis is the Nager Type (NAFD) of the so-called pre-axial acrofacial dysostosis. Generally, the effects of Nager type acrofacial dysostosis are palpebral fissures that are down-slanted; micrognathia; coloboma of the lower eyelids; and absent or hypoplastic radii or thumbs. [read more]

  • Acromegaly
    Acromegaly was derived from the Greek word ‘akros' meaning ‘extremities' or ‘extreme' and ‘megalos' which means ‘large'. This is a syndrome which results as the pituitary gland has an overproduction of hGH or growth hormone following the closure of the epiphyseal plate. There are several disorders that could cause the pituitary gland to come up with this circumstance. Most of these conditions involve a tumor that produces GH which is derived from a distinctive cell type (called somatotrophs) and named pituitary adenoma. [read more]

  • Acromicric Dysplasia
    Acromicric dysplasia is a very rare inherited illness that is often characterized by unusually short feet and hands, retardation of the patient's growth and delays on bone maturation which lead to short stature, and mild abnormalities of the face. The face often appears with a happy or ‘smiling' expression thus the descriptive word geleophysic which is derived from the Greek word ‘gelios' which means ‘laughing' and ‘phylis' meaning ‘nature'. Most of the number of cases for this illness has occurred in random for no obvious reason (sporadic). It has not been ruled out, though, that this is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. The disease database clearly indicates that acromicric dysplasia is similar to Geleophysic dwarfism (also known as Geleophysic dysplasia) and Focal mucopolysaccharidosis. [read more]

  • Acrophobia
    Acrophobia is derived from the Greek word ‘akpoc' which means ‘summit'. This phobia is described as the irrational dread of high places. This belongs to a certain category of phobias which are called motion and space discomfort (these two share like etiology and choices of treatment). This phobia could become very dangerous because those who suffer from it could experience attacks of panic when on a high place. As a result, they could become so agitated and they would have troubles getting themselves down to the ground safely. Vertigo is often associated or link with acrophobia and it is sometimes misconstrued as the phobia itself. The former is a feeling of nausea which is correctly described as a sensation of being spun. Vertigo can be caused by acrophobia when the person gets to a high place and then experience nausea. This type of vertigo that is triggered by heights is referred to as height vertigo. [read more]

  • Activated Protein C Resistance
    Activated protein C resistance is a hemostatic disease which is characterized by a reduced anticoagulant response to APC or activated protein C. The result is a heightened risk of venous thrombosis. The activated protein C resistance or APCr was first studied and reported by Dahlback in 1993. Activated protein C with protein S as its co-factor degrades Factor VIIIa and Factor Va. Activated protein C resistance is the failure of protein C to cleave Factor VIIIa and/or Factor Va. This permits for a longer extent of thrombin generation and could proceed to the hypercoabulable phase. The most common form of hereditary resistance to activated protein C is Factor V Leiden. Acquired types occur together with elevated concentrations of Factor VIII. It has been evaluated that up to 64% of people who are afflicted with venous thromboembolism could also have activated protein C resistance. [read more]

  • Acute articular rheumatism
    Acute articular rheumatism is a rare and non-contagious medical condition brought about by a bacterial joint infection that can possibly come with a heightened risk of the development of heart complications. Adults are the common victims affected by this disease. However, statistics have shown that less than 200, 000 Americans are afflicted with this condition, which explains why it is categorized as a rare disease. [read more]

  • Acute gouty arthritis
    Acute gouty arthritis is characterized as sudden pain attacks in the joints, most especially in the legs and feet due to the buildup of uric acid in the joints. Gout is generally caused by an abnormality in the individual's metabolism which results to the proliferation if uric acid that consequently reduced the ability of the kidney to get rid of the uric acid. Patients suffering from sickle cell anemia, diabetes and obesity as well as kidney disorders are among the people who are most likely to develop acute gouty arthritis. [read more]

  • Acute Idiopathic Polyneuritis
    Acute idiopathic polyneuritis, also known as Gullain-Barre syndrome (GBS), is a rare but progressive paralyzing disorder of the peripheral nerves. [read more]

  • Acute intermittent porphyria
    Acute intermittent porphyria is a very rare metabolic disorder that is characterized by an abnormal deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme that would result to the buildup of polyphyrins. This medical condition is inherited and is passed on from one generation to another. [read more]

  • Acute myelocytic leukemia
    Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is known to be the most common type of leukemia, which is found in adults, although people pf all ages can be affected by this serious medical condition. In AML, underdeveloped leukemia cells accumulate in the patient's bone marrow, thereby causing the destruction and replacement of cells that would produce normal blood cells. [read more]

  • Acute Pancreatitis
    Acute Pancreatitis is a medical condition whereby there is an inflammation of the pancreas. [read more]

  • Acute renal failure
    Acute renal failure is more popularly known as acute kidney failure or injury, and is characterized by the rapid loss of renal utility that causes serious damage to the kidney. Depending on the durationg and the extent of the condition, the accumulation may also be accompanied with metabolic disturbances such as acidification of the blood, fluid balance changes and elevated postassium levels. This is a serious medical condition that requires immediate medical attention. [read more]

  • Acute Tubular Necrosis
    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular cells that form the tubule that transports urine to the ureters while reabsorbing 99% of the water, highly concentrating the salts and metabolic byproducts. Tubular cells continually replace themselves, and if the cause of ATN is taken out, then recovery is likely. ATN presents with acute renal failure and is one of the most frequent causes of ARF. The presence of "muddy brown casts" of epithelial cells present in the urine during urinalysis is pathognomonic for ATN. ATN may be classified as either toxic or ischemic. Toxic ATN arises when the tubular cells are exposed to a toxic substance (nephrotoxic ATN). Ischemic ATN occurs when the tubular cells do not get adequate amounts of oxygen, a condition they are highly sensitive to due to their very high metabolism. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
    Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD) is a rare hereditary disease that is the result of the lack of an enzyme required to convert fat to energy. People with MCADD cannot refrain from eating for very long. Fasting starts after the body has used all the food that the person has eaten, then begins to use the body's own fat to make energy. When people with MCADD fast, they can experience a variety of serious life threatening symptoms or even death. Persons with MCADD cannot utilize this fat to make energy, consequently, the body begins to fail and malfunction once the food the person has eaten runs out. [read more]

  • Addiction
    Addiction was a term used to describe an attachment, devotion, dedication, inclination, etc. Nowadays, however, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, social life, or mental state. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as compulsive overeating and problem gambling. Factors that have been suggested as causes of addiction include biological/pharmacological, genetic, and social factors. [read more]

  • Addison's Disease
    Addison's disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces inadequet amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It may arise in children as well as adults, and may occur as the result of a large number of underlying causes. The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who initially described the condition in his 1855 On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. The adjective "Addisonian" is used for features of the condition, as well as individuals with Addison's disease. The condition is typically diagnosed with blood tests, medical imaging and additional investigations. Treatment is with replacement of the certain hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). If the disease is the result of an underlying problem, this is addressed. Regular follow-up and monitoring for other health problems is required. [read more]

  • Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
    Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form, also known as Christian syndrome or Craniostenosis arthrogryposis cleft palate, is a rare disease that affects multiple systems which causes malformations of the palate, thumbs, and upper limbs. [read more]

  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Adenocarcinoma of the lung (or lung cancer) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both women and men in the United States and throughout the world. Lung cancer has beaten breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In 2007, 160,390 people were projected to die from lung cancer in the United States, which is more than the number of deaths from colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer combined. Only about 2% of those diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body are living five years after the diagnosis, although the survival rates for lung cancers diagnosed at a very early stage are higher, with approximately 49% surviving for five years or longer. Cancer arises when normal cells undergo a transformation that causes them to grow and multiply without the normal controls. The cells form a mass or tumor that varies from the surrounding tissues from which it arises. Tumors are dangerous because they take nutrients, oxygen, and space from healthy cells. [read more]

  • Adenoma of the adrenal gland
    Adrenal adenomas are categorized as benign or a non-cancerous form of tumour of the adrenal gland. It can arise from the gland's outer layer or what is known as as the adrebal cortez. Ig the adenoma produces hormones, it is considered as a functioning adenoma and non-functioning for adenomas that do not produce hormones. [read more]

  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
    Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency (ADA) is a highly rare genetic disorder and is categorized as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency that largely affects body's immune system. To date, there are only about a dozen documented cases of ADA deficiency. This genetic disease is known to be quite fatal, and often lead to death if afflicted patients do not seek treatment. People who have this disease usually lead a sheltered life and live in enclosed environment to prevent exposure to infectious agents. [read more]

  • Adenosine monophosphate deaminase
    Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMD) is a type of muscle-specific deficiency that is a common cause of many exercise-induced myopathy and is one of the most common causes of metabolic myopathy among human beings. [read more]

  • Adie syndrome
    Adie syndrome, sometimes reffered to as Adie's Tonic Pupil or Holmes-Adies Syndrome is categorized as a neurological disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and the pupil of the patient's eye. It causes damage to the postganglionic fibers of the eye that is usually brought about by bacterial or viral infection. [read more]

  • Adiposis dolorosa
    Adiposis dolorosa, is also known as Dercum's disease and Ander's disease, which is a type of a rare disease that is characterized by some multiple painful lipomas that usually arise in adult life. Among the individuals commonly afflicted with this disease are those who are also battling with obesity and occurs on both men and women. [read more]

  • Adrenal cancer
    Adrenal cancer is a very rare disease that begins in the patient's adrenal glands, which is located on the top section of the kidneys. The tumors can rapidly increase the production of hormones. The good news is about 99% of adrenal tumors are non-cancerous and would not normally require any form of treatment when small in size. It does not produce any detectable symptoms which is why patients diagnosed with this disorder find out about this condition purely by accident in other examination for completely unrelated diseases. [read more]

  • Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenital, X-linked (Adrenal Hypoplasia)
    There are four types of congenital adrenal hypoplasia that have been recognized and they are the following: an X-linked type or the OMIM 300200 which is caused by a deletion or mutation of the AHCH gene or the DAX1 gene (found in the X chromosome dosage-receptive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital vital region). This type is often linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It might be a component of an adjacent deletion of chromosome (this may include congenital adrenal hypoplasia, OMIM 310200 or the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and OMIM 307030 or glyce3rol kinase deficiency; the second type is the autosomal recessive type and it is caused by a deletion or mutation of the gene which is responsible for coding for SF-1 or steroidogenic factor 1 on OMIM 184757 or chromosome 9q99. This type is also linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; The third type is an autosomal recessive type. This type has a vague etiology (or OMIM 240200); The fourth type of adrenal hypoplasia which is linked with the retardation of intrauterine growths, genital defects, and metaphysical dysplasia is the OMIM 300290 or the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysical dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, genital defects) association. The X-linked type adrenal hypoplasia congenital is a disease which is mainly acquired by males. It usually involves several endocrine tissues of the body most especially the gmall glands above the kidneys or the adrenal glands. The characteristics that often manifest are a reduction in the function of the adrenal gland; hypoglycemia; dehydration, feeding difficulties; and shock. Other male patients might also be sexually underdeveloped. The females who are rarely affected also have adrenal insufficiency and a deficiency of sex hormones. [read more]

  • Adrenomyodystrophy
    Adrenomyodystrophy is a rare genetic disease which is often characterized by chief adrenal insufficiency, acute psychomotor retardation, dystrophic myopathy, and an acutely swollen bladder which can result into death. [read more]

  • Adult Onset Still's Disease
    Still's disease was first discovered as a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that is common among children but is now also discovered to have a few cases in adults. The adult type is called the adult onset Still's disease (or AOSD). AOSD was first described by an English doctor in 1971. The physician's name was Bywaters who is also famous for his work on the crush syndrome. There are varying theories as to the cause of Still's disease. There is a suggestion that it originated from a microbacterial infection. To this day, the cause of the illness remains unknown. It is more securely established that the disorder's pathogenesis is autoimmune. [read more]

  • Adult Schizophrenia
    Adult Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most complex of all identified mental health disorders. It is characterized by a severe and chronic, often disabling disturbance of the person's brain that causes distorted thinking, unusual strange feelings and disturbed behavior and use of language. [read more]

  • Agammaglobulinemia
    Agammaglobulinemia is also called hypogammaglobulinemia. It is the most ordinary type of primary immunodeficiency which accounts to about 50% of all the cases. The three major kinds can be defined as: early onset, late onset, and X-linked. It was only after more than 50 years since the clinical manifestation was first recorded in 1952 by a certain Bruton. He described that the defect on the molecule in XLA or X-linked agammaglobulinemia has been explicated. To honor Bruton, the responsible gene was named Btk which means Bruton tyrosine kinase. It is estimated that 90% of the patients with the early-onset kind of agammaglobulinemia and the lack of B cells have defects on their Btk genes. The late-onset type is often referred to as the CVID or Common Variable Immunodeficiency. The last type is the early-onset non-Bruton agammaglobuliemia with absent or just low serum immunoglobulin (or Ig). Most of the cases are representative of a very heterogenous group which includes Ig deficiency with an increase in immunoglobulin M or hyper-IgM syndrome. There are also some infants who have an initial reading of low Ig level which soon increases to the normal level. This is named as Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. Currently, the production of defective antibodies and the low circulation of a number of B cells were descriptive of some female infants and some males who do not have any Btk defects. These records imply the participation of other genes. [read more]

  • Aganglionosis
    Aganglionosis is a medical term used to describe absence of the ganglia or ganglion cells from the myenteric plexus. [read more]

  • Aging
    Aging, also known as the cycle of life, is any form of change of an organism as time passes. There are many dimensions to aging such the physical, psychological, mental, and emotional aspects. For example, the time of reaction of a human being is lessened or slowed as he ages while his wisdom and knowledge of facts may improve. There should be a distinction between universal aging (where all people go through) and probabilistic aging (which is a type of aging that occurs only to some and not all individuals). An example of probabilistic aging is the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Chronological aging refers to the actual age of an individual and it can clearly be distinguished from social aging (where the society expects people to behave in accordance to their age and status). The third type of aging is biological aging (which is the person's physical state as he ages). Age measurement is done through entire years or months in the case of infants. An individual's birthday is often a significant event. As to mental aging, it is a bit more challenging to categorize individuals under this type because an older person does not guarantee mental or emotional capacities that are greater than the younger generation. [read more]

  • Agoraphobia
    Agoraphobia is usually referred to as "fear of open spaces" though this explanation is simple and confusing. Agoraphobia is like an irrational fear or anxiety related with unknown environment or events or situations though this explanation also oversimplifies a complicated topic.. Panic attacks from panic disorder, usually causes agoraphobia to arise in several situations and the fear of places or situations happen when these were the reasons of the panic attacks. Agoraphobia in other words is the “fear of having another panic attack” or simply the fear of something or somewhere that may cause a panic attack. A violent sequence situates in where worry or fear of certain places or circumstances create a panic attack more possible to happen, which in turn elevates the level of anxiety. No matter what the explanation is, agoraphobia can not be only put pressure emotionally but it can really turn to be devastating which results to a life of self-imposed loneliness. [read more]

  • Agyria
    Agyria which actually means smooth brain is an unusual brain formation disorder distinguished by the absence of normal folds in the brain. Malfunctioning neuronal movement is the cause of Agyria where in the nerve cells travel from their original place to their stable location. It is a kind of cephalic disorder. Convolutions or gyri refer to the folds in the brain and this forms the surface of the normal brain. Young patients who have Agyria has have a lack of or partially formed convolutions which makes the exterior of the brain smooth. [read more]

  • Aicardi syndrome
    Aicardi syndrome is an unusual abnormality syndrome distinguished by the lack of a major structure in the brain referred to as corpus callosum, the existence of abnormalities in the retina adn seizures in the form of immature spasms. An X-linked dominant trait is inherited in Aicardi syndrome that is fatal in males. [read more]

  • Ainhum
    Ainhum is a disease characterized by painful constriction of the fifth toe. This generally leads to amputation after a few years. Ainhum is more common among black African descents. It is commonly found among the blacks in West Africa, India and South America. The first recorded incidence of the disease is in 1867 by J.F. da Silva Lima. He described the disease suffered by one of the tribes in Brazil, the Nagos, who gave the disease its name. It is very rare in Europe and only a few incidences have been reported. It is also more common among those in between 20 and 50 years of age, with the average in 38 years of age. The youngest patient in record to have Ainhum is seven years old. The cause of the disease is still being studied. At present though, scientists have found that it is not caused by fungi, virus, parasite, bacteria and injury. Although it linked with walking barefoot during childhood, the disease is also found among those who have not gone barefoot. Among all the predisposing factors, race has been found to be on top of the list and thus scientists believe that it has some genetic component. Scientists believe that the disease is caused by the abnormal blood supply on the foot. Angiography of the peripheral limb has shown that the tibial artery may have become attenuated at the ankle and that there is noticeable absence of the plantar arch and branches. There are four stages of ainhum: the Grade I, wherein there is the presence of the groove; Grade II, wherein the floor of the groove is ulcerated; Grade III, wherein the bone is involved; and Grade IV wherein autoamputation occurs. In about 78% of the cases there is the presence of pain. For those in the early stage the pain may be slight and may have been caused by the pressure on the nerves. For those in the advanced stage, the pain is quite severe which is caused by chronic sepsis or fracture of the phalanx. Ainhum is commonly confused with diabetic gangrene, scleroderma, leprosy, Vohwinkle syndrome and leprosy. The pain is the symptom of the ainhum and it is a progressive condition. For the treatment of the ainhum, for the Grade I and II excision of the groove and z-plasty has been proven to relieve pain and prevent autoamputation. For the Grade III disarticulating the metatarsophanlangeal joint has been proven to be as effective. [read more]

  • Akathisia
    Akathisia also spelled as acathisia from the greek word means without or not. Akathisia is characterized by restlessness. The patient is unable stay still or motionless. [read more]

  • Albinism immunodeficiency
    Albinism immunodeficiency is an unusual persistent disorder that involves multiple systems of the body and occurs from an alteration in the lysosomal trafficking regulator gene, LYST. Because of the destruction of lysosome degranulation with phagosomes phagocytosed bacteria are not damaged by the lysosome's enzymes. Additionally, emission of lytic secretory granules in the cytotoxic T cells is also distressed. Not only doe sit happen to humans but also to cattle, blue Persian cats, white tigers and orcas. [read more]

  • Albright hereditary osteodystrophy
    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, otherwise known as Martin-Albright syndrome is generally a form of osteodystrophy. This is considered to be a very rare genetic disorder characterized as the body's failure t respond and recognize parathyroid hormone. This hormone is involved in taking control of phosphate and calcium in the blood vessel. [read more]

  • Alcohol fetopathy
    Alcohol fetopathy is characterized by a series of congenital defects that affect the facial, cranial, cardiac and nueral abnormalities. This medical condition also involves mental and physical retardation that occur on infants arising from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • alcohol hepatitis
    Alcohol is commonly associated with a number of liver diseases including hepatitis. However, the relationship between alcohol hepatitis and drinking is quite complex. This is because only a small number of heavy drinkers are afflicted with alcohol hepatitis and there are some moderated drinkers who have contracted this disease. Alcohol can possibly progress to liver failure and cirrhosis if patient continues to drink and is often fatal. [read more]

  • Alcoholism
    Alcoholism is drinking alcoholic beverages at a level that obstruct with physical health, mental health, and social, family, or job responsibilities. It is a progressive medical condition that encourages alcohol dependency. You may be fascinated with alcohol and unable to control how much you drink. [read more]

  • Alien hand syndrome
    Alien hand syndrome , also identified as Dr. Strangelove syndrome and anarchic hand is an very unusual neurological disorder, characterized by the apparent loss of control of one's hand, and the sufferer's hand appears to have a mind of its own. [read more]

  • Allan-Herndon syndrome
    Allan-Herndon syndrome is categorized as an extremely rare hereditary disorder that causes severe mental retardation along with impaired speech ability, diminished muscle tone, as well as possible movement abnormalities. For most infants afflicted with this medical condition tend to develop normally during the first few months. However, when the child reaches more or less six months, the baby will appear weak and unable to hold up its head and may never learn to walk on their own. [read more]

  • Allergic Asthma
    Allergic Asthma is a medical condition that is characterized by the episodic obstruction of bronchial reactivity and airway inflammation caused by allergies. [read more]

  • Allergic Rhinitis
    Allergic Rhinitis Also called Hay Fever. Defined as an inflammation of the nasal passages, usually presents with watery nasal discharge and itching of the nose and eyes. [read more]

  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood
    Alternating hemiplegia of childhoon or “AHC” is a rare genetic disease that causes progressive mental retardation and intermittent paralysis, which starts during childhood. [read more]

  • Altophobia
    Altophobia, or acrophobia, is a person's fear of heights. This fear can be very dangerous especially to those who are exploring high elevations; they may suddenly experience panic attack while going higher above the ground causing their heart to palpitate and lead to serious complications. [read more]

  • Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an inflammation of the alveoli found in the lung. This condition is caused by hypersensitivity to various types of inhaled organic dusts. People with this disease are usually exposed to dust from their hobbies or occupations. Several types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis exist based on the provoking antigen. These include Bird-Breeder's Lung (avian proteins), Farmer's Lung (molds), Bagassosis (moldy bagasse or sugarcane), Malt Worker's Lung (moldy barley), Humidifier Lung (by mist of standing water). Mushroom Worker's Lung (mushroom compost), Compost Lung (compost), Peat Moss Worker's Lung (peat moss), Suberosis (moldy cork dust), Japanese Summer-Type HP (damp wood and mats) and Cheese-Washer's Lung (cheese casings). Other types of EAA include Hot Tub Lung, Mollusc Shell HP, Metalworking Fluids HP, Isocyanate HP, TMA HP, Beryllium and Wine-grower's Lung. The most common of all EAA are Bird-Breeder's Lung and Farmer's Lung, affecting 8 to 850 people in 100,000 persons each year for farmers alone and 6,000 to 21,000 people in 100,000 persons for pigeon breeders yearly. [read more]

  • Alveolus Cancer
    Alveolus Cancer is the cancer of the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchial tubes located in the lungs. [read more]

  • Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease, which is named after Alois Alzheimer, is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs in people aged 65 and over. This disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting over 20 million people worldwide. Once Alzheimer's has been diagnosed, the life expectancy of patients is around 7 years. Only 3% of patients live for more than 10 years. [read more]

  • Amblyopia
    Amblyopia, commonly known as “lazy eye”, is a visual system disorder characterized by poor vision in one of the eyes. However, the affected eye remains physically normal or out of proportion. This condition affects 1% to 5% of the global population. Poor or no transmission of the visual images to the brain causes lazy eye. This condition usually affects only one eye, but it could occur in both eyes if both are similarly deprived of clear visual images. However, if detected early in life, the chance of successful treatment increases. [read more]

  • Ambras syndrome
    Ambras syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by excessive hair throughout the body. It is also known as “hypertrichosis lanuginosa”, congenital hypertrichosis universalis and congenital hypertrichosis lanuginose. Ambras syndrome affects only one person in 1 billion people. Less than 40 cases of Ambras syndrome have been documented worldwide. This condition is said to have genetic component with family histories of Ambras syndrome being reported in relation to affected patients. In the 19th century, people suffering from Ambras syndrome perform in sideshow acts or circuses. People described as “wolfmen” or “werewolves” due to their excessive hair growth are most likely sufferers of Ambras syndrome. [read more]

  • Amyloidosis
    Amyloidosis is a unique and potentially deadly disease that takes place when substances called amyloid proteins build up in your organs; which areabnormal proteins commonly formed by cells in your bone marrow that can be deposited in any tissue or organ. [read more]

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    abbreviated ALS; is a disorder of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that are in charge for voluntary muscle movement. It is a crucial neurological disease that harms the nerve cells that control voluntary muscles. [read more]

  • Anal Fissure
    An anal fissure is a small tear in the lining of the anal canal. Frequently in infants' ages 6 to 24 months, anal fissures are less likely to develop in older children. Adults may generate anal fissures as a result of passing hard or large stools during bowel movements. [read more]

  • Anal Itching
    Anal itching is characterized by an intense itching felt around the anus causing extreme discomfort. This medical condition is also called pruritus ani and can be caused by a number of irritants such as abrasion of the clothing, moisture or even pressure in sitting. [read more]

  • Anemia
    Anemia comes from the Greek words “an-hama”, which means “without blood”. Anemia is the most widespread blood disorder. This condition is a deficiency of RBCs (red blood cells) or hemoglobin, the molecules inside RBCs. When hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs into tissues, anemia causes lack of oxygen in organs. When this happens, different clinical consequences may occur due to oxygen deficiency. There are three classes of anemia – excessive blood loss, excessive blood cell destruction and deficient production of red blood cells. Anemia has several types, which are produced by various underlying causes. This disease can be classified using different ways, normally based on discernible clinical spectra, the morphology of red blood cells and etiologic mechanisms. [read more]

  • Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva
    Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva, also known as “aneurysm of the aortic sinus” is a rare disorder, affecting only one person in 1,000 people. For people with Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva, it usually occurs in the right sinus, rarely in the left. Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva is a congenital disease and may possibly be associated with heart defects. This condition is sometimes associated with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Marfan Syndrome. It could also result from syphilis, chest injuries, atherosclerosis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infective endocarditis and cystic medial necrosis. When Aneurysm of sinus Valsalva is unruptured, it can be asymptomatic. As such, the condition may go undetected until symptoms become apparent or medical imaging is performed. [read more]

  • Angina Pectoris
    Angina pectoris is a type of chest pain or discomfort that is primarily caused by reduction of the blood flow to the heart muscle. This medical condition is categorized as a coronary artery disease. [read more]

  • Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia
    Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is more commonly known as the Castleman's disease, which is categorized as a very rare form of illness that primarily affects the lymph nodes as well as other immune-cell structures of the body. [read more]

  • Anhidrosis
    Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat normally that can eventually lead to overheating of the body which can be very fatal. Anhidrosis can be quite difficult to diagnose and often goes unrecognized. There are a number of factors that can cause this medical condition and treatment would usually depend on the underlying cause. [read more]

  • Anodontia
    Anodontia, also known as anodontia vera in dentistry, is a very rare genetic disorder. This disease is characterized by congenital absence of all permanent and primary teeth. Anodontia is associated with a group of nerve and skin syndromes known as “ectodermal dysplasias”. Anodontia is commonly part of different syndromes, which rarely occur as an isolated disorder. Partial anodontia, wherein the patient suffers from congenital absence of two or more teeth, could also occur. This is also known as “oligodontia” and “hypodontia”. Some patients may also suffer from congenital absence of all third molars and all wisdrom teeth. [read more]

  • Anorchia
    Anorchia is a medical condition wherein both testes are not present at birth. Anorchia is also known as congenital anorchia, vanishing testes syndrome, vanishing testes, empty scrotum and testicular regression syndrome (TRS). During the first few weeks of fertilization, the embryo needs to develop rudimentary sex organs that are very important to the development of the reproductive system. In human males, if their sex organs do not develop within the first 8 weeks, they will develop female genitalia. When the testes are lost between 8 to 10 weeks, they will develop “ambiguous genitalia” at birth. However, when the testes are lost after fourteen weeks, the baby can develop a normal, male reproductive system, but without testes. People with Anorchia have a 46-XY chromosome constellation. Signs of Anorchia include lack of secondary sex characteristics and an empty scrotum. [read more]

  • Anovulation
    Anovolution is a medical condition where by there is difficulty in ovulating thereby causing infertility. The ovary in this kind of medical condition fails to release egg which make her unable to conceive. [read more]

  • Anoxia
    Anoxia is a medical condition where there is lack of oxygen in the body to supply it to the person's organ tissues. It is also known as hypoxia inasmuch as they refer to same condition where there is not enough oxygen needed to supply the organ tissues of the body. [read more]

  • Anterior Knee Pain Syndrome
    Anterior knee pain syndrome is a degeneration of the tissue that protects the knee cap. This disease features extreme pain on the knees and is usually felt by people who are into athletic sports. [read more]

  • Anthrax
    Anthrax is an acute disease in animals and humans, which is caused by the bacterium “bacillus anthracis”. Some types of anthrax are highly lethal. There are 89 types of anthrax recorded. Unlike other types of bacteria, anthrax can form long-lived spores. As soon as the life cycle of the bacteria is threatened by various factors, such as temperature change of dying host, the bacteria can transform into dormant spores, wait for another host and transfer to continue their life cycle. Anthrax usually occurs in wild and grass-eating mammals that breathe or ingest in the spores while eating grass. This disease can also be caught by humans exposed to dead infected pigs, high amounts of anthrax spores in animal wool, fur or hide and tissues from infected animals. While anthrax cannot be spread directly from one person to the next, human clothing can transfer the spores and when an infected person dies and the body is buried. [read more]

  • Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea typically occurs when the natural balance of bad and good bacteria in the intestinal tract is disturbed. This causes the harmful bacteria to proliferate resulting to frequent bowel movements. Often, it is mild and can clears up after several days or less. [read more]

  • Anuria
    Anuria otherswise known as the Anuresis is a medical condition where there is inability to urinate because of the kidney failed to function or due to diseases like kidney stones. [read more]

  • Aortic valve stenosis
    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a “valvular” heart disease caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. Normally, the aortic valves control the direction of blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. When the aortic valve is in good working condition, it does not obstruct the flow of blood. Aortic valve stenosis is a common disorder, affecting about 2% of individuals over 65 years old, 3% of patients over 75 and 4% of people over 85 years old. Since the global population is aging, the prevalence of Aortic valve stenosis is increasing. [read more]

  • Aphthous Ulcers
    Aphthous ulcers are more commonly known as canker sores. These are characterized by the development of small and shallow lesions on the soft tissues in your mouth, under the tongue, or insides of the cheeks or lips, as well as at the base of the gums. Often , it will usually go away naturally after a few weeks or so. [read more]

  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a potentially fatal genetic disorder and autosomal recessive cause of hypokalaemia, prenatal and postnatal growth failure, undetectable levels of aldosterone and renin and hypertension, which responds to treatments using glucocorticoid. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is an extremely rare disorder, accounting to only 60 patients recorded for the past 20 years. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a result of mutations of the HSD11B2 gene, which is responsible for encoding the kidney isozyme “11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase”. This isozyme inactivates the circulating cortisol to the less-active metabolite cortisone, which leads to an elevated amount of cortisol in the kidney. Note that high concentrations of cortisol could activate the “mineralocorticoid receptor”, which leads to an aldosterone-like effect in the patient's kidneys. This occurrence causes hypernatremia, hypokalemia and hypertension. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can also be caused by licorice ingestion, which blocks 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and increase cortisol activity. Early and aggressive treatment of Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can prevent and improve the mortality and morbidity of end-organ damage rates. Diagnosis is made by DNA and hormonal analysis. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly
    This disease is also known as "spider fingers" or archromachia. It is referred to as "spider fingers" due to the fact that the fingers are slim and long comparing it to the palm like a spider's legs. This disease can occur after birth or later in life. This disease can happen without any medical conditions but sometimes it is related with some medical condition for instance Marfan Syndrome. Other term for this disease is Dolichostenomelia. [read more]

  • Arachnoiditis
    A disease due to the swelling of the arachnoids which is a membrane that encloses and shields the central nervous system nerves together with the spinal cord and the brain. The swelling can be caused by infections due to viruses or bacteria and can also be caused by chemical irritation. The swelling may cause creation of scar tissue and bonding that results the nerves on the spine to “bond”. The disease is usually progressive and treatments differ in its efficiency, the disease is not often cured. [read more]

  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
    Ocassionally it is called as Chiari II malformation or ACM, it is is a hereditary deformity of the brain. It is an unusual deformity where the support of the brain goes through the upper spinal canal. This disorder happens to approximately every child born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Chiari malformations I, II and III is associated with the apparent irregularity of the hindbrain which was described by German pathologist Hans Chiari in the late 1800's. Afterwards, further investigators supplemented a fourth (Chiari IV) malformation. The severity scale is rated I – IV, with IV as the most severe. Arnold Chiari Malformation particularly refers to the Chiari II malformation. [read more]

  • Arsenic Poisoning
    Arsenic Poisoning is a type of poisoning which results from ingestion of food and fluid containig the chemical arsenic. [read more]

  • Arterial tortuosity
    Arterial tortuosity is an unusual hereditary connective tissue disorder distinguished by elongated and widespread tortuosity of the main arteries involving the aorta. The autosomal recessive acquired and location of the gene responsible is in the chromosome 20q13. [read more]

  • Arthritis
    Arthritis is a condition that usually involves damage on the joints of the body. For people older than fifty-five years, it is the leading cause of disability. Arthritis is a medicinal term, which mean any kind of joint swelling but the term is usually used to refer to age-related osteoarthritis that is the most usual kind. Though, there are other kinds of arthritis involving rheumatoid arthritis (second-most usual, involving younger adults and juveniles), and different kinds of minor arthritis which are caused by a primary condition: immediate arthritis caused by an infection, psoriatic arthritis from psoriasis, gonococcal arthritis from gonorrhea, and the like. Several probable circumstances with arthritis-like signs involve ankylosing spondylitis and gout. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Juvenile
    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) previously identified as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most ordinary type of unrelenting arthritis in children. Occasionally it is called as juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) a term that is not exact as JIA does not include all types of persistent childhood arthritis. Arthritis causes the lining of the joint (synovium) to swell. JIA is a division of arthritis noticeable during childhood, which might be temporary and self-limited or persistent. It varies considerably from arthritis usually noticed in adults (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis), and other kinds of arthritis that can present in infancy which are persistent conditions. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Thumb
    Arthritis, thumb (or thumb arthritis) is characterized by inflammation of the joint of the wrist and the base of the thumb (basal or carpometacarpal joint). Thumb arthritis is also alternatively called basal joint arthritis. [read more]

  • Arthrocentesis
    Arthrocentesis is a procedure in which a syringe is inserted to collect synovial fluid from an infected joint. This procedure is used to diagnose illnesses such as gout and arthritis. It is also known as joint aspiration. [read more]

  • Arthrogryposis
    Arthrogryposis also referred to as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, an unusual hereditary disorder that results to multiple joint contractures and is distinguished by weakness of the muscle and fibrosis. It is a not a progressive disease. The ailment obtains its name from Greek, exactly meaning “bent or curved joints'. There are several identified subgroups of AMC, with varying signs, symptoms, causes and the like. In several cases, a small number of joints might be affected and the variety of movement might be just about normal. In the majority type of arthrogryposis, hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, feet and knees are affected. In the majority rigorous types, almost each joint is involved, as well as the jaw and back. Normally, the contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness that adds limitation to movement. AMC is normally balanced and entails each four extremities with a number of dissimilarity seen. [read more]

  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency
    Arylsulfatase A deficiency also referred to as Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the very ordinary type of a family of hereditary ailments identified as the leukodystrophies, ailments that involves the enlargement and/or growth of myelin, the fatty layer which works as an insulator around nerve fibers all through the inner and marginal nervous systems. Arylsulfatase A results to a damaging swelling of fatty material in the body. [read more]

  • Asbestos Poisoning
    Asbestos Poisoning is a medical condition whereby the person is poisoned because of too much exposure or even ingestion of asbestos fibers. It may later on cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer. [read more]

  • Asbestosis
    Asbestosis is a persistent seditious medical condition upsetting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It happens following a long-term, serious contact to asbestos like in mining, and is consequently viewed as a work-related lung ailment. Sufferers have rigorous dyspnea or shortness of breath and are at an augmented danger concerning numerous diverse kinds of lung cancer. As apparent details are not at all times stressed in non-technical writing, care must be taken to differentiate among several types of related ailments. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these can be defined as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma or usually a very unusual type of cancer, but growing in occurrence as people exposed to asbestos age. [read more]

  • Ascariasis
    Ascariasis is a human infection caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Maybe one quarter of the world's inhabitants is infected and ascariasis is mainly common in humid regions and in regions of poor hygiene. Additional types of the species Ascaris are parasitic and can cause infections in domestic animals. Disease happens during eating of food contaminated with feces having Ascaris eggs. The larvae hatch hideaway all the way through the intestine, arrive at the lungs, and lastly travel up the respiratory tract. Starting there they are then re-swallowed and grow up in the intestine, growing up to 30 cm (12 in.) in length and securing itself to the intestinal wall. Diseases are typically asymptomatic especially if the quantity of worms is little. They may nevertheless be associated with swelling, fever, and diarrhea, and serious harms may extend if the worms travel to other portions of the body. [read more]

  • Ascites
    Ascites otherwise known as the Peritoneal Cavity Fluid or the Peritoneal Fluid Excess or the Hydroperitoneum or the Abdominal Dropsy, is the medical condition whereby there is an accumulation of fluid in the cavity located in the abdomen called Peritoneal. [read more]

  • Aseptic meningitis
    Aseptic meningitis symptoms happens the same as meningitis without the location contributing organism. The disease causes the lining of the brain or meninges to swell and a pyogenic bacterial source is not present. History of distinguishing symptoms and certain examination findings is the basis to diagnose meningitis. Using lumbar puncture it should show an increase in the amount of leukocytes visible in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several cases of aseptic meningitis embody infection with viruses or mycobacteria that cannot be noticed with custom techniques. Although the start of polymerase chain effect has augmented the capability of clinicians to identify viruses for instance cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, and herpes virus in the CSF, several viruses can still escape detection. [read more]

  • Asherman's syndrome
    Asherman's syndrome also referred to as uterine synechiae presents a situation distinguished by the occurrence of marks inside the uterine opening. [read more]

  • Astasia-abasia
    Astasia-abasia refers to the lack of ability to walk or stand normally. Individuals affected by this disease usually presents trouble in walking, tilting wildly in several directions and only falls when they a physician or family member is nearby. Patients cannot stand up straight except when assisted by someone. Although movements of the legs can be done normally while lying or sitting down. [read more]

  • Asthenia
    Asthenia is a medical term referring to the feeling of weakness without actually losing strength. General asthenia happens to a lot of chronic wasting ailments like cancer and anemia and most likely developed in ailments of the adrenal gland. Asthenia may partially affect specific organs or systems. [read more]

  • Asthma, Childhood
    Asthma, childhood (childhood asthma), the most chronic illness affecting children, is characterized by continuous inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs. [read more]

  • Asthma, Exercise-Induced
    Asthma, exercise-induced (exercise-induced asthma) pertains to coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath during exercise or any vigorous physical activity. As with most other types of asthma, exercise-induced asthma results from the inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs. [read more]

  • Astigmatism
    Astigmatism is characterized by a mild defect in the curvature of the eye which causes blurry vision. Astigmatism is an easily treatable condition. In astigmatic patients, the cornea or the lens of one eye has a slightly different curvature in one direction from the other. It comes in two forms: corneal astigmatism, characterized by a distorted cornea; and lenticular astigmatism, characterized by a distorted lens. [read more]

  • Astrocytoma
    Astrocytoma is a major intracranial lumps resulting from astrocyte cells of the brain. In the the cerebral hemispheres, in the optic nerve, in the posterior fossa and seldom in the spinal cord is where it may appear. The WHO provided a four point level basing in the histological grade of the lump. [read more]

  • Atelosteogenesis, type II
    Atelosteogenesis, type II is a rigorous disorder of the bone and cartilage growth. It is very unusual and baby with this disorder are usually stillborn, though some infant survive they die after caused by respiratory failure. [read more]

  • Atheroma
    Atheroma is the medical condition where the arteries are thickening or swelling because of the deposition of the plaque on the artery walls. [read more]

  • Atherosclerosis
    Atherosclerosis involves the arterial blood vessels. Because of the disposition of the lipoproteins, in the huge portion of the walls of the arteries severe inflammatory response happens. “Furring” or “hardening” of the arteries usually refers to atherosclerosis. Result from the development of several plaques in the arteries. Arteries' functions are carrying oxygen and blood to the heart, brain and other portions of the body. The major outcome of atherosclerosis is referred to as the cardiovascular ailments. [read more]

  • Athetosis
    Athetosis is a nonstop flow of sinuous, slow, writhing movements, usually of the hands and feet. Movements that are cause by athetosis are mainly referred to as athetoid movements. It was said that due to the damage to the corpus striatum of the brain and a cut to the motor thalamus that is why Athetosis happens. [read more]

  • Atrial Fibrillation
    Atrial Fibrillation is an abnormal rhythm of the heart characterized by quivering instead of normal beating. This decreases the efficiency of the heart to move blood increasing the incidence of stroke because of the formation of blood clots in the heart. [read more]

  • Atrial Flutter
    Atrial Flutter is the arrhythmia of the heart where there is a rapid beating in its upper chambers due to irregular signals causing an irregular heartbeat. [read more]

  • Atrial septal defect
    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormality or a hereditary heart defect in the interatrial septum of the heart because of the embryonic foramen to stop from closing normally. [read more]

  • Atrophy
    Atrophy is a general physiological process, it is either the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body or a part of the body being useless. Size of a cell, tissue or organ can be wasted away with this disorder. [read more]

  • Auditory Processing Disorder
    Auditory Processing Disorder other wise known as the Central Auditory Processing Disorder or the CAPD for brevity is a medical condition where the person affected, usually children of school age, cannot process information they received through hearing because their ears and brain do not fully coordinate. [read more]

  • Autoimmune hepatitis
    Autoimmune hepatitis is an abnormal presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II on the exterior of hepatocytes it might be because of the hereditary predisposition or severe liver infection that results to a cell-mediated immune response in opposition of the body's liver causing autoimmune hepatitis. [read more]

  • Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy
    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is a term for the nerves of the secondary nervous system being damaged that can result from either diseases of the nerve or from the systemic illness side-effects. Secondary neuropathies differ in their presentation and origin and can affect the neuromuscular or nerve junction. [read more]

  • Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I is a very unusual autoimmune disorder distinguished by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (APE), candidiasis (C) and ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Theh disorder is also called as candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism-Addison's disease-syndrome following its major features: * Mild immune deficiency that leads to mucosal and cutaneous infections alog with candida yeasts. The function of the spleen is also reduced or referred to as asplenism. * Parathyroid gland's autoimmune dysfunction that leads to hypocalcemia and the adrenal gland. Other ailments that are related: hypothyroidism hypogonadism and infertility vitiligo (depigmentation of the skin) alopecia (baldness) malabsorption pernicious anemia chronic active (autoimmune) hepatitis In contrast to type 2, this type takes over an autosomal recesive style and it is because of a defect in AIRE or autoimmune regulator a gene that is seen on the 21st chromosomes. A transcription factor, normal function AIRE exhibits to display immune lenience for antigens from endocrine organs. [read more]

  • Avascular Necrosis
    Avascular Necrosis otherwise known as the Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis and ischemic necrosis, is a disease which results to a temporary pr permanent loss of blood supply to the bones leading to bone death and collapse. [read more]

  • Azoospermia
    Azoospermia is a condition whereby there is no or absence of measurable level of sperm in a man's semen which causes infertility. [read more]

  • B-Cell Lymphoma
    B-cell lymphoma, also known as Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. NHL usually originates in the lymphoid tissues and can spread to other internal organs. However, unlike Hodgkin's disease, NHL is less predictable and has a greater predilection to extranodal sites. [read more]

  • Babesiosis
    Babesiosis is an uncommon, vector-borne, malaria-like disease usually caused by ticks or parasites of the genius “Babesia”. In areas where babesia is common, such as North America, this disease can be transmitted through blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Back Curves
    Back curves, or scoliosis is a skeletal deformity in which the back bone curves into an S or C shape. This is a common skeletal illness present among women, but can affect people regardless of age and gender. [read more]

  • Bacterial endocarditis
    Bacterial endocarditis it is the swelling and infection of the interior layers of the heart and usually the valves that resulted from bacteria. [read more]

  • Bacterial Meningitis
    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges – the protective membranes wrapping the central nervous system. This condition may develop as a result of viruses, bacteria and a number of infectious agents. However, it may also occur in people who recently experience physical injury, those with cancer and others who have a history of drug abuse. Most cases of meningitis resolve without treatment. However, this condition can become severe because the inflammation can damage the spinal cord and the brain, which are both in close proximity to the areas affected by meningitis. Since severe meningitis could cause serious neurological damage or death, immediate medical attention and diagnosis is needed. The most common type of meningitis – infectious meningitis – can be treated with antibiotics alone, but requires continues observation. Other types of meningitis can be prevented through scheduled immunization. [read more]

  • Bacterial pneumonia
    Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria. The most common cause is the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13.) which is also common in all ages except for newly born babies. Another type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is the Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) these bacteria are classified as Gram-positive bacteria. For Gram-negative bacteria it is seen less regularly like Klebsiella pneumoniae (J15.0), Haemophilus influenzae (J14.), Escherichia coli (J15.5), Moraxella catarrhalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (J15.1) are the most usual bacteria. The gut is where these bacteria reside and enters the lungs when the lung's content is inhaled like vomit. Not unlike typical bacteria, “atypical” bacteria are commonly seen in young adults and teenagers and are less sever and needs various antibiotics. Examples of “atypical” bacteria are Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Coxiella burnetti, Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7). [read more]

  • BAER
    BAER is an acronym for Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response and it is test measures of ear and brain wave activity that happens in reaction to clicks or certain pitch. There are 3 waves (1, 3 and 5) set for the ear, BAER uses a computer that averages over time to determine background noise to produce an averaged reaction of the auditory gateway to an auditory stimuli. [read more]

  • Balanitis
    Balanitis is a medical condition where there is inflammation of the head of the penis names as the glans. [read more]

  • Bannayan-Zonana syndrome
    Bannayan-Zonana syndrome or other term is Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome is an unusual hamartomatous disorder through the incidence of several subcutaneous macrocephaly, lipomas and hemangiomas. In an autosomal prevailing form the disease is inherited though wild cases have been documented. Hamartomatous polyposis syndrome is the family where the disease belongs that also involves juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Cowden syndrome. BZS lesions are slowly developing and simply resectable. Intracranial association and visceral may happen in unusual conditions and can result to bleeding and indicative automatic compression particularly of the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots and may need surgical resection. [read more]

  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome
    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a hereditary disease mainly characterized by obesity, extra number of fingers and/or toes, hypogonadism, renal failure, and pigmentary retinopathy. The cardiovascular system is also plagued with hypertrophy of the interventricular septum, and fibrosis in the gastrointestinal tract. This disease is an autosomal recessive defect due to the malformations of the chromosome 3 and 16. [read more]

  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome 2
    Bare lymphocyte syndrome 2 or the other term for the disease is Defective expression of HLA class 2. BLSII genetic basis is not because of the gene MHC II. The result of the mutations in genes is used as the genetic basis that codes for proteins that usually control the expression if the MHC II genes. [read more]

  • Baritosis
    Baritosis a condition of the lung, that results from inhaling barium dust or barium that has compounds. It is a condition that is benign generally that does not result to symptoms except for irritation. On chest X-rays the particles of barium can be evident as an opaque shadow on individuals that has Baritosis. When contact to barium dust stops the abnormalities seen on chest X-rays slowly disappears. [read more]

  • Barmah Forest Virus
    Barmah forest virus is a type of virus whose carrier is a mosquitoes thriving usually in Australia. [read more]

  • Barrett's Esophagus
    Barrett's Esophagus is a condition marked by the changes in color and composition of the cells lining the lower esophagus due to repeated stomach acid exposure often due to long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [read more]

  • Barth syndrome
    Barth syndrome also recognized as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II and Cardiomyopathy-neutropenia syndrome it is an unusual hereditary disorder categorized by a lot of signs and symptoms and also includes motor skills being delayed, metabolism distortion, stamina deficiency, chronic fatigue, cardiomyopathy, delayed growth, and compromised immune system. The research or study of Dr. Peter Barth in the Netherlands and discovery in 1983 was the reason why the syndrome was named after him. He designed a pedigree chart where in it shows that the disease is an inborn behavior. [read more]

  • Bartholin's Abscess
    Bartholin's abscess is caused by the build-up of pus that will eventually form a lump or swelling in one of the Bartholin's glands. This is located on either side of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Bartonella infections
    Bartonella infections previously known as Rochalimaea it is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Bartonella species may contaminate healthy people though are considered particularly essential as opportunistic pathogens. Bartonella is spread by insect vectors like fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. It is known that eight Bartonella species or subspecies are recognized to infect humans. Bartonella rochalimae was the sixth species discovered in June 2007 that is recognized to infect humans and also the ninth species and subspecies generally recognized to infect humans. [read more]

  • Basal Cell Cancer
    Basal cell cancer is a frequently occurring type of skin cancer. However, it is also the most easy to treat and has the least likelihood of spreading. In general, basal cell cancer is seldom fatal; however, if untreated, it can cause widespread damage to surrounding bones and tissues. [read more]

  • Basilar artery migraines
    Basilar artery migraines an unusual condition distinguished by headache related with a range of neurological symptoms. The state is a result of a trouble of the basilar artery that is seen in the brainstem. [read more]

  • Batten disease
    Batten disease is an unusual, deadly, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which starts in early days of a person. The disease is also referred to as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease it is the most usual type of a group of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (or NCLs). History The disease is named after the British pediatrician Frederick Batten who initially explained about the Batten disease in 1903. It is the most usual form of a collection of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Though Batten disease is commonly observed as the juvenile type of NCL several physicians refer to Batten disease to all types of NCL or ceroid lipofuscinosis. [read more]

  • Bed-Wetting
    Bed-wetting is a developmental phase wherein an infant or child is unable to retain bladder control at nighttime. It is also sometimes called nocturnal enuresis or nighttime incontinence. [read more]

  • Behr's Syndrome
    Behr's Syndrome is a rare inherited neurological condition named after Carl Behr, who first described it in 1909 as a syndrome of variable pyramidal tract signs. It is characterized by spastic paraplegia and sometimes optic atrophy. It is a hereditary familial syndrome that falls under ocular and neurologic disorders affecting both men and women. Behr's Syndrome starts in infancy with disturbed vision, disturbed coordination with ataxia, mental deficiency, and urinary sphincter weakness. Other characteristics include optic atrophy prevalent in males, scotoma, bilateral retrobulbar neuritis, nystagmus, progressive temporal nerve atrophy, increased tendon reflexes, Babinski sign, and incoordination. Its inheritance is autosomal recessive, meaning it is not linked to sex chromosomes, although heterozygotes may still manifest much attenuated symptoms. [read more]

  • Bell's Palsy
    Bell's Palsy is a paralysis of the facial nerve which results to an inability to control facial muscles in the affected side. There are several conditions that can cause facial paralysis: brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be traced to the paralysis, the condition is called Bell's Palsy. It is named after the Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it. Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy, or diseases involving only one nerve, and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis. Bell's Palsy is defined as an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis, and is usually self-limiting. Its trademark is the rapid onset of partial or complete palsy, usually in a single day. [read more]

  • Benign Astrocytoma
    Benign astrocytoma (or astrocytoma Grade I, astrocytoma Grade II, intracranial neoplasm, intracranial tumor) is categorized into two types: Diffuse (Adults, cerebral hermisphere and brainstem) and circumscribed (Children, characteristic location/morphology). They are benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity of the astrocytoma depends on its location and size. [read more]

  • Benign Congenital Hypotonia
    Benign congenital hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone, which is the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle, and it often involves reduced muscle strength. It is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect the motor nerve control of the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing benign congenital hypotonia, even in early infancy, is relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the cause underlying it can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's growth and development, and later on in life, depend primarily on how severe the muscle weakness is and the nature of the cause. Other names of this condition are Hypotonia , Congenital Hypotonia, Congenital Muscle Hypotonia , Congenital Muscle Weakness, and Amyotonia Congenita. [read more]

  • Benign Essential Blepharospasm
    Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms and twitching of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder where muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB starts gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with irritation of the eye. [read more]

  • Benign Fasciculation Syndrome
    Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is a disorder affecting the neurological system and characterized by fasciculation (or twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body. The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most commonly found in the eyelids, arms, legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected by BFS. The twitching may be occasional or may go on almost continuously. Any intentional movement of the affected muscle causes the fasciculation to cease immediately, but may return once the muscle is at rest again. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), also known as benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV), is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a kind of dizziness that affects one's sense of balance. It is caused by the accumulation of the particles of the inner ear that tug on to hairlike sensors that help coordinate the person in maintaining steady balance. It can be treated by clearing out the particles and position them back in their places via surgery. [read more]

  • Beriberi
    Beriberi is an ailment affecting the nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1). The etymology of the word is from a Sinhalese phrase meaning literally, "I cannot, I cannot", the word being repeated for emphasis. [read more]

  • Berlin Breakage Syndrome
    Berlin breakage syndrome, also known as Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and Seemanova syndrome, is a rare syndrome that is characterized by chromosomal instability, maybe as a result of a defect in the Double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism. It is a very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, lowered immunity and heightened risk of cancer. The features of this condition are basically indistinguishable from the Nigmegen Breakage syndrome. The name comes from the Dutch city Nijmegen where the condition was first discovered. Most people with NBS originate from West Slavic regions. The largest number of them is Polish. [read more]

  • Berylliosis
    Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disorder (CBD), is an occupational lung disease. It is a chronic allergic-type lung response and chronic lung disease that results from exposure to beryllium and its compounds. Berylliosis is incurable but its symptoms can be treated. [read more]

  • Beta Thalassemia
    Beta thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. [read more]

  • Bilateral Renal Agenesis
    Bilateral renal agenesis is uncommon and is a serious condition, related to Potter's Syndrome. Bilateral renal agenesis is the lack of both kidneys at birth. It is a genetic disorder characterized by a failure of the kidneys to develop as a fetus inside the womb. This absence of kidneys results to a deficiency of amniotic fluid (or oligohydramnios) in a pregnant woman. Normally, the amniotic fluid serves as a cushion for the developing fetus. When there is not enough amount of this fluid, compression of the fetus may occur resulting in further malformations of the baby. It is the consequence of failure of differentiation of the metanephric blastema during the 25–28th day of development and both ureters and kidneys and renal arteries are missing. This disorder is more commonly found in infants born of a parent who has a kidney malformation, particularly the absence of one kidney (or unilateral renal agenesis). Studies have proven that unilateral renal agenesis and bilateral renal agenesis are genetically related to eachother. 1 out of 3 infants with this congenital defect are not born alive. Most infants that are born alive do not live beyond the coarse of four hours. [read more]

  • Biliary Atresia
    Biliary atresia is a rare condition found in newborn infants in which the common bile duct between the liver and the small intestine is blocked or missing. If it goes unrecognized, the condition leads to liver failure but not to kernicterus. This is due to the liver still able to conjugate bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The only effective treatments for biliary atresia are certain surgeries, or liver transplantation. [read more]

  • Biliary Cirrhosis
    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a disease in which the bile ducts in the liver are slowly and steadily destroyed. The body has an intricate system of ducts designed specifically to transport bile, which is a fluid produced in the liver. Bile is needed for the proper digestion of fats and helps rid the body of worn-out red blood cells, cholesterol and potentially toxic metals. In primary biliary cirrhosis, the destruction of bile ducts can cause dangerous substances to build up in the liver and sometimes lead to irreversible scarring of liver tissue (or cirrhosis). Many experts consider primary biliary cirrhosis an autoimmune disease in which the body turns against its own cells, although it's possible that genetic and environmental factors also play a part. Primary biliary cirrhosis develops somewhat slowly. Medication can slow the progression of the disease, especially if treatment starts early. [read more]

  • Binge-Eating Disorder
    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by a compulsion to frequently overeat. In people with binge-eating disorder, the gorging becomes a regular ritual, shrouded in shame, secrecy, and feelings of self-loathing. Bing-eating is also alternatively known as compulsive overeating. [read more]

  • Biotin Deficiency
    Biotin Deficiency otherwise known as the Vitamin H deficiency is a nutritional disorder where a person is deficient in taking biotin or the water-soluble B vitamin. [read more]

  • Bipolar Disorder
    Bipolar disorder is not just a single disorder, but a group of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. People who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or combined episodes which present with features of both mania and depression. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate with eachother, known as rapid cycling. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia and is based on the type and severity of mood episodes experienced. [read more]

  • Birthmarks
    Areas of discolored skin that can be raised or flat usually present at birth or shortly after birth. Few types of birthmarks fade as the child grow while most types are permanent. Most birthmarks are harmless and may fade in time but there are also some that are associated with certain health conditions. [read more]

  • Bladder Papilloma
    Bladder Papilloma is a medical condition where there is a benign tumor that grows in the person's bladder which stores urine produced by the kidneys. [read more]

  • Blepharitis
    Blepharitis is the inflammation of the one's eyelids. It is characterized by inflammation of the margins of the eyelid. Blepharitis generally causes redness of the eyes and itching and irritation of the eyelids in both eyes. Its appearance is often confused with conjunctivitis (pinkeye) and due to its recurring nature it is the most common cause of "recurrent conjunctivitis" in aging people. It is also often treated as 'dry eye' by patients due to the gritty and sandy sensation it may give the eyes - although lubricating drops do little to improve the condition. The two types of blepharitis are anterior blepharitis and posterior blepharitis. In the former, the blepharitis affects the front of the eyelids near the eyelashes. The causes are seborrheic dermatitis (which similar to dandruff) and occasional infection by the bacteria Staphylococcus. The latter affects the back of the eyelids, the part that has contact with the eyes. This is caused by the oil glands that are situated in this region. It is the most common type of blepharitis. [read more]

  • Blepharophimosis
    Blepharophimosis is a condition where the individual has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size. The the patient's nasal bridge is flat and there is hypoplastic orbital rim. Both the vertical and horizontal palpebral fissures (or eyelid opening) are reduced in length. Vignes probably first described this entity as a dysplasia of the eyelids. Aside from small palpebral fissures, features include epicanthus inversus (folds curving in the mediolateral direction, inferior to the inner canthus), low nasal bridge, and ptosis of the eyelids. Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome, either accompanied with premature ovarian failure (BPES type I) or without (BPES type II), is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene. [read more]

  • Blind Loop Syndrome
    Blind loop syndrome pertains to a condition wherein part of the small intestine is cut off or bypassed from the normal flow of food and digestive fluids. It is also alternatively known as stagnant loop syndrome or stasis syndrome. [read more]

  • Blood Platelet Disorders
    A blood platelet disorder refers to an abnormally low number of platelets, the particles in blood that help with clotting. As a result, blood does not clot normally for the patient with a low platelet count. [read more]

  • Blood Pressure, Low
    Blood pressure, low (or low blood pressure) is the opposite of high blood pressure. Also known as hypotension, low blood pressure may not necessarily pose a health risk unless it is caused be an underlying medical condition. [read more]

  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder that involves a distorted body image. It is generally diagnosed in those who are extremely critical of their self-image, despite the fact that there may be no noticeable disfigurement or defect on their physique. It is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with a real or imagined defect in one's physical appearance. People with this disorder have a distorted or exaggerated view of their physical appearance and are obsessed with actual external characteristics or perceived flaws, such as certain facial features or imperfections of their skin. They often think of themselves as disfigured or ugly. People with body dysmorphic disorder often have difficulties controlling negative thoughts concerning their appearance, even when others reassure them that they look fine and that the small or perceived flaws aren't excessive or obvious. [read more]

  • Boils
    Painful, pus-filled bumps that form under your skin when bacteria infect and inflame one or more of your follicles are called boils and carbuncles. They usually start as red, tender lumps that quickly fill with pus, growing larder and more painful until they rupture and drain, which mostly take about two weeks to heal although some boils disappear in a few days after they occur. They may appear anywhere on your skin, but appear mainly on your neck, face, armpits, thighs or buttocks where these hair-bearing areas are most likely to sweat or experience friction. [read more]

  • Bone Neoplasm
    Bone neoplasm, or bone cancer, is when new abnormal bone tissue grows due to excessive cellular division and proliferation. The bone tissue develops more rapidly than normal and continues to grow even after the stimuli that initiated it stops. This includes tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific bones. [read more]

  • Borderline Personality Disorder
    Borderline Personality Disorder is a devastating mental condition characterized by instability about personal perception in combination to difficulty in maintaining stable relationship usually manifested by unpredictable moods, extreme “black and white” thinking, fear of abandonment, and impulsive often self-injurious behavior. This condition results to troubles in relationships, long-range planning and self-identity. [read more]

  • Bordetella Pertussis
    Bordetella pertussis belongs to the genus Bordetella. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus which the main agent that causes whooping cough. [read more]

  • Bornholm Disease
    Bornholm Disease otherwise known as the Devil's grip, the Epidemic myalgia, or the Epidemic pleurodynia, the Epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasm or The Grasp of the Phantom is a medical condition that is brought about by a viral infection.. [read more]

  • Botulism
    Botulism (from the Latin word, botulus, meaning "sausage") is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulinic toxin is one of the most powerful known toxins: about one microgram is deadly to humans. It acts by blocking nerve function and leads to respiratory and musculoskeletal paralysis to the individual. [read more]

  • Bourneville's Disease
    Bourneville's disease (also known as Tuberous sclerosis) is characterized by facial lesions with tuberous sclerosis, first reported as adenoma sebaceum, but now recognised as angiofibromas. It produces tuberous sclerosis occurring in association with adenoma sebaceum. It is syndrome of epilepsy, severe mental retardation associated with adenoma sebaceum (overgrowth of the sebaceous glands) of the face, hamartomatous tumours of the heart and kidney, and cerebral cortical tubers (hence the name "tuberous sclerosis"). It is heredofamilial and usually shows itself early in life. Females are more often affected by this disease than males. Incomplete forms of the syndrome can manifest. Bourneville's disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity. [read more]

  • Bovine Tuberculosis
    Bovine TB is a disease that primarily attacks animals that can also be transmitted to humans through aerosols and intake of raw milk. This disease is common in under developed countries. [read more]

  • Brachydactyly
    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to shortening of the fingers or toes that results from the underdevelopment of the bones in the hands or feet. Brachydactyly is a medical term is literally meaning "shortness of the fingers and toes". The shortness is relative to the length of the individual's other long bones and other parts of the body. Brachydactyly is an inherited trait, usually dominat.. It most frequently occurs as an isolated dysmelia, but can also occur with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes. Brachydactyly is a general term that refers to disproportionately shortened fingers and toes. It can arise as an isolated finding, or be associated with a pattern of medical findings, called a syndrome. To date, many different forms of brachydactyly have been categorized. As a group, they always include extremely shortened tubular bones in the hands and feet. Some forms also lead to short stature, while others do not. The majority of types of isolated brachydactyly are passed on as autosomal dominant conditions. Radiographic studies (X-rays) can aid physicians differentiate between the different types of brachydactyly. [read more]

  • Brain Aneurysm
    A brain aneurysm is characterized by the bulge in a brain's artery. The most One of the most common types of brain aneurysm resembles a round berry that is attached to the artery. Such aneurisms can usually go undetected since it has no symptoms for years and as long as it does not rupture, it poses no real threats. [read more]

  • Brain Cavernous Angioma
    Brain cavernous angioma, also referred to as cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), cavernous haemangioma, and cavernoma, is a vascular disorder of the central nervous system that may appear either sporadically or display autosomal dominant inheritance. [read more]

  • Brain Infection
    Brain Infection is a medical condition where there is an infection in the brain. It is commonly called encephalitis. [read more]

  • Brain Neoplasms
    Brain neoplasms are tumors of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are further divided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are categorized into benign and malignant forms. Generally, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain. [read more]

  • Breast Engorgement
    Breast engorgement is a condition in which the mammary glands contain too much milk that cannot be released. [read more]

  • Bronchiectasis
    Bronchiectasis is a disease that results to localized, irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, leading to airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually arises from necrotizing bacterial infections, such as infections caused by the Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species or Bordetella pertussis. [read more]

  • Bronchitis
    Bronchitis is a condition that occurs when the inner walls lining the main airways of the lungs become inflamed; usually happening after a previous respiration infection like colds. [read more]

  • Bronchitis, Chronic
    Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation, or irritation, of the airways in the lungs. Airways are the tubes in the lungs where air passes through. They are also known as bronchial tubes. When the airways are irritated, thick mucus forms inside of them. The mucus plugs up the airways and makes it hard for the person to get air into your lungs. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a cough that produces mucus (sometimes called sputum), breathing difficulties, and a feeling of tightness in the chest. [read more]

  • Brucellosis
    Brucellosis, also known as undulant fever, undulating fever, or Malta fever, is a zoonosis (infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans) caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. It is generally a disease of domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle, dogs, etc) and humans and has a worldwide distribution, mostly now in developing countries. [read more]

  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome
    In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture resulted from occlusion of the hepatic vein or inferior vena cava. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly. Some examples of occlusion include thrombosis of hepatic veins and membranous webs in the inferior vena cava. The syndrome can be acute, fulminant, chronic, or asymptomatic. It takes place in 1 out of 100,000 individuals and is more common in females. Some 10-20% also have a sort of obstruction of the portal vein. [read more]

  • Bulimia Nervosa
    Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia or "mia", is an eating disorder in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation. The sufferer will then take part in compensatory behaviors to make up for the excessive eating, which are referred to as "purging". Purging can take the form of fasting, vomiting, using of laxatives, enemas, diuretics or other medications, or overexercising. [read more]

  • Bullous pemphigoid
    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a skin disorder that is characterized by the chronic blistering of the skin. This condition ranges from the mildly itchy welts on the skin to more severe infection and blisters, and may affect a particular area of the body or spread all other, depending on the severity. This medical condition affects mostly elderly individuals but can also be seen on people of different ages. [read more]

  • Bunyavirus
    Bunyavirus is a type of virus which causes infection that results damage to the various organs of the person due to a viral infection carried by the Bunyaviridae which may be passed by mosquito bites. [read more]

  • Burkitt's lymphoma
    Burkitt's lymphoma is categorized as a highly uncommon type of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). This medical condition commonly affects children than in adults and is known to be a very aggressive kind of B-cell lymphoma that typically involves body parts other than the lymph nodes. However, in spite of its rapid-growing nature, Burkitt's lymphoma is usually very curable with the availability of modern intensive therapies. [read more]

  • Bursitis
    Bursitis pertains to a painful inflammation of the bursae (small, fluid-filled sacs that lubricate pressure points) that often results from repetitive stress on the body's joints. [read more]

  • Bursitis of the Knee
    Bursitis of the knee is a condition characterized by inflammation of a bursa (tiny fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between moving parts of the knee) located near the knee joint. [read more]

  • Byssinosis
    Byssinosis is more popularly as “brown lung", which is categorized as an occupational lung disease mainly caused by direct exposure and inhalation of cotton dust in some inadequately ventilated production site and working environment. Byssinosis is more common among factory workers employed in fabric and yarn manufacturing companies. This condition results to the narrowing of the lung's trachea and possible destruction of the lung tissue that can ultimately lead to respiratory failure. [read more]

  • C Syndrome
    C syndrome is also known by another medical term opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, which is categorized as a very rare disorder typically transmitted as a result of a "gonadal mosaicism". This condition is present in people with different cells in its genetic makeup, usually with the number of chromosomes. The affected people are usually corn with some malformation of the head that typically displays a triangular shape which is largely due to the premature union of bones of the skull. Learning and developmental disabilities are also common in people with C syndrome. [read more]

  • Cafe au lait spots
    Cafe au lait spots are generally birthmarks that are characterized by some brown cutaneous macules which are usually evident at birth and may strongly suggest possibility of Albright's syndrome or neurofibromatosis. The color of the birthmark may vary from dark to light brown with some irregular or smooth borders. Sizes of the spot can also vary and may possibly enlarge as the child grows. [read more]

  • Caffey's Disease
    Caffey's Disease is also known as infantile cortical hyperostosis, which is a very rare form of disease that is characterized by the abnormal thickening of certain bones in the body such as the long bone shafts and mandible. [read more]

  • Calcification
    Calcification is a condition where there is a building up of calcium in the soft tissue causing said tissue to harden [read more]

  • Calcinosis
    Calcinosis is a medical condition whereby there is a formation of calcium phosphates deposits in any soft tissue of the body. [read more]

  • Calculi
    Calculi are stones that form in an organ or duct of the body. Stones are concretions of materials, usually mineral salts that can cause various important medical conditions. [read more]

  • Canavan leukodystrophy
    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that is the most common cerebral degenerative disease of infancy. The disease causes progressive damage to the brain's nerve cells. It is also a gene-linked, neurological birth disorder, wherein the white matter of the brain disintegrate into spongy tissue puzzled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. The disease belongs to a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies, which are characterized by the degeneration of myelin. Myelin is an electrically insulating dielectric covering the phospholipids layer of neuron insulating the axon. Canavan disease hinders the body's normal production of myelin. Called the central nervous system's “white matter,” this fatty membrane ensures that nerve impulses are properly transmitted. [read more]

  • Cancer
    Cancer is a group of diseases in which cells are hostile, invasive, and sometimes metastatic. These three are considered malignant properties of cancers that differentiate them from benign tumors. Although some benign tumor types are capable of being malignant, they are usually self-limited in their growth and don't invade or metastasize. People from all ages, even fetuses, may be affected with cancer but age is a factor that can raise the risks for more common varieties. About 13% of all deaths are caused by cancer and according to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in 2007 across the world. Even plants and animals may be affected by cancer. Abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells practically cause all cancers. Carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, radiation or infectious agents may have caused said abnormalities. Some however, may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication or inherited. DNA methylation and microRNAs are new aspect of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis that are gaining importance. The tissues from which the cancerous cells originate are used as bases in classifying cancer. There are also two general classes of genes affected by cancer anmely the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. [read more]

  • Candidiasis
    Commonly called yeast infection or thrush, candidiasis is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species. The most common Candida specie is Candida albicans. Candidiasis includes infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. The latter belongs to a category called candidemia are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons. These include persons with cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients. [read more]

  • Canine distempers
    Canine distempers are a highly contagious disease that primarily affects dogs and other types of carnivores. This medical condition is still considered reasonably common despite decades of vaccinations. The severity of this disease can vary from mild to seriously fatal. [read more]

  • Caplan's syndrome
    It is also referred to as Caplan's disease it is a combined disease of rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis which shows as intrapulmonary nodules that appear homogenous and visible with the use of chest X-ray. Patients suffering from this disease have a scar and swelled lungs and they might have also been exposed to coal dust. [read more]

  • Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome
    It is a medical condition that is an unusual genetic metabolic disorder where in the where malfunctioning carbohydrate compounds are connected to glycoproteins and results to damaged glycoprotein function. Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome involves a defect in the phosphomannomutase enzyme and involves most body systems in particular the nervous system and the function of the liver. [read more]

  • Carcinoid syndrome
    Carcinoid syndrome points to the collection of symptoms that happen next to carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid tumors happen together along with gastrointestinal tract (GI) that are distinct, colored yellow and well-circumscribed tumors. The tumors usually affect the ileum, appendix and rectum and it is usually distinctive and endocrine in nature. The tumors produce hormones into the blood stream that go through to the end organs and operates then by proper receptors. Though it fairly unusual, out of 15 cases per 1,000,000 population carcinoid tumors report for 75% of GI endocrine tumors. [read more]

  • Carcinoid Tumors
    Carcinoid tumors pertain to rare growths of potentially cancerous masses in several areas of the body. They most commonly occur in the lungs and in the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and colon. [read more]

  • Cardiac amyloidosis
    Cardiac amyloidosis is a medical condition that is a type of amyloidosis the reason of which is because of the deposits of an amyloid protein in the heart tissue that results to the reduced function of the heart. [read more]

  • Cardiomyopathy
    Cardiomyopathy is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. [read more]

  • Cardiospasm
    Cardiospasm is the muscular failure among the esophagus and the stomach to open where in obstructing the passage of food into the stomach which causes the food to go into the esophagus. Cardiospasm is also known as achalasia and other terms for this condition are as follows achalasia cardiae, cardiospasm, dyssynergia esophagus, and esophageal aperistalsis. [read more]

  • Carney complex
    Carney complex (CNC) is characterized as a lentiginosis syndrome and familial multiple neoplasma. Patients with this medical condition are observed to have spotty skin pigmentation, multiple myxomas and tumors of the thyroid and endocrine glands. [read more]

  • Caroli Disease
    Caroli disease is categorized as an uncommon congenital disease that involves the cystic dilatation of the liver's intrahepatic bile ducts. It has two types, known as Simple Caroli disease and Complex Caroli disease. The first type is characterized by ectasia or dilatation of bile ducts, while the latter includes the presence of portal hypertension and hepatic fibrosis besides ectasia. [read more]

  • Carotid Artery Dissection
    Carotid artery dissection involves a tear in an inner artery lining, known as carotid artery. Carotid arteries supply blood to the brain, and are located in the neck's front portion. The condition may be critical, and needs immediate medical attention. [read more]

  • Castleman's Disease
    Castleman's disease is considered an uncommon illness affecting the lymph nodes and the body's immune-cell structures. The disease is categorized as lymphoproliferative disorder; meaning it involves overgrowth or proliferation of the lymphatic cells. While it's similar to lymphatic system cancers in many ways, Castleman's disease is non-cancerous. It has two types: Unicentric that involves one site of tissue growths, and Multicentric involving multiple sites of growths. [read more]

  • Catel Manzke Syndrome
    Catel Manzke syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder combining glossoptosis, cleft palate, and micrognathia with an abnormality of the index fingers. Apart from the major features, there are also several related malformations described, particularly growth retardation and cardiac defect. [read more]

  • Caudal Regression Syndrome
    Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon disorder wherein the fetal spine's bottom portion does not properly develop. As a result, abnormalities that can be mild or severe occur. The syndrome can lead to various problems, varying from partial nonappearance of the spine's tailbone areas, to severe cases entailing significant malformation of pelvis, lower vertebrate, and spine. [read more]

  • Cavernous Hemangioma
    Cavernous hemangioma is a harmless propagation of the blood vessels, wherein there is a formation of a tumor-like mass of blood vessels in the internal organs or the skin. This vascular tumor is composed of huge quantity of blood. The usual “superficial” lesions have dark to bright red color; lesions that are deep are blue in color. This condition extends more intensely than capillary hemangioma, so spontaneous regression is less likely. [read more]

  • CDG Syndrome
    When your child is born with a disease, knowledge about it will help you and your family cope with and learn how to raise the child as they need to. CDG, or congenital disorders of glycosylation, is a disease that affects the body's metabolic systems. It is also known by the name carbohydrate-deficient glycosylation syndrome. The central and peripheral nervous system are the most affected functions of those who are diagnosed with CDG syndrome. [read more]

  • Celiac sprue
    Genetics plays a significant role when it comes to the diseases we get or do not get in our lifetime. Among those that are determined by genetics, is celiac sprue, which affects the autoimmunity of the small bowel. Research has shown that an estimated 1% of patients come from Indo-European origins, although the disease still remains to be largely underdiagnosed. [read more]

  • Central Pontine Myelinolysis
    Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurological condition caused by damages incurred by the pons, the myelin sheath wherein the nerve cells in the brainstem are located. [read more]

  • Centronuclear myopathy
    Centronuclear myopathy belongs to a group of rare diseases called congenital myopathies. Congenital myopathies are conditions wherein the cell's nuclei is located within the skeletal muscle cells, an abnormal condition. Normally, the nuclei would be positioned in the periphery of the cell, but with centronuclear myopathy the nuclei is in the center, hence the name. [read more]

  • Ceramidase deficiency
    Ceramidase deficiency, also known as Farber's Disease, is a group of genetically predisposed metabolic diseases named lipid storage diseases. The diseases characterize a condition wherein excessive amounts of lipids, such as fatty acids, oils, and other related substances, accumulate to harmful levels in the central nervous system, tissues, and joints. This may also affect the liver, heart, and kidneys. Ceramidase deficiency occurs in children when both parents have the protein-regulating gene sphingomyelin. Their children have a 25% chance of acquiring the disease, and a 50% chance of bearing the gene. [read more]

  • Cercarial Dermatitis
    Cercarial dermatitis is a skin condition characterized by an itchy rash caused by certain parasites. It is also commonly referred to as “swimmer' itch”. [read more]

  • Cerebral aneurism
    A cerebral aneurism occurs when the cerebral artery's wall weakens, causing the blood vessel to balloon abnormally and be filled with blood. This aneurism may put pressure on the tissue surrounding the brain, or the nearby nerves; it can also result in a rupture, called a brain hemorrhage. These can occur anywhere in the brain, but usually in the under part of the brain by the skull's base known as the Circle of Willis. When cerebral aneurisms are very small, they can go on without causing any problems. [read more]

  • Cerebral hypoxia
    Cerebral hypoxia occurs when the brain cannot get sufficient oxygen supply. Four classifications divide the other forms of cerebral hypoxia. A milder form of the disease is known as diffuse cerebral hypoxia, wherein brain impairment occurs due to low blood oxygen levels. Focal cerebral ischema is a localized reduction in the transport of oxygen from the blood to the brain. Mild strokes may occur, and the neuron damage in this case is irreversible. Cerebral infarction occurs when the oxygen flow from blood to a part of the brain is completely stopped, causing significant and irreversible brain damage. Global cerebral ischema is the last category, wherein the blood completely stops flowing to the brain. [read more]

  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal
    Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal is also known as Batten Disease and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. The name constitutes a family of 8 or more different neurodegenerative disorders which occur when lipopigments called lipofuscin, accumulate in the body's tissues. Fats and proteins make up the lipopigments, and they can accumulate in cells of body parts including the brain, eyes, muscle, and skin. The disease is quite rare, although they can occur in more than one member in a family if they possess the defective gene. The disorder is autosomal recessive in nature; meaning that if a child acquires the disease, both his parents have the defective gene. Parents who carry one defective gene result in each child having a one in four chance of inheriting the disease. Each of them also has a one in two chance of inheriting a copy of the gene. In adults, the CLN may be autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant form of the disease. [read more]

  • Cervical Osteoarthritis
    Cervical osteoarthritis also known as cervical spondylosis is the deterioration of the bones and cartilage of the backbone and neck. The condition sometimes leads to the formation of bone spurs or irregular bony outgrowths. [read more]

  • Cervicitis
    It is an inflammation of the cervix. [read more]

  • Chalazion
    A chalazion is a cyst that grows in the eyelid caused by the inflammation of the meibomian gland. These cysts vary in styes and are usually painless until they start to swell. They eventually heal and disappear on their own after a few days or weeks, but oftentimes it needs treatment in order to heal faster. [read more]

  • CHARGE Syndrome
    CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder which consists of a set of congenital defects on newborn babies. It was first discovered in 1979 and the acronym was coined in 1981. The acronym CHARGE stands for Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the nasal choanae, Retardation of growth, Genital abnormalities and Ear problems. [read more]

  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an inherited disease that attacks the nervous and immune systems which results to pale-colored eyes, hair and skin. [read more]

  • Chemodectoma
    A chemodectoma is a benign, non-chromaffin tumor that dwells in the carotid artery. Sometimes called as the non-chromaffin paraganglioma, chemodoctoma is usually found in the head and neck area. [read more]

  • Chemophobia
    Chemophobia literally means a fear of chemicals. It is a fully-developed psychological fear of chemical substances due to pre-existing beliefs and hearsays about the negative effects of chemicals to one's body. However, some experts do not consider chemophobia as a psychological condition, but rather a term marketing analysts and advertisers coined in order to widen the market of the products they are selling. [read more]

  • Chest Pain
    It is a sudden feeling of pain in the chest. [read more]

  • Chiari Malformation
    Chiari malformation is the displacement of brain tissue into the spinal canal. [read more]

  • Chickenpox
    Chickenpox is a classic infectious disease common among children. It is a rarely fatal illness that is characterized by red spots on the different parts of the body and become itchy over time. Persons that acquire chickenpox as well obtain lifelong immunity from the disease once it heals after a few weeks. [read more]

  • Chikungunya
    Chikungunya is a rare viral fever spread by mosquitoes that contain an alphavirus. Its name comes from a Makonde word that literally means 'that which bends up', as the arthritic symptoms of the disease result to a stooped posture on the patient. It was first discovered in 1955 after 1952 outbreak along the Makonde Plateau, which is located in between Tanganyika and Mozambique. [read more]

  • Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome
    Childhood nephrotic syndrome is an illness characterized by the kidney's loss of protein in the urine. The condition then causes the blood protein to decrease allowing water movement into the tissues of the body resulting to edema or swelling usually around the eyes, belly, and legs. Children doen't go to the bathroom and gain weight because of the swelling. [read more]

  • Childhood Schizophrenia
    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness that causes people to communicate and behave differently than most other people through disorganized, detached, paranoid, or illogical behaviors. [read more]

  • Chlamydia
    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria. A common STD, Chlamydia can cause serious complications which may lead to damages in the female reproductive organs. It can also bring forth permanent problems such as infertility in both males and females. This disease is regarded to be a “silent killer” because around 75% of infected people notice no symptoms. If the signs do surface, these are usually noticed a few weeks after the disease is acquired. [read more]

  • Cholangiocarcinoma
    Cholangiocarcinoma is a kind of cancer affecting the bile ducts. It is a rare form of cancer linked with other diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, congenital liver dysfunction, and infection with liver flukes. [read more]

  • Cholecystitis
    Cholecystitis is a disease characterized by the inflammation of the gall bladder. It is mainly caused by gallstones or choleliths which block the cystic duct. The blocking of the bile ducts leads to complications such as bile stasis, inspissation of the bile, and infection done by gut organisms. The disease takes place when the gall bladder's wall becomes swollen. Sometimes this inflammation may develop into necrosis and damage other structures such as the bowel and diaphragm. [read more]

  • Cholelithiasis
    Cholelithiasis is the process of forming gallstones or choleliths in the body through accretion of bile components. They can develop anywhere in the biliary area such as a gallbladder and the bile duct. Once the bile duct becomes affected by this process it can cause choledocholithiasis, while obstruction of the biliary tree can lead to jaundice. The gallstones can also reach the pancreas, thus resulting to pancreatitis. [read more]

  • Cholestasis
    Cholestasis is a medical condition where the bile fluids cannot pass from the liver to the duodenum. This condition occurs when gallstones block the bile ducts due to side effects from other diseases or as a genetic defect in a person's DNA. [read more]

  • Cholestasis Of Pregnancy
    Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition of intense itching particularly on the hands and feet in late pregnancy. [read more]

  • Chondrocalcinosis
    Chondrocalcinosis is a kind of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is rheumatologic condition due to the development of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the tissues. [read more]

  • Chondrocalinisis
    Chondrocalcinisis, also known as gout and peudogout, is an inflammation of the joints. This condition is characterized mainly by joint pains and calcifications that destroy the joint cartilage. [read more]

  • Chondrodystrophy
    Chondrodystrophy is a skeletal disorder caused by several genetic mutations that affect cartilage formation. It is characterized by a normal-sized body trunk but with shortened extremeties and limbs. People in this condition are often referred to as dwarves, and almost 1 out of 25,000 children is born with this disorder. In a normal cartilage development, hyaline cartilage covers the long bones as well as the spinal cord, and the limbs grow at the end of the long bones. The cartilage then develops into bone joints, but for a person with chondrodystrophy, this process would not happen and would lead to skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Chondroectodermal dysplasia
    Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a kind of skeletal dysplasia caused by a genetic disorder. [read more]

  • Chordoma
    Chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm originating from the cellular sheddings of the notochord. The tumor thrives along the neuroaxis, and is commonly found at clivus and sacrum areas. It has three histological variants namely, classical, dedifferentiated, and chondroid. [read more]

  • Chorea
    Chorea refers to an involuntary movement abnormality, a neurological disorder under the group dyskinesias. It is characterized by the sudden movements of the hands or feet without being controlled. [read more]

  • Choriocarcinoma
    Choriocarcinoma is a kind of malignant cancer under the group of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). This cancer targets the placenta, and commonly attacks women, rather than men. [read more]

  • Chorioretinitis
    Choriorentinitis is an inflammatory illness involving the eye's retinal vessels. It is caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infections. When not treated, choriorentinitis may completely damage the retina and cause poor visions for the person with the said disease. [read more]

  • Chromomycosis
    Chromomycosis, also known as chromoblastomycosis, is a fungal infection common in places of tropical climate. It can be caused by different types of fungi that thrive under the skin and spreads slowly and becomes difficult to treat. [read more]

  • Chromosome 22 microdeletion 22q11
    Chromosome 22, microdeletion q11 syndrome, also known as Di George Syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome and Strong syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small part in chromosome 22 and occurs near the midsection of the chromosome located at q11.2. [read more]

  • Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency
    Adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease or hypocortisolism, is a disorder resulting from the adrenal glands' insufficient production of certain hormones. [read more]

  • Chronic berylliosis
    Chronic Berylliosis is the inflammation of the lungs due to inhaling fumes or dust contaning the element beryllium. This metal can be found in coal, soil and volcanic dust and is used in manufacturing and aerospace industries. This disease may appear even after 20 years after exposure to the said element. [read more]

  • Chronic Cough
    A chronic cough is a cough that lasts for eight weeks or longer. It physically drains the affected individual and may have major repercussions. [read more]

  • Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome
    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that results from too much exercise or overusing the muscles resulting to pain, swelling, and sometimes disability in the affected leg and arm muscles. The condition is also called chronic compartment syndrome or exercise-induced compartment syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic fatigue disorder
    Chronic fatigue syndrome is a complex disorder where in one suffers from recurring fatigue which cannot be improved by rest and can be aggravated by mental or physical activity. People suffering from CFS do not engage in lots of activities because they easily get tired. CFS can last for years and there are no specific tests available to diagnose this disorder. [read more]

  • Chronic granulomatous disease
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of hereditary illnesses wherein some cells in the immune system have a difficulty producing reactive oxygen compounds the body uses to kill ingested pathogens. This dyfunction leads to the presence of granulomata in the different organs of the body. [read more]

  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that attacks the peripheral nervous system but as well involves the central nervous system. It is sometimes known as chronic relapsing polyneuropathy and is related to Guillain-Barre syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis
    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that results when the body's immune system inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland. This causes damage to your thyroid cells and upsets the balance of chemical reactions in the body. The condition is also known as hashimoto's disease [read more]

  • Chronic Neutropenia
    Chronic neutropenia is a disorder of the blood wherein there is a decreased number of the neutrophils, which has an effect on the ability of the body to battle infection. Neutrophils act as the body's major defense against particular fungal infections and acute bacterial. When their count goes under 1,000 cells for every blood microliter, the danger of infections somewhat increases. [read more]

  • Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis
    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is an ailment wherein the bones of a child become painful and inflamed. The condition ‘comes and goes', meaning there can be times when one doesn't have symptoms but experience occasional flare-ups. [read more]

  • Chronic Spasmodic Dysphonia
    Chronic spasmodic dysphonia is a long-term voice disorder wherein there is an involuntary or excessive laryngeal muscle contraction when talking. The vocal cords' movement is strained and forced resulting in quivery, jerky, tight, groaning, or horse voice. [read more]

  • Cicatricial pemphigoid
    Cicatricial pemphigoid is a comparatively rare blistering disease involving the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, throat, nose, and genitals. The disease is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system generates antibodies that attack certain proteins that attach the epidermal cells to each other. The disrupted connection causes the cell to separate from the skin's lower layers, thus blisters form. [read more]

  • Citrullinemia
    Citrullinemia is defined as a hereditary condition in which the mutations of genes cause ammonia and some other harmful substances to build up in the blood. There are two kinds of Citrullinemia, Type I and Type II. The disorder is categorized under disorders of the urea cycle, which is a series of chemical reactions taking place inside the liver. [read more]

  • Clap
    Clap is a contagious sexually-transmitted disease commonly known as gonorrhea. It is an infectious disease characterized by swelling, pain and abnormal discharge in the genital areas. [read more]

  • Clinical Depression
    Clinical depression is a medical illness involving the mind and body, affecting how an individual thinks and behaves. The condition causes various emotional and physical problems and may hinder the individual's usual daily activities. [read more]

  • Clubfoot
    Clubfoot is a congenital defect wherein the foot is inverted and down. It is a common defect, occurring in one in every 1,000 births. The condition more commonly afflicts males than females. When untreated, those who have clubfoot will seem like they are walking on their ankles. [read more]

  • Coccidioidomycosis
    Coccidioidomycosis is an infectious condition brought about by fungus known as coccidioides immitis found in soil. The disease affects the skin and lungs, and is distinguished by too much nodules and sputum. It may occur as a severe or mild, progressive infections spreading all through one's body. Coccidioidomycosis' progressive form can often be fatal. [read more]

  • Coeliac Disease
    Celiac disease, or coeliac disease, is an illness that affects various organs in the body. In this condition, the body responds negatively to a certain kind of protein that interferes with absorption of nutrients, causing developmental delay and dysfunctional body organs. [read more]

  • Cogan Syndrome
    Cogan syndrome is defined as a rheumatic disease that may lead to hearing loss, dizziness, and vision difficulty. The syndrome can also be linked to blood-vessel swelling in other parts of the body; this may cause damage of major organs and even death. [read more]

  • Colonic Ischemia
    Colonic ischemia is a medical condition mostly found in adults at 50 years of age or older. It is a condition in which the colon is inflamed and injured. The condition is also called ischemic colitis. [read more]

  • Colorectal Cancer
    Colorectal cancer is the medical term for both colon cancer and rectal cancer. The former is cancer of the colon, while the latter is cancer of the colon's last 6 inches. [read more]

  • Combined hyperlipidemia, familial
    Familial combined hyperlipidemia is categorized as a disorder brought about by abnormally high levels of high blood triglycerides and cholesterol. This type of medical condition is typically passed down or an inherited disorder through family generations. [read more]

  • common cold
    A common cold is characterized as an infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, throat and nose. This condition is usually harmless and is known to be self-limiting. There are about 200 viruses that are known to cause common colds, making this condition highly prevalent among adults and children alike. [read more]

  • Common Variable Immunodeficiency
    Common Variable Immunodeficiency is type of disorder that is characterized by extremely low levels of serum immunoglobulin or what is known as antibodies as well as the increased susceptibility to infections. The underlying cause if this medical condition is not known, but is known to be a relatively common type of immunodeficiency. [read more]

  • Compartment syndrome
    Compartment syndrome is categorized as an acute medical disorder that usually develops after surgery and injury, where the increase in pressure that is usually caused by inflammation within the body's fascial compartment. Without prompt treatment, this condition can lead to muscle death and nerve damage. [read more]

  • Complex regional pain syndrome
    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is categorized as a highly uncommon and chronic condition that typically affects the patient's leg or arm. Seldom, the disease may spread and affect other areas of the body. The very nature of this medical condition is this not clearly understood up this day. [read more]

  • Complicated Grief
    Complicated grief is painful, complicate, and debilitating reaction to grief caused by distress and other emotional experiences. [read more]

  • Compulsive Overeating
    Compulsive overeating is a condition in which an individual cannot resist the regular consumption of unusually large amounts of food. It is also called binge-eating disorder. [read more]

  • Compulsive Sexual Behavior
    Compulsive sexual behavior is an individual's preoccupation and overwhelming urge for sex. It is also called hypersexuality, nymphomania, or erotomania. [read more]

  • Compulsive Stealing
    Compulsive stealing or kleptomania is a serious mental disorder in which an individual cannot resist the urge to steal items often with little value. [read more]

  • Condyloma
    Condyloma is more popularly known as genetal wart, categorized as a sexually transmitted disease that has external manifestations most particularly in the genitalia and anal area. Internal warts grow on the cervix and the upper vagina as well as in the male urethra. The lesions usually appear raised and pinkish in color but do not usually produce any other symptom. [read more]

  • Condyloma acuminatum
    Condyloma acuminatum is more popularly known as genital warts and is largely categorized as a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus. The estimated incubation period of this disease is approximately three months and is known to be highly contagious. The warts usually grow on the perianal and vulva areas, the cervix and vagina walls as well as the penis shaft for males. Lesions appear to be wart like and can be easily recognizable upon application of acetic acid or vinegar during examination. [read more]

  • Cone dystrophy
    Cone dystrophy is categorized as a genetic form of blindness which typically results in the impairment of the patient's photoreceptor cone cells, which is an essential part of the human vision. [read more]

  • Congenital afibrinogenemia
    Congenital afibrinogenemia is categorized as an extremely rare disorder that involves the inability to produce fibrinogen, an essential element of the blood clotting process. This is considered as an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Congenital antithrombin III deficiency
    Congenital antithrombin III deficiency is defined as the lack of the potent inhibitor for the coagulation cascade. This is categorized as a non-vitamin K-dependent protease that is known to exhibit the coagulation through lysing factor and thrombin. This type of deficiency is categorized as an autosomal dominant disorder that an infant can inherit through a copy of a defective gene. For severe congenital antithrombin III deficiency, the neonate has inherited 2 types of defective genes and is often easily noted during infancy stage. [read more]

  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome
    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, or CCHS, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease is characterized by an impairment or absence in the body's automatic control for breathing. The patient's body forgets to breathe, even during sleep. The symptoms for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can be mild or severe, but typical symptoms include abnormal pupils, which occur in 70% of cases; poor breathing functions especially during sleep, lack of spontaneous breathing, and bluish color in lips, nails, and skin due to breathing problems. Half of the patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can breathe almost normally when they are awake; however, it is during sleep when they encounter difficulty breathing. Other characteristics to watch out for when diagnosing one with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome are: no muscular or respiratory problems that may cause the breathing difficulty; no heart disease; consistent poor breathing during sleep, and that the symptoms are noticed when the child is less than a year old and continues. Early diagnosis of the disease is important, because when it goes undetected, this may result in death. Once it is determined that a patient has congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, they can seek treatment for the disease. Prior to treatment, the patient will undergo a variety of tests, among the first will determine the severity of the problem. Other tests will determine the respiratory aspects of the disease, as well as neurological and cardiac tests. During the course of treatment, the patient will use breathing support apparatus, such a respirator. Some children may need to use it for 24 hours of the day. In more severe cases, patients undergo surgery that will allow them to use a surgical implant that provides electrical stimulation to the diaphragm muscle to help improve breathing. Studies show that genetics plays a role in the occurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Research also shows that since 20% of the cases are accompanied by Hirschsprung disease, that there is an underlying connection that can be found in the genetics of the patients. Children born with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can still lead normal and active lives; however, extra supervision is needed during certain activities such as swimming when the body can forget to breathe when in the water. [read more]

  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM) is categorized as a highly distinct entity, which was discovered way back in 1949. CAM is characterized as a developmental hamartomatous, an abnormality of the lung that comes with an adenomatoid abundance of cysts that resemble bronchioles. [read more]

  • Congenital deafness
    Congenital deafness may or may not be inherited or genetic in nature. It can also be dues to the exposure of the pregnant mother to infections such as the rubella virus. Roughly about 80% of the congenital deafness cases that are-syndromatic, which are highly heterogeneous but the mutations in the Connexin 26 molecules usually account to almost half of the patients. [read more]

  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
    The congenital erythropoietic porphyria is categorized as an extremely rare case of autosomal recessive condition, and is more popularly known as Gunther's disease. This serious medical condition is a cause of various gene mutations in which the symptoms are known to development as early as the infancy stage. Congenital erythropoietic porphyries is often marked a cause of the patient's anemia among fetus even before birth. [read more]

  • Congenital facial diplegia
    Congenital facial diplegia or more popularly known as Mobius syndrome is categorized as an extremely rare genetic disorder that causes facial paralysis among newborn babies. This is known to be caused by the underdevelopment of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves that are known to control the facial expression and eye movements. [read more]

  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis
    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an extremely rare form of hereditary disorder that is characterized by the detection of a periportal fibrosis with some marked unevenly shaped producing bile ducts, as well as esophageal varices and intrahepatic portal hypertension. Congenital hepatic fibrosis is often associated with renal function disorder that is typically due to an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. [read more]

  • Congenital hypothyroidism
    Congenital hypothyroidism is also medically referred to as endemic cretinism which is characterized by the inadequate production of thyroid hormone among newborn infants. This typically occurs due to an anatomic defect in the infant's gland, which is categorized as an inborn defect of iodine deficiency or thyroid metabolism. [read more]

  • Congenital mesoblastic nephroma
    Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is a type of tumor of the kidney that is usually detected before birth through ultrasound, typically during the first three months of fetal development. The tumor contains fibroblastic cells or the connective cell tissues and may continue to spread to the other kidney or neighboring tissues. This congenital disorder has been found to be more prevalent among males. [read more]

  • Congenital microvillus atrophy
    Congenital microvillus atrophy is identified to be one of the leading causes of secretory diarrhea during the infant's first weeks of life. A The medical term microvillus atrophy was initially used to categorize the disease way back in 1982. The typical clinical presentation of congenital microvillus atrophy includes the profuse watery secretory diarrhea that usually starts in the first few hours of life. [read more]

  • Congenital Syphilis
    Congenital syphilis is an intense, disabling, and frequently life-threatening infection reported in infants. Syphilis may be spread through an infected pregnant woman's placenta and pass on to the unborn child. Almost fifty percent of the children infected with the disease at the time of development die shortly prior or after their birth. [read more]

  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
    Congenital toxoplasmosis is defined as a set of symptoms and traits caused by fetus infection with an organism called Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually mild for the mother, and might not even be evident. However, the infected fetus can be the cause of many problems. Early pregnancy infection results in serious health troubles compared to getting the disease later in pregnancy. [read more]

  • Conjoined Twins
    Conjoined twins are identical twins that have failed to completely separate into two individuals usually joined at the chest, head, or pelvis. Some may even share one or more internal organs. [read more]

  • Contact Lens Solution Toxicity
    Contact lens solution toxicity generally refers to the eye conditions that develop due to unwanted reactions to contact lens solutions. This type of reaction if often categorized as a form of allergy and is inflammatory in nature. [read more]

  • Conversion Disorder
    Conversion disorder is defined as a psychiatric disorder wherein people convey emotional distress through ‘physical' manifestations and symptoms. The symptoms appear involuntarily, while medical examination doesn't explain any clear-defined root of the dysfunction. [read more]

  • Coronary Artery Disease
    Coronary artery disease is the obstruction of blood flow through the coronary arteries. [read more]

  • Costello Syndrome
    An extremely rare disease with only 200 to 300 cases reported worldwide, Costello Syndrome is a genetic abnormality that slows down development and causes mental retardation. Patients share the same facial features, with loose skin and flexible joints, and are more prone to develop certain diseases like heart abnormalities, non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, and cell carcinoma. Individuals affected by this condition are relatively short and may possess lesser levels of growth hormones. [read more]

  • Couvade Syndrome
    Couvade syndrome is also known as sympathetic pregnancy, pregnant dad syndrome, and male pregnancy experience is a condition wherein the expectant father is experiencing some of the physical pregnancy symptoms prior the birth of the baby. The condition is usually common in first-time fathers; however there are also cases involving fathers who had previous children. [read more]

  • Cowden's disease
    The genetic disorder Cowden's disease causes the tumor-like growths called hamartomas to develop on one's skin or mucous membranes. Noncancerous and small, this may also grow in various areas of the body including the intestinal tract. Patients with Cowden syndrome are much more likely to contact uterus cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer. [read more]

  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia
    Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD or lionitis) is an uncommon hereditary autosomal recessive bone disorder characterized by deposits of calcium in the skull, causing the size of cranial foramina and the hole in the cervical spinal canal to shrink. This deforms facial features of the patients, who in most cases die at an early age. [read more]

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    The fatal and rare denerative brain disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by proteins called prions that multiply exponentially by refolding native proteins to infected state. Disrupting cell function, CJD results to cell death, rapid and progressive dementia, loss of memory, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Death can occur in as little as four months after the onset of the first symptoms. [read more]

  • Cri du chat
    Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic abnormality caused by the partial deletion of the chromosome number 5. Its name is French for cry or call of the cat in reference to the meowing sound the infant makes when crying, a manifestation of the infant's larynx and nervous system problems. [read more]

  • Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever
    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever It is the viral haemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group though it is mainly a zoonosis, erratic cases and outbreaks of CCHF can also affect humans. [read more]

  • Crohn's Disease
    Crohn's disease is a chronic, inflammatory disorder most usually affecting the gastrointestinal tract. It can constrict the bowel and thus cause bowel obstruction, make abnormal passageway between the bowel and other body parts such as the skin, and result to inflammation without causing strictures or fistulae. Among the parts afflicted with this disorder are the ileum and the large intestine, as well as any part of the digestive system including the mouth and the anus. [read more]

  • Cronkhite-Canada disease
    The rare syndrome Cronkhite-Canada is a disorder prevalent among individuals 50 to 60 years old and characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in our digestive tract. The polyps affect the large intestine, stomach, small intestine and esophagus, causing gastrointestinal disturbances, malnutrition, malabsorption and even colorectal cancer. The polyps are hamartomas, growths which are often non-cancerous. [read more]

  • Croup
    Croup refers to diseases of the respiratory system which are caused by inflamed upper airway. Characterized by sneeze and barking cough, vomiting, nausea, fever and high pitch sound the child makes when inhaling, Croup is often a benign condition that is treatable at home. Croup diseases are spasmotic croup, laryngotracheobronchopneumitis, acute laryngotracheitis, laryngeal diptheria and laryngotracheobronchitis. Laryngotracheobronchopneumitis and laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by bacterial infection and often severe. [read more]

  • Crouzon Syndrome
    The hereditary disorder Crouzon syndrome arises when the bones of a baby's skull and face close early or are incapable of expanding. This abnormal bone development is caused by disturbances in the development of the branchial arches and leads to malformation of the skull and facial features. Typically, individuals with Crouzon syndrome have low-lying ears and malformed ear canals that cause hearing loss. [read more]

  • Cryoglobulinemia
    The precipitation of the proteins called cryoglobulins in low temperature can cause serious health problems for some people. The condition is called cryoglobulinemia and it occurs when there are huge deposits of cryoglobuline in the blood, damaging organs and causing illness. It could be linked to multiple myeloma, liver disease, lymphoma, and infection. More women are afflicted with the disease. [read more]

  • Cryptorchidism
    Cryptorchidism, also referred to as undescended testicle, is a condition in which the testes did not completely descend into the scrotum. [read more]

  • Currarino's triad
    Currarino's triad is characterized as a complex malformation that typically consist of anorectal and sacral defects as well as the formation presacral mass. Imaging would often show some sacral bony malformations and may be associated to some urological abnormalities of the neurogenic bladder or vesicouretereric reflux. [read more]

  • Cutaneous anthrax
    Cutaneous anthrax was once known as a rather obscure disease is now a household name, largely owing to the media hype since it was used bioterrorism agents in the past. There are three different types of anthrax: gastronintestinal, inhalational and cutaneous. Anthrax is actually categorized as a zoonotic disease, which means, it mainly affects animals and not humans. This disease can be contracted through handling contaminated excrement from the infected animals. [read more]

  • Cutaneous larva migrans
    Cutaneous larva migrans or CLM,is a type of skin disorder that occurs among humans. Sometimes termed as ground itch pr creeping eruption, this disease is also known as sandworms in reference to the "fondness" of larvae for sandy soil. [read more]

  • Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is categorized as a type of lupus that primarily involves the patient's skin but may also be a precursor to another systemic form of the disease. There are three different types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: chronic lupus erythematosus, subacute lupus erythematosus and e types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Dark skinned women individuals are more prone to Cutaneous lupus erythematosus especially between ages 20-60. [read more]

  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is considered an extremely rare disease, and is usually occurs in people between the ages 40-60, primarily affecting the skin. This medical condition is caused by the uncontrollable development of within blood cells on the skin, which is known as T-cells. Among the most common types cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides. [read more]

  • Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
    Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita or CMTC is quite rare and uncommonly reported. This is categorized as congenital and sporadic cutaneous disorder that comes with the persistent telangiectasia, cutis marmorata and phlebectasia. This comes with ulcerations of the skin as well as cutaneous atrophy. Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenital is also usually associated with several other congenital anomalies. [read more]

  • Cyclic neutropenia
    Cyclic neutropenia is categorized as a rare blood disorder that is characterized by some recurrent episodes of abnormally low white blood cell levels called neutrophils. These are primarily responsible for warding off infections as well as in destroying bacteria that may invade the body. In most cases, people with cyclic neutropenia suffer from recurrent infections. [read more]

  • Cyclothymia
    Cyclothymia is also known by the medical term cyclothymic disorder. This disease is characterized by a mild type of bipolar disorder. Similar to bipolar disorder, cyclothymia is known as a chronic mood disorder that results to emotional highs and lows. Patients with this condition experience short periods of emotional ups believing they are on top of the world and followed by emotional downs that often leave them feeling suicidal and depressed. [read more]

  • Cyclothymic Disorder
    Cyclothymic disorder also called as cyclothymia, is a mild form of bipolar disorder; a chronic mood disorder causing emotional ups and downs. The condition is usually characterized by short episodes of emotional highs when feeling on top of the world followed by extremely low feeling that can possibly lead to hopelessness or suicide, if left uncontrolled. [read more]

  • Cystinosis
    Cystinosis is categorized as an inherited disorder that affects chromosome 17, under which the amino acid cystine is not properly transported out of the patient's body cells. This would cause organ and tissue all damage throughout the body and may begin to manifest at any age, affecting both male and female. This mutated gene CTNS is an autosomal recessive, which means both parents are carrier of this gene resulting to the child to inherit to defective gene copies. [read more]

  • Cystitis, Interstitial
    Interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome is characterized by experiencing pain in your pelvis ranging from discomfort or mild burning to severe pain, letting you think that you have a urinary tract infection. The pressure or pain in your bladder awakens you, not letting you get a good night's sleep and the first thing you will do is find the nearest toilet location. [read more]

  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
    Cytomegalic inclusion disease is an infection or condition resulting from a form of herpes virus called ‘cytomegalovirus'. This virus leads to cell enlargement of a number of organs, as well as the growth of ‘inclusion bodies' in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells. A trademark of this infection is the episodic recurrence of symptoms all through life, due to its virus cycles of latency periods and active virus. [read more]

  • De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
    De Quervain's tenosynovitis is characterized by the abnormal pain experience on the hand and wrist area. The pain is generally caused by the swelling of the sheath of tendons located on the thumb side of the wrist. This causes the pain and discomfort for every turn of the wrist, clenching the fist and grasping anything. [read more]

  • Deafblindness
    Deafblindness is the condition characterized by a combination of hearing and vision losses, which causes difficulty in communication, access to information, and mobility. Causes of the condition are classified into two categories; congenital and acquired. Deafblindness can be acquired through illness, injury or due to old age. Congenital blindness can be a result of prenatal infection, chromosomal syndromes like Down's syndrome, birth trauma or heavy alcohol and drug use of a pregnant mother. [read more]

  • Deerfly Fever
    Deerfly fever is otherwise known as Tularemia which is characterized by a rare and infectious disease that primarily attacks the eyes, skin and lungs. There are less than 200 reported cases of this disease annually, and is known to affect mostly the south-central and western states. Deerfly fever spreads through humans though a number of routes, including direct exposure and insect bites from an infected animal. [read more]

  • Degos Disease
    Degos disease is an uncommon systematic disease that involves the medium and small sized arteries, wherein these arteries become blocked. The disease typically progresses into two stages. The first stage is characterized by the appearance of distinguishing skin lesions that may stay for some time, ranging from a few weeks to several years. Lesions inside the small intestines often mark the second stage, and other organs can also be affected. [read more]

  • Delirium
    The word "delirium" typically hints a state of feverish ecstasy that is believed to fuel some sort of artistic creation or some form of spiritual awakening, it can actually be clearly defined as a form of medical condition. Delirium is basically characterized a decline in attention, mental clarity and awareness that is often known to be triggered by a serious illness. [read more]

  • Dentinogenesis imperfecta
    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of tooth development brought about by abnormal genetic mutations in the DSPP gene. It causes discolorations in teeth and development of abnormally weak dentin causing teeth to break easily, and break easily as well. It is otherwise called as hereditary Opalescent Dentin. Researchers have identified three types of this disease. [read more]

  • Depersonalization Disorder
    Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) is a special type of dissociative disorder where an afflicted individual suffers from recurrent and resistant feelings of depersonalization. This is characterized by a sense of automation as well as the feeling of disconnection from the body, often making it difficult to relate to reality. [read more]

  • Depression In Older People
    Depression in older people is a stage where an adult, who has gone past his prime years, experiences anxiety and long-term sadness due to a series of reflections of the things that happened in the past. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Nummular
    Nummular dermatitis is categorized as a particular form of eczema, or what is known as a type of atopic dermatitis, which is characterized by seemingly coin-shaped and raised bumps on the surface of the skin. These growths are often scaly. [read more]

  • Dermatographia
    Lightly scratching your skin that may cause red lines on the area where you've scratched is a condition called dermatographia. It can be uncomfortable though it's not serious. Upon scratching, the skin cells are overly sensitive to minor injury with this kind of disorder. [read more]

  • Developmental Delay
    Developmental delay is a disorder in which a child goes through an abnormally slower process of development than expected. His mental and physical skills develop very slowly. This condition is also called cerebral palsy. [read more]

  • Diabetic Coma
    Having a dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) when you have diabetes can lead to a diabetic coma which is a life-threatening diabetes complication and when left untreated can be fatal. [read more]

  • Diabetic neuropathies
    Diabetic neuropathies is a microvascular trauma that involves capillaries and venoules that provides blood and nutrients to the nerves, it is cause by diabetes melllitus. [read more]

  • Diastrophic dysplasia
    Diastrophic dysplasia or DD is considered to be an uncommon kind of dwarfism. Occuring only once out of 500,000 births (in the U.S.), it is the top three among all types of dwarfism. [read more]

  • DiGeorge Syndrome
    DiGeorge Syndrome also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Strong Syndrome is a disorder known by total or partial absence or defective chromosome 22. [read more]

  • Dizziness
    One of the most common reasons why older adults visit their doctors is due to dizziness. Your brain processes a variety of information from your nervous system, your eyes and your inner ears, keeping your sense of balance. But if the brain can't process signals from all of these locations, or if your sensory systems aren't functioning properly, or if the messages are contradictory, then you may experience dizziness and loss of balance. [read more]

  • Double Uterus
    Double uterus or uterus didelphys is a condition characterized when the tubes (which start out as two small tubes in a female fetus) don't join completely to create one hollow organ which is the uterus, but instead each one develops into a separate cavity as the fetus develops. [read more]

  • Dracunculiasis
    Dracunculiasis also more commonly called and known by people as Guinea worm disease (GWD), is a kind of infection that is caused by the parasitic organism Dracunculus medinensis. It is also alternately known as "Guinea worm" or "Medina worm" or "fiery serpent" in English. The name reflects the word, which is Latin, Dracunculus. This means "little dragon". [read more]

  • Dubin-Johnson syndrome
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a disorder usually autosomal and recessive. This condition causes an increase of bilirubin without elevation of the liver enzymes ALT and AST. This condition is often associated with the inability of hepatocytes to secrete produced conjugated bilirubin to the bile in the liver. It can be diagnosed in early infancy. Building up of biliburin in the bloodstrean cause yellowish color of the eye and skin. [read more]

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    is a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by decreasing muscle mass and progressive loss of muscle function in male children [read more]

  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterized by the abnormal multiplication of cells and the gradual formation of a growth within a milk duct of the breast. This medical condition may be difficult to detect. However, this is normally not a fatal condition since it is not a form of cancer but would still require a form of treatment. [read more]

  • Dumping Syndrome
    Dumping syndrome is characterized by a group of symptoms that are known to likely develop following a surgery that removes a certain part of the stomach. This is also known as the rapid emptying of the undigested contents in the stomach. [read more]

  • Dupuytren's contracture
    Dupuytren's contracture is characterized of a fixed flexion contracture of the person's limbs where the fingers tend to bend towards the base of the palm and cannot be fully extended or straightened naturally. It disorder is named in honor of a particular surgeon named Baron Guillaume Dupuytren, who was the first to define a surgical operation to correct the said affliction. [read more]

  • Dysfibrinogenemia, familial
    Dysfibrinogenemia, familial is a type of familial medication condition that is not common. It is associated with an abnormal fibrinogen. Dysfibrinogenemia, familial involves several types and subtypes including Detroit, Wiesbaden, and Amsterdam dysfibrinogenemia. [read more]

  • Dysgraphia
    Dysgraphia generally refers to extreme difficulty in handwriting. The condition is defined as a learning disability as a result of difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. [read more]

  • Dyskeratosis congenita
    Dyskeratosis congenita is also referred to as Zinsser-Engman-Cole Syndrome. It is a type of rare disease that is characterized by a gradual failure of the bone marrow. [read more]

  • Dyskinesia
    Dyskinesia is a disorder that is characterized by involuntary movements such as in chorea or tic. Dyskinesia has been found out to be a mere symptom of various medical conditions and has a specific underlying cause. [read more]

  • Dyskinesia, drug induced
    Dyskinesia, drug induced generally refers to the symptom that is caused by the high-dose or long term usage of the drug calleddopamine antagonists, which are usually used as antipsychotics medications and antiemetic metoclopramide. Such neuroleptic drugs are generally used to be prescribed to treat a number of different types of psychiatric disorders. Other forms of dopamine antagonists that are known to cause tardive dyskinesia are drugs used for the treat cases of gastrointestinal disorders along with some neurological disorders. Majority of the drugs that are not actually intended to affect the dopamine, such as the antidepressants, may be also the main cause of tardive dyskinesia. While there are newer atypical antipsychotics available in the market today such as olanzapine and risperidone that may initially appear to have lesser dystonic ill-effects, only clozapine has been proven to have a signioficantly lower risk of complications such as tardive dyskinesia in comparison to the older antipsychotics. [read more]

  • Dysmorphophobia
    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition that is also known as body dysmorphic disorder or BDD. It has been defined over a century ago and is characterized by an intense fixation or focus on an invisible flaw in one's physical appearance. [read more]

  • Dyspepsia
    Dyspepsia is the uncomfortable or burning sensation felt in the upper abdomen which is usually accompanied by nausea, bloating of the abdomen, belching and oftentimes vomiting. [read more]

  • Dyspraxia
    Dyspraxia is a condition characterized by the brain's inability to process information resulting in messages not being properly addressed or transmitted ; can greatly affect planning what to do and how to do it. The condition is also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), Motor Learning Difficulties, and Perceptuo-Motor Dysfunction. It was formerly termed as Clumsy Child Syndrome and Minimal Brain Damage. [read more]

  • Dysrhythmias
    Dysrhythmias are also known as tuberous sclerosis, which is categorized as a very rare form of genetic disease that causes growth of benign tumors in several parts of the body. The most common areas of growth include the brain, skin and kidneys. [read more]

  • Dysthymia
    Dysthymia is more popularly known as depression , which can conjure up a number of meanings – from simple passing moods of discouragement or sadness of a deeper condition of some inconsolable misery that can even be accompanied with suicidal thoughts. Dysthymia is regarded as a serious clinical disorder as it is known a condition that could interfere the patient's social and family life, work and even physical health. [read more]

  • Dystonia
    Dystonia is categorized as type of a neurological movement disorder characterized by sustained contractions of the muscle that causes some repetitive movements, twisting or abnormal postures. The type disorder may be genetic or may also be caused by some other factors such as physical trauma, birth-related, poisoning, infection or some sort of reaction to certain drugs. [read more]

  • Dystrophia myotonica
    Dystrophia myotonica is categorized as an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by muscle atrophy, myotonia, hypogonadism and cataracts. This is primarily caused by a multi-system, autonomic dominant disorder that can significantly affect the skeletal muscles that largely affects the central nervous system as well as other body parts. [read more]

  • Eale's disease
    Eale's disease is categorized as an idiopathic obliterative vasculopathy that typically involves and affects the peripheral retina among young adults. The clinical findings for Eale's disease is primarily characterized by some avascular areas located in the retina periphery, the dilation of the capillary channels, as well as spontaneous chorioretinal scars. [read more]

  • Early Puberty
    Early puberty is characterized by the rapid growth of the muscles and bones as well as premature changes in the size and shape of the body. This condition is often more prevalent among girls than boys. [read more]

  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever
    Ebola hemorrhagic fever has been identified to be among the most deadliest group of diseases that is categorized under viral hemorrhagic fevers. The severity of this condition range from some mild illnesses that can possibly development into something that is potentially fatal, causing complications in the kidney function, sever bleeding, chock and respiratory problems. [read more]

  • Ectodermal dysplasia
    Ectodermal dysplasia is categorized as a form of a genetic disorder wherein there is a characterized abnormal development of the patient's skin and associated structures such as the nails, teeth and sweat glands. Among the most dangerous medical complications that may occur in certain cases where there is a significant decrease in sweating due to the absence of the sweat glands, making the afflicted patients experience intense discomfort in warm environments. [read more]

  • Ectopia cordis
    Ectopia cordis is categorized as ab extremely rare congenital malformation of the heart that still remains very not easy to treat up to this day and age. Ectopia cordis is characterized by the development of the heart outside the chest wall, which means it is not protected by the sternum or the skin. In such cases, it is also likely that other organs may also form outside the body. [read more]

  • Ectopic Heartbeat
    Ectopic heartbeat or also known as Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that start in one of the heart's two lower pumping chambers or the ventricles. Simply put, it is an irregularity of the heart rate and rhythm involving extra or skipped beats. [read more]

  • Ectrodactyly
    Ectrodactyly is categorized as a form of birth defect that causes malformations of the feet and/or hand. Majority of this condition, the middle toe or the middle finger is missing or may be fused together with other neighboring digits. Hand formations usually share the similar appearance of lobster hands. [read more]

  • ED (Erectile Dysfunction)
    The inability of a man to maintain a firm erection long enough to have sex is called erectile dysfunction (ED). The condition is more common among older men but can occur at any age. Though the condition may not really be cause for concern from time to time, it can cause stress, relationship problems, and may affect self-esteem. [read more]

  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is categorized as some various group of genetic disorders that primarily affects the connective tissue, and is characterised by joint hyper mobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This medical condition is classified according to the symptoms involved. [read more]

  • Eisenmenger's syndrome
    Eisenmenger's syndrome is categorized as a medical condition that involves the collection of symptoms such as cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension and erythrocytosis. This disease is usually found among young teenagers and adults that suffer from some form of congenital heart defect that may or may not have been repaired surgically. This may also be closely associated to pulmonary hypertension. [read more]

  • Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a type of an inherited disorder that primarily affects the bone growth that would eventually result in short stature or more popularly known as as dwarfism. People with medical condition typically have particularly short lower legs, forearms and short ribs. It is also associated malformations of the teeth and extra digits in hand and feet. [read more]

  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is characterized by some form of a clinical triad consisting of joint structures that usually develop during early childhood. This is accompanied by the slow progression of muscle weakness as well as wasting that starts from the scapular down to the pelvic girdle, along with cardiac muscle involvement. [read more]

  • emetophobia
    Emetophobia is the irrational fear of vomiting & being near with those are vomiting. People who suffer with the said phobia tend to constantly avoid eating out as well as socializing and going out to parties. Emetophobics will go to extraordinary mile to avoid becoming violently sick. [read more]

  • encephalitis
    Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, normally caused by a viral infection. It's a rare disease that only occurs in approximately 0.5 per 100,000 individuals - most commonly in children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. [read more]

  • encephalitis lethargica
    Encephalitis lethargica or otherwise known as von Economo disease is categorized as an atypical manifestation of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness" or as "sleeping sickness".EL is a dreadful illness that swept the world in the 1920s and then vanished as quickly as it had appeared. EL primarily attacks the brain, then leaving some of its victims in a rather statue-like condition, both motionless as well as speechless. [read more]

  • encephalocele
    Encephalocele, is a neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull. [read more]

  • Encephalocele Anencephaly
    Encephalocele anencephaly is among the most severe kinds of NTD or Neural Tube Defect. These types of defects occur during pregnancy, and affects the ‘tissue' that develops into a fetus' brain and spinal cord. Anencephaly happens early in fetal development, and results when the neural tube's upper part doesn't close properly. [read more]

  • Encopresis
    Encopresis is the voluntary or involuntary passage of stools in children over age 4. This occurs when a child resists having bowel movements, causing impacted tool to collect in the colon and rectum. Liquid stool can leak around the impacted stool then out of the anus, which causes the soiling of the underwear. The condition is also called stool holding. [read more]

  • Endocardial fibroelastosis
    Endocardial fibroelastosis is a rare heart disorder that is characterized by a thickening within the muscular lining of the heart chambers (the endocardium) due to an increase in the amount of supporting connective tissue and elastic fibers. It is considered to be a rather uncommon cause of some unexplained types of heart failure among infants and children. [read more]

  • Endometrial Cancer
    Endometrial cancer is cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus called the endometrium. It is one of the most common cancers in American women. About 40,000 American women receive a diagnosis of endometrial cancer each year, which makes it the fourth most common cancer found in women. [read more]

  • Endometrial Cancer
    Endometrial cancer is a common type of cancer affecting most American women. Roughly forty thousand American women are diagnosed per year, making it the 4th most common female cancer. It begins in the lining of the uterus (called the endometrium), and may also affect other cells of the uterus. It is alternatively known as uterine cancer, and usually appears as the female's reproductive period ends, usually at ages 60-70. [read more]

  • Enlarged Heart
    Enlarged heart or cardiomegaly is a sign of an underlying problem. [read more]

  • Enlarged Thyroid
    Goiter, or the enlargement of the thyroid gland, is a condition more common in women and older adults. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland weighing less than an ounce, located just below the Adam's apple. [read more]

  • Enterocele
    Enterocele is a condition among women in which the muscles and tissues that hold the small bowel in place stretch or weaken, causing the small bowel to drop from its original position and protrude through the vaginal wall, and creating a bulge. Vaginal hernia is the result of enterocele. [read more]

  • Enterocolitis
    Enterocolitis is the medical term used to describe the inflammation of the small and large intestine. However, this illness is further categorized to be either enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine) or colitis (large intestine). Enterocolitis is a common intestinal disease among children. [read more]

  • Enuresis
    Also known as bed-wetting, nocturnal enuresis of nighttime incontinence is a developmental stage and is not a sign of toilet training gone bad. Primary enuresis is the term for children who have never been dry at night. Those who begin to wet the bed after at least six months of dry nights are considered to have secondary enuresis. [read more]

  • Ependymoma
    Ependymoma is a tumor that usually arises from the ependyma. Ependyma a tissue located in the central nervous system. Most of the time, the location of the tumor in children is in the intracranial, while the location of the tumor is in the spinal in the case of adults. The most common location of the intracranial ependymoma is in the fourth ventricle. It is only very rarely that ependymoma occurs in the pelvis or in the pelvic cavity. It is believed that Ependyomoma may have cause Syringomyelia. These tumors are also seen with Type 2 Neurofibromatosis. [read more]

  • Epicondylitis
    Epicondylitis (lateral) otherwise known as tennis elbow, is a very common problem encountered by physicians in the orthopedic practice. It is an injury due to the overuse of the part which involves the extensor or the supinator muscles originating on the lateral part of the epicondylar region of the distal humerus. It has been noted to occur in at least 50% of tennis athletes. But this condition is not only limited to the tennis players, it also has been reported to occur due to any overuse of the specific parts to many activities. Lateral epicondylitis is also very common in today's very active society. [read more]

  • Epidermolysis bullosa
    Epidermolysis Bullosa is a very rare disease inherited genetically. It is often characterized by very fragile skin and blister formation that may come and go. These skin blisters often result from minor friction to other rough surfaces or by trauma. [read more]

  • Epididymitis
    Epididymitis is a condition wherin the epididymis swell or becomes inflamed. This medical condition may entail mild to extremely pain. Adminsitration of antibiotics may also be needed to control infection. Epididymis is structure located along the posterior area of the testis. It is coiled and tubular in appearance. It is the structure that allows for the transport, storage, and maturation of the sperm cells and also connecting the efferent ducts to the vas deferens. Swelling of the epididymis can either be acute or chronic and is commonly caused by infection. [read more]

  • Epiglottitis
    Epiglottitis is the medical term used to describe the inflammation of the epiglottis. The epiglottis is the flap that prevents the passage of food and other solid particles into the trachea. A swollen epiglottis is painful and can cause permanent damages to the trachea. [read more]

  • Equinophobia
    Equinophobia is a medical or mental condition defined as "a rather unwarranted, persistent, and abnormal fear of horses." [read more]

  • Ergophobia
    Ergophobia is an abnormal and usually persistent fear of work. People suffering ergophobia often experience unreasonable stress or fatigue about work of the workplace environment even if they themselves realize that their fear is rather irrational. Their fear of work may also actually be a combined fears like the fear of not meeting his employers' expectation or failing at a tasked assigned to him, fear of talking or speaking in front of groups at the workplace, or fear of interacting or socializing with other co-employees. The word "Ergophobia" is taken from the Greek word "ergon" which means work and "phobos" which means fear. [read more]

  • Erythema Multiforme
    Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder that is idiopathic or has unknown cause. But some experts said that this disease is cause by malfunction of the immune system due to infection or drug exposure that affects the skin and oral mucous membrane. It is a self-limiting skin disease, it means that the disease will just relieve without treatment. It will complicate to Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a life threatening skin disorder cause by drug allergic reaction. [read more]

  • Erythema Nodosum
    Erythema nodosum is a kind of ‘skin inflammation', found in a specific part of the skin's fatty layer. The disorder results in painful, tender, reddish lumps that's most commonly found in front of one's legs on the lower part of the knees. These lumps vary in dimension, from one to five centimeters. The lumps can also occur for several weeks or months, and eventually go away. [read more]

  • Erythromelalgia
    Erythromelalgia is also popularly known as Mitchell's disease. Other terms associated with Erythromelalgia are red neuralgia, or erythermalgia. This is a rather rare disorder characterized by the blood vessels located usually in the legs of the lower extremeties are blocked and becomes inflamed. The blocking then entails a severe pain and skin redness. Oftentimes, the attacks of Erythromelalgia comes in a periodic pattern and are mostly triggered by too much heat, drinking alcohol, or exertion. It can also occur as a primary or can be a secondary disorder. Oftentimes, econdary erythromelalgia could result from minute fiber peripheral neuropathy cause by any factors, poisoning from the mushroom or mercury, hypercholesterolemia, and some autoimmune disorders. [read more]

  • Esophageal atresia
    Esophageal atresia is also otherwise known as Oesophageal atresia. This condition is a medical birth defect condition, which usually affects the alimentary tract. It causes the esophagus to result in a blind-ended pouch impeding its function of normally connecting to the stomach. [read more]

  • Esophageal Cancer
    A serious form of cancer from your 10 inch long tube that connects your throat and stomach and starts in the inner layer of your esophagus. [read more]

  • Esophagitis
    Esophagitis simply refers to the swelling or inflammation of the esophagus. It is usually caused by other illnesses such as gastroesophageal reflux syndrome (GERD), and infections due to certain viruses and bacteria. Food allergies can also result to esophagitis. The swelling of the esophagus can be treated by NSAID medications. [read more]

  • essential hypertension
    Hypertension, HTN or HPN commonly called to as "high blood pressure”. It is a medical problem in which the blood pressure or BP of a person is elevated. A person is considered to be hypertensive if a person's systolic pressure is 140 mmhg and above while the diastolic pressure is 90 mmHg and above. There are two classification of hypertension , the essential or primary hypertension ,indicates that no specific medical factor that can explain the condition. The secondary hypertension indicates the condition of the patient is cause by another disorder. [read more]

  • Essential Tremor
    The word “essential” in essential tremor means that the disorder isn't linked to other disease and is a sign of a movement disorder characterized as dismissed trembling hands or shaking head also it is also part of a normal aging process. It is the most common of the many movement disorder. [read more]

  • Exhibitionism
    Exhibitionism is a psychological disorder wherein a person makes it a habit to display unusual behaviors to attract public attention. This is characterized by habitual daredevil stunts or exposure of sexual behaviors. [read more]

  • Exogenous lipoid pneumonia
    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia Also known as Lipid pneumonia or lipoid pneumonia is a lung inflammation or what we called pneumonia. But the difference is the exogenous is the lipid has entered the bronchial tree or the lungs while in pneumonia the water enters the lungs. [read more]

  • Exophthalmos
    Exophthalmos is referring to as a bulging of the eye out of the orbit bone. There are two types of exopthalmus, its either bilateral, it is often seen in Graves' Disease or unilateral cause by an orbital tumor. [read more]

  • Exostoses, multiple
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is also called Multiple exostosis it is a disorder in which multiple bone growth in the bony area. [read more]

  • External Compression Headaches
    External compression headache is the pain of constant pressure on the forehead or scalp that is caused by an object worn on the head. [read more]

  • Extrapontine Myelinolysis
    Extrapontine myelinolysis is a neurological disorder wherein the pons area, or myelin sheath in which the nerve cells are located, is damaged. [read more]

  • Eye Floaters
    Floaters are bits of cellular debris that come and go without treatment. They are often seen as floating specks in front of the eyes but they are not really on the surface but inside. Floater among other people may look like spots and to some they may look like tiny threads. [read more]

  • Eyelid Inflammation
    Eye inflammation or also known as Blepharitis is a condition affecting the skin of the eyelids and usually involves the part of the eyelid where the eyelashes grow. [read more]

  • Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is also commonly known by another medical term as Landouzy-Dejerine. This is categorized as an autosomal dominant type of muscular dystrophy that primarily affects the patient's skeletal muscles of the scapula, face and upper arms. It is categorized as one of the most common genetic disorder that affects the skeletal muscle. The symptoms gradually develop and can become increasingly evident during the teenage years. [read more]

  • Factor II deficiency
    Factor II deficiency is categorized is an extremely rare disorder. To date, there are only about 26 reported cases of this medical condition and is said to only occur 1 in 2 million individuals. This is known as an autosomal recessive disorder that equally affects both women and men. This is also known as prothrombin deficiency, which is identified as a precursor to thrombin and manifests as an abnormality of the prothrombin structure. [read more]

  • Factor V Leiden Mutation
    Factor V Leiden mutation is a widespread clotting disorder caused by the mutation of a gene in the clotting of Factor V. The mutation results to Factor V responding more gradually to Protein C. Protein C is an anti-clotting aspect that usually controls Factor V activity. Consequently, individuals with Factor V Leiden mutation have increased risks of thrombophilia or blood clots. [read more]

  • Fallot Tetralogy
    Fallot tetralogy is a rare condition that involves defects inside the structures of the heart of young children and infants. Jointly, these defects lead to poor oxygen in blood flowing from the heart into the body. As a result, children and infants with this condition typically show blue-tinged skin. [read more]

  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a common genetic disorder that can lead to cancer of the colon if it is left undetected. Affected individuals develop countless ‘adenomatous colorectal polyps' in the rectum or colon, particularly during their teenage years and twenties. The polyps aren't cancerous, but due to their numerous quantities, there's greater chance that a number will go through mutation and trigger cancer development. [read more]

  • Familial amyloid polyneuropathy
    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy, otherwise known as Corino de Andrade's Disease, is a deadly and untreatable health condition that was first identified in the 1950s. This disease is characterized by amyloidogenic transthyretin protein that aer systematically deposited particularly in the peripheral nervous system of the body. [read more]

  • Familial Mediterranean fever
    A genetic health condition, familial Mediterranean fever is characterized by the repeating occurrences of inflammation in the chest, abdomen, or joints. These episodes, which were found to be painful, typically happen along with fever, and at times, a rash. [read more]

  • Familial paroxysmal peritonitis
    Familial paroxysmal peritonitis or also known as Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited inflammatory disorder usually occurring among people with Mediterranean origin. A rare disorder, it is typically diagnosed during childhood. [read more]

  • familial polyposis
    Familial Polyposis is a genetic medical condition that attacks the patient's large intestine. Although this disease is considered rare, leaving it untreatedd can cause the onset of cancer. [read more]

  • Fanconi's anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (FA) is an inherited ailment that involves children and adults belonging to all ethnic backgrounds. FA is distinguished by skeletal abnormalities, short figure, elevated occurrence of solid tumors and leukemias, failure in bone marrow and cellular sensitivity destroying agents like mitomycin C. [read more]

  • Fascioliasis
    Fascioliasis is defined as a type of infection that is brought about by Trematoda, a certain class of flukes. Otherwise known as Fasciola Gigantica or sheep liver fluke, this condition is present worldwide, specifically in areas where cattle or sheep production is prevalent. [read more]

  • Fatigue From Cancer Fatigue
    Cancer-induced fatigue is fatigue characterized by extreme weakness and weight loss due to the effects of cancer in the body. This is a common symptom among people with cancer. [read more]

  • Fatty Liver
    Fatty liver is a condition that involves the accumulation of too much fat in one's liver cells. It's normal for the liver to have some fat; however, if this fat makes up more than ten percent of the weight of the liver, then one has a fatty liver and can develop more grave symptoms. The extra fat can lead to liver inflammation. [read more]

  • Fecal Incontinence
    The inability to take control of bowel movements which causes the stool to drip from the rectum unexpectedly [read more]

  • Feingold Syndrome
    Feingold syndrome is an extremely uncommon syndrome with several congenital anomalies. The syndrome is characterized largely by gastrointestinal abnormalities, toe and finger deformities, eye abnormities, and a small head. The features of the syndrome share considerable overlap with Vacterl and Vater connections, particularly patients that have esophageal/duodenal atresia. [read more]

  • Female Infertility
    Female infertility accounts for about 40-50 percent of all infertile couples. [read more]

  • Female Pseudohermaphroditism
    Female pseudohermaphroditism is a type of pseudohermaphroditism wherein the affected person is an inherent and ‘gonadal' female having partial masculinization. Pseudohermaphroditism is a condition where the affected individual has gonads of one sex, but there's one or more existing contradictions in its morphologic sex criteria. In the case of female pseudohermaphroditism, a person has normal ovary development, internal reproductive tract, and XX karyotype, but they have virilized external or ambiguous genitalia. [read more]

  • Fetal Diethylstilbestrol Syndrome
    Fetal diethylstilbestrol syndrome is an extremely uncommon syndrome that occurs when a pregnant woman is exposed to a synthetic estrogen called diethylstilbestrol during her pregnancy. Diethylstilbestrol is used for the prevention of complications while pregnant, such as prematurity and miscarriage. Diethylstilbestrol ingestion during pregnancy may lead to cancerous birth defects in daughters of exposed mothers. The defect may not be obvious until the female child reaches maturity. [read more]

  • Fetal Methyl Mercury Syndrome
    Fetal methyl mercury syndrome is a condition in which the fetus is exposed to methyl mercury, passed on from mother to fetus via the placenta. Methyl mercury is an ‘organometallic cation' and an environmental toxicant categorized as bioaccumulative. Fetal contact to methyl mercury is linked to mild developmental deficits, such as decreased memory function, attention deficit, and lesser IQ. [read more]

  • Fetal warfarin syndrome
    Fetal warfarin syndrome is categorized as a very rare disorder tat primary caused by fetal exposure to an anticoagulant known as warfarin that would often result in neurological, physical and mental abnormalities. Patients usually develop nasal hypoplasia and cartilaginous calcification. [read more]

  • Fetishism
    Fetishism is a behavioral disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with a particular object of his desire. In some cultures fetishism is a form of religious practice in order to worship gods or deities. In individuals however, this behavior involves an extreme want for a certain item, which, the person deeply identifies him with. Fetishism can be a part of one's sexual fulfillment; others meanwhile regard this behavior as making their life complete. [read more]

  • Fever
    Also known as pyrexia is a symptom of disease that describes that there is an internal termporary increase in the body core temperature which is above the regular body's thermoregulatory set point usually about 1 – 2 0C. [read more]

  • Fg Syndrome
    FG syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes poor muscle tone, an abnormally large head, and recurring rectal problems. [read more]

  • Fibrocystic Breast Disease
    Also called chronic cystic mastitis, diffuse cystic mastopathy and mammary dysplasia characterized by noncancerous lumps in the breast; roughly 30 – 60 % of women estimated to suffer from this condition. [read more]

  • Fibroma
    Fibroma is mainly a benign tumor which is made of fibrous connective tissues. This is a disease that is seen to be common among children and youngsters. This is found to occur to any part of the body. Generally, it can be categorized into Hard Fibroma or Soft Fibroma. Fibroma types include myxofibroma, pleomorphic fibroma, desmoplasmic fibroma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, cystic fibroma, ossifying fibroma, nonossifying fibroma and many more. [read more]

  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
    Fibromuscular dysplasia is categorized as a type of angiopathy that greatly affects medium-sized arteries and is observed to be predominant among women of childbearing age. This also affects renal arteries and can possibly cause refractory renovascular hypertension. Medical case reports have shown that Fibromuscular dysplasia also include coronary arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. [read more]

  • Fibromyalgia
    Fibromyalgia is categorized as a chronic condition that is characterized by extensive pain in the ligaments, muscles and tendons. It can also be accompanied by multiple tender points and fatigue. This medical condition is more prevalent among females than male. Although the pain symptoms may vary, this condition may never be able to disappear completely. [read more]

  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is characterized by pain that is typically felt on the right upper quadrant that is a result of an ascending infection of the pelvis and inflammation of the diaphragm or liver capsule. This medical condition is typically associated with another disease called acute salpingitis and usually mimics typical abdominal emergencies. Since there are a number of possibilities that may be associated with the symptoms of this disease, proper diagnosis is required to rule out other possibilities. [read more]

  • Flu
    Influenza or flu is a viral infection that attacks the respiratory system including the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs. Though it is commonly called flu, influenza is not the same virus that causes diarrhea and vomiting. [read more]

  • Folliculitis
    Infection of the hair follicles is called folliculitis. It is characterized by the appearance of the small, white headed pimples around one or more hair follicles which are superficial in most cases of infections. [read more]

  • Folling Disease
    Folling disease, also known as phenylketonuria (PKU), is a rare metabolic defect characterized by mental incapacities and eventual brain damage. [read more]

  • Foot Drop
    Sometimes called drop foot, foot drop is a general term used to describe the difficulty in lifting the front part of the foot and cases of dragging the front of the foot on the ground when walking. Foot drop is a sign of an underlying cause such as neurological, muscular, or anatomical problem and is not a disease. [read more]

  • Forbes disease
    Forbes Disease occurs in 1 for every 100,000 live births. It is also called Cori's type III glycogenosis. It was Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori and Gilbert Burnett Forbes who developed an accurate description of this condition. This rare disease is due to a missing enzyme which causes abnormal glycogen levels to be absorbed by the body, namely the liver and the skeleton musculature. [read more]

  • Fracture, Growth Plate
    Growth plates are the softer parts of a child's bones located at each end of the bone, where growth occurs. Growth plates are the weakest sections of the skeleton and since they are very fragile, an injury that would result in a joint sprain for an adult can cause a fracture in a child. [read more]

  • Fragile X syndrome
    Fragile X Syndrome is a defect in the X chromosome. This condition is the cause of mental retardation in people. People with defective X chromosomes exhibit various signs and symptoms. Those who have this body condition possess chromosomes which are fragile, prone to tear and break downs. Fragile X syndrome affects 1 in every 2,000 males. [read more]

  • Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome
    Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome is also known as the Hallermann-Streiff syndrome and the Oculomandibulofacial Syndrome. This is a disorder which greatly affects one's body stature, the head structure, and also hair growth. Patients who suffer from this kind of condition are often shorter than average people. They may be unable to develop facial hair and hair in other places such as the legs and the pubic areas. Many others have persisting problems with teeth development with some only developing one set in a lifetime. [read more]

  • Fraser syndrome
    Fraser Syndrome is also called Cryptophthalmos-syndactyly syndrome. It is a rare genetic disorder with abnormalities that include that of the head, the lungs, the kidneys, and the limbs. Malformations are a combination of acrofacial and urogenital ones which may be with cryptophthalmos or without. [read more]

  • Froelich's Syndrome
    Froelich's syndrome is an acquired medical condition involving endocrine abnormalities especially in the hypothalamus. Often associated with tumors in the hypothalamus, this syndrome commonly affects males only. It usually manifests during childhood, especially during puberty with occasional reports during the postadolescent period. Froelich's syndrome is also known by other synonyms such as Adiposogenital Dystrophy, Babinski-Froelich Syndrome, Dystrophia Adiposogenitalis, Frolich's Syndrome, Hypothalamic Infantilism-Obesity, Launois-Cleret Syndrome, and Sexual Infantilism. [read more]

  • Frontotemporal Dementia
    Frontotemporal demential is considered to be a clinical syndrome wherein the cause of the condition is due to a degeneration of the brain's frontal lobe and extends to the temporal lobe. This syndrome can occur in patients diagnosed with a motor neuron disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS. It often occurs in people of young age. When FTD is diagnosed together with MND, the prognosis is worse. [read more]

  • Frontotemporal Dementia
    Frontotemporal dementia is a general umbrella medical term to a diverse group of rare disorders that primarily affects the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain. These are the areas that are generally associated with individual personality and behavior. It usually affects the younger people and are known to undergo very rapid changes in the personality and usually become socially inappropriate. [read more]

  • Fructose Intolerance
    Fructose intolerance is also known as fructose poisoning which is a condition that can be inherited. This disorder is marked by a liver enzymes deficiencies specifically those responsible to metabolize fructose. Another name for the disorder is hereditary fructosemia. [read more]

  • Galactorrhea
    Galactorrhea is otherwise known as the spontaneous discharge of milk unrelated to pregnancy or nursing. It is defined by Contemporary Maternal-Newborn Nursing Care as “nipple discharge”. [read more]

  • Galactosemia
    Galactosemia is a rare congenital metabolic disorder which undermines the affected individual's ability to properly metabolize galactose, one of the sugars found in dairy products. The disorder was first described in 1917 by Goppert, and later fully identified in 1956 by a group led by Herman Kalckar. The incidence ratio of classic type galactosemia is 1 per 47,000 births. Glactosemia is often confused with lactose intolerance. However, galactosemia is a worse condition. Individuals with lactose intolerance have an inherited shortage of the enzyme lactase. These individuals experience abdominal pains after ingesting lactose products but don't have long term effects. In galactosemia, individuals who are afflicted with this disorder tend to have permanent damage to their bodies. [read more]

  • Gas
    Gas, or flatulence, is the release of excessive amounts of gas present in the digestive tract. Gastrointestinal gas is made up of swallowed nitrogen and oxygen, as well as methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. When gases are unable to be digested, they end up being released as flatus. Flatulence gives of foul smell due to sulfur compounds that were released by the body. Gas in the stomach and intestines may cause abdominal pain and distention. [read more]

  • Gastric Emptying, Rapid
    Rapid gastric emptying, also known as dumping syndrome, occurs when undigested food empties too quickly into the small intestine. [read more]

  • Gastric Erosion
    Gastric erosion is the inflammation of the stomach lining. It is a minor ulcer in the innermost part of the stomach. When left untreated, it becomes a gastric ulcer. [read more]

  • gelineau disease
    Gelineau disease, otherwise called narcolepsy, is a neurological disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness or EDS. The patient may experience disturbed sleep, which might be mistaken for insomnia or other rapid-eye movement (REM) disorders. [read more]

  • Gender Identity Disorder
    Gender identity disorder is a mental illness in which a person shifts from his/her physiological gender identity to that of the opposite sex. [read more]

  • GERD
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease, known by the moniker GERD, is a disease characterized by damage resulting from an abnormal acid reflux into the esophagal track. This is usually a result of the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus changing. [read more]

  • Germinal Mosaicism
    Germinal mosaicism is a rare autosomal dominant disease in which neither parent has the disease. It is a sporadic genetic disease in which one of the parent gamete cells is defective, but their normal cells are not. Mosaic Downs syndrome is a kind of germinal mosaicism. Parents are advised to undergo genetic counseling to see how the effects of the disease can be reduced. [read more]

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Gestational diabetes mellitus or Gestational diabetes is a diabetis that women during their level of pregnancy acquire exhibiting high blood glucose. It is the glucose intolerance in any degree which is found during the pregnancy. The patient may have gotten the diabetes mellitus previously without knowing. It may have also been aquired during the time that they are pregnant. [read more]

  • Gestational Pemphigoid
    Gestational Pemphigoid or Pemphigoid Gestationis is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin by blisters for pregnant women during their second and third trimesters. It is not linked with herps virus though it was then called Herps Gestationis because of the blisters that appear in the skin. [read more]

  • Glioma
    Glioma is a classification of primary central nervous system tumors, caused by glial cells. Gliomas most commonly occur in the brain but can also occur in any other part of the central nervous system. Gliomas can also be classified as the following: oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, astrocystoma, and mixed gliomas. [read more]

  • Glomerular
    Glomerular refers to the tiny units in the kidney in which the blood is cleansed. Damages that affect these units are called glomerular diseases. Glomerular diseases fall into two categories: glomerulonephritis, in which the membrane suffers from inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis, where the blood vessels in the kidney start to harden. [read more]

  • Glomerulonephritis
    Glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease wherein the glomeruli, or internal kidney structures, become inflamed. Also known as glomerular nephritis, the disease is a result of a problem within the body's immune system. [read more]

  • Glossitis
    Glossits is an inflammation of the tongue. It makes the tongue swell and change in color. The disease responds well to treatment, however it can cause severe discomfort when left untreated. [read more]

  • Glucagonoma
    Glucagonoma is a tumor affecting the pancreas' alpha cells, causing extreme surplus production of the hormones insulin and glucagons. The malignant and fast-spreading nature of the disease affects these alpha cells, causing the overproduction of hormones. [read more]

  • Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
    Glutaryl-Coa dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as Glutaric aciduria type 1 or Glutaric aciduria, is a hereditary disease characterized by the body's disability to completely metabolize lysine, tryptophan, and hydroxysiline, which are amino acids. This results in byproducts of the breakdown, including glutaryl-CoA, glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and glutaconic acid, and the accumulation of these can harm the brain. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease
    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) refers to a group of conditions caused by enzyme defects affecting glycogen synthesis and resulting in inborn errors of metabolism. It is also known by the names dextrinosis and glycogenosis. Nine diseases make up the classification of glycogen storage disease. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type 1B
    Glycogen storage disease type 1B, also known as von Gierke's disease, is the most common form among the glycogen storage diseases. An enzyme glucose-6-phosphate deficiency is the cause of this, affecting the liver's ability in producing free glucose from gluconeogenesis and glycogen. This in turn, may result in hypoglycemia. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type 7
    Glycogen storage disease type 7, also called Phosphorofructokinase deficiency or Tarui's disease, is a metabolic disease characterized by a deficiency in the phosphorofructokinase enzyme. This in turn disturbs the function of the cells, including rhabdomyocytes and erythrocytes, to utilize carbohydrates for energy. The disease is autosomal recessive in nature, and may affect mammals apart from humans. [read more]

  • Goitre
    Goitre, sometimes spelled as goiter and also known as a bronchocele, is a condition characterized by a large thyroid gland, resulting in a swelling of the neck area. The swelling usually occurs right below the Adam's apple. The condition is more common among older adults and in women. [read more]

  • Goldenhar syndrome
    Goldenhar syndrome, also known as Oculo-Ariculo-Vertebral syndrome, is a congenital disorder wherein the ear, lip, nose, mandible and soft palate are incompletely developed. The condition usually affects just one side of the face. [read more]

  • Golfer's Elbow
    Golfer's elbow is pain and inflammation on the inner side of the elbow, where the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow. The pain may spread into the forearm and wrist. [read more]

  • Gonadal dysgenesis
    Gonadal dysgenesis is a general term used to refer to conditions characterized by abnormal gonadal development. Most of these cases show “streak gonads” only. Gonadal dysgenesis causes infertility and inhibits normal sexual development. [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis Mixed
    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a condition of unusual and asymmetrical gonadal development leasing to an unassigned sex differentiation. Considering that the gonads in this medical condition may not be symmetrical, the development of the Mullerian and Wolffian duct may asymmetrical too (Donahoe PK, Crawford JD, Hendren WH Mixed gonadal dysgenesis, pathogenesis, and management. Pediatr Surg. 1979 Jun;14(3):287-300). [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis Turner Type
    Turner type Gonodal Dysgenesis, otherwise known as Turner Syndrome or Ullrich syndrome, is a condition wherein the monosomy of X chromosome is the most ommon, making the female sexual characteristics though present are generally underdeveloped. It is said to occur in about one out of every 2500 female birth (National Institutes of Health (2004). Clinical Features of Turner syndrome). [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, XX Type
    XX Gonadal Dysgenesis is a type of female hypogonadism wherein no functional ovaries are present to induce puberty unlike those of normal girls whose karyotype is bound to be 46,XX. [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, XY Female Type
    XY Female type Gonodal Dysgenesis otherwise known as the Swyer Syndrom is a type of female hypogonadism wherein there is no functional gonads present in the person to induce puberty unlike those of common normal girl. [read more]

  • Gonococcal Conjunctivitis
    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is a sexually-transmitted ocular disease. It is a very rare eye infection in adults and is most commonly seen in infants by mothers who are suffering gonorrhea. [read more]

  • Gonorrhea
    Gonorrhea most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Non-genital sites that thrives are in the rectum, the throat (oropharynx), and the eyes (conjunctivae). The vulva and vagina in women are often spared because they are lined by stratified epithelial cells in women the cervix is the usual first site of infection. [read more]

  • Goodpasture Pneumorenal Syndrome
    Goodpasture pneumorenal syndrome, otherwise known as Goodpasture's disease and anti -glomerular basement membrane disease is a condition wherein there is rapid destruction of the kidneys and hemorrhaging of the lungs. [read more]

  • Goodpasture's syndrome
    Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare disease wherein there is hemorrhaging in the lungs and rapid destruction of kidneys. Many other conditions may have similar symptoms, however Goodpasture's syndrome is characterized by autoimmunity due to the immune system attacking cells with the Goodpasture antigen found in the lungs and kidneys. [read more]

  • Gorham's disease
    Gorham's disease, also known as Massive Osteolysis, is a rare congenital bone disorder characterized by the spread of vascular channels that are destructive to the bone matrix. Osteolysis, or vanishing of the bones, occurs as well as angiomatosis. [read more]

  • Gorlin Syndrome
    Gorlin syndrome is a disease affecting the connective tissues. It is also referred to as nevoid basal cell carcinoma. [read more]

  • Gout
    Gout is a complex disorder that can affect anyone. Men are most likely to get gout than women are, but women become increasingly susceptible to gout after menopause. [read more]

  • Graft versus host disease
    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a commonly occurring side effect of allogeneic bone transplant or cord blood transplant wherein functional immune cells located in the transplanted marrow identify its recipient as a foreign body and attack. The disease can occur anywhere in the body but usually affected are the eyes, skin, stomach, and intestines. [read more]

  • Grand Mal Seizure
    A grand mal seizure (also called tonic-clonic seizure) features a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. This is the type of seizure most people picture when they think about seizures in general. [read more]

  • Graves' disease
    Graves' disease, the most common type of hyperthyroidism, is a condition wherein the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to overproduce thyroxine. [read more]

  • Greenberg Dysplasia
    Greenberg dysplasia, also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia is a rare lethal skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Gross Hematuria
    Gross hematuria is in contrast to microhematuria in which the blood is visible only under a microscope: there is so little blood that it is difficult to be seen without magnification. [read more]

  • Growth delay, constitutional
    Constitutional growth delay is a condition wherein skeletal growth is delayed. It is the most common origin of pubertal delay and short stature. The condition affects children and teens, although they have no other physical abnormality except short stature. It occurs in both girls and boys although more frequently in boys. [read more]

  • Guinea Worm Disease
    Commonly known as Dracunculiasis this is an infection caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis. The parasite is alternately known as “Guinea worm”. [read more]

  • Gum Disease
    Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gums") (gingiva) around the teeth is a general term for gingival diseases affecting the gingiva (gums). As usually used, the term gingivitis refers to gingival inflammation induced by bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) adherent to tooth surfaces. [read more]

  • Hair-Pulling Disease
    Trichotillomania (or hair-pulling disorder) is a type of mental illness in which people have an irresistible urge to pull out their hair, whether it's from their scalp, their eyebrows or other areas of their body. Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves them with patchy bald spots on their head, which they may go to great lengths to disguise or cover. [read more]

  • Hairy Tongue
    Hairy tongue is a condition that affects both humans and animals, characterized by a darkening of the tongue, sometimes hair growth. A fungus causes the dark appearance on the tongue, although it is a harmless condition. Most common affected are the elderly, tobacco smokers, and users of antibiotics. [read more]

  • Hand Foot Mouth Disease
    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common disease characterized by mouth sores, fever, and rashes. Enteroviruses from the family Picornaviridae causes the disease. It is common in infants and children, and is moderately contagious. Contact with feces or mucus of an infected person can trigger contagion. [read more]

  • Hand-Schuller-Christian Disease
    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a condition which lipids accumulate in the body and manifest as histiocytic granuloma in bones, particularly in the skull, the skin and viscera and which is often accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. [read more]

  • Hantavirosis
    Hantavirosis is a term that describes an infection from the Bunyaviridae virus family which is transmitted from rodents. The condition occurs in China, Russia, Korean Peninsula, northern and western Europe, Brazil, Chile, United States, Panama, Canada, and Patagonian Argentina. [read more]

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease wherein the body's antibodies attack the thyroid cells. It is also known by the name chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. It is also the most common form of hyperthyroidism in the United States. [read more]

  • Headache, cluster
    Cluster headache is a neurological disease characterized by extreme pain. The cyclical pattern of the pain, occurring in periods with spontaneous remissions, gives the disease its name. The “clusters” of frequent attacks can last anywhere from a few weeks to months. During remission periods, the headaches completely stop, although patterns differ from person to person. Remission periods can occur from months to a year. The condition can afflict anyone although it is more common in men and adults aged 20-40 years old. Attacks are classified into episodic or chronic. Episodic attacks are characterized by a higher frequency with longer remissions. Chronic attacks are characterized by frequent headaches that can last up to years. [read more]

  • Headache, Cluster
    Cluster headache is a neurological disease characterized by extreme pain. The cyclical pattern of the pain, occurring in periods with spontaneous remissions, gives the disease its name. The “clusters” of frequent attacks can last anywhere from a few weeks to months. During remission periods, the headaches completely stop, although patterns differ from person to person. Remission periods can occur from months to a year. The condition can afflict anyone although it is more common in men and adults aged 20-40 years old. Attacks are classified into episodic or chronic. Episodic attacks are characterized by a higher frequency with longer remissions. Chronic attacks are characterized by frequent headaches that can last up to years. [read more]

  • Headache, Primary Cough
    Cough headaches are an unusual type of headache caused by coughing and other types of straining — such as sneezing, blowing the nose, laughing, crying, singing or bending over, and straining when having a bowel movement. [read more]

  • Headache, Sex
    Sex headache is a rare type of severe headache that occurs at the base of the skull before orgasm during sexual activity, including masturbation. [read more]

  • Headache, Spinal
    During a spinal tap, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn from the spinal canal. During spinal anesthesia, medication is injected into the spinal canal to numb the nerves in the lower half of the body. If spinal fluid leaks through the tiny puncture site, a spinal headache may develop. [read more]

  • Hearing disorders
    Hearing disorders, also known as hearing loss or hearing impairments, are conditions wherein there is full or partial decrease in hearing quality. Environmental and biological factors can bring about various types of hearing disorders. Hearing disorders are classified into sensorineural, conductive, and mixed hearing loss. [read more]

  • Heart Failure
    Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), means the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Over time, conditions such as coronary artery disease or high blood pressure gradually leave the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently. [read more]

  • Helicobacter Pylori
    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects various areas of the stomach and duodenum. [read more]

  • Hemangioma Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
    Hemangio thrombocytopenia syndrome or HTS is a rare disease affecting infants characterized by a vascular tumor which causes low platelet count as well as bleeding problems. The condition is also known as Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. [read more]

  • Hemoglobinopathy
    Hemoglobinopathy is a type of genetic defect that results from abnormal and not well defined structure of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule in the body. It usually includes sickle Disease and Thalassemia. [read more]

  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease affecting infants and young childen, but in some cases adolescents. It is characterized by the pathological findings of hemophagocytosis, jaundice, fever, and splenomegaly. HLH is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus, genetic, malignant, autoimmune diseases, as well as other viruses or fungal infections. [read more]

  • Hemorrhagiparous Thrombocytic Dystrophy
    Hemorrhagiparous thrombocytic dystrophy is commonly called Bernard-Soulier syndrome named after Dr. Jean Bernard and Jean Pierre Soulier. It is a severe bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of glycoprotein Ib (GpIb), which is important in clot formation. [read more]

  • Hepatic Encephalopathy
    Hepatic encephlopathy is a neuropsychological disorder causing chronic or acute liver failure. The liver failure results in an accumulation of toxic substances in the blood and would affect the brain cells, which healthy livers normally remove. Impairment of mental functioning is the main characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy. [read more]

  • Hepatic Hemangioma
    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors that develop in the liver. They are not cancerous. [read more]

  • Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease
    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked. It is sometimes due to a complication of high-dose chemotherapy undergone by a patient prior to a bone marrow transplant. [read more]

  • Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis non-A (alcoholic hepatitis)
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis non-A non-B (Hepatitis e,f,g)
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. Another potential viral cause of hepatitis has been identified, known as hepatitis G, and is probably spread by blood and sexual contact. However, there is doubt about whether it causes hepatitis, or is just associated with hepatitis, as it does not appear to replicate primarily in the liver. [read more]

  • Hepatitis, chronic autoimmune
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rarely known cause of chronic hepatitis. Chronic means that the inflammation is long-term or persistent. The chronic inflammation slowly damages the liver cells which results in serious problems. [read more]

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignancy of the liver. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either a viral hepatitide infection or cirrhosis. In countries where hepatitis is not endemic, most of the malignant cancers in the liver are not primary HCC but metastasis of cancer from elsewhere in the body, like the colon. Treatment options of HCC and prognosis depend on many factors but especially on tumor size and staging. [read more]

  • Hepatomegaly
    Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an abnormally enlarged liver. [read more]

  • Hereditary angioedema
    Angioedema, also known as Quincke's edema, is the rapid swelling (or edema) of the skin, mucosa and submucosal tissues. Aside from the common form, mediated by allergy, it has been reported as a side effect of some medications, specifically ACE inhibitors. [read more]

  • Hereditary deafness
    Hereditary deafness is hearing loss that is passed down from parents to their children. This type of hearing loss may be inherited from one or both parents who may or may not possess a loss of hearing themselves. [read more]

  • Hereditary Deafness Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Hereditary deafness-retinitis pigmentosa, also known as Usher syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that features deafness and progressive loss of vision. This condition is due to the impairment of the auditory nerves to send sensory input to the brain. Hereditary deafness-retinitis pigmentosa has three types, and is categorized as an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Hereditary fructose intolerance
    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) or fructose poisoning is a hereditary condition that results from a deficiency of liver enzymes that metabolise fructose. This is also known as hereditary fructosemia, or fructose in the blood. [read more]

  • Hereditary pancreatitis
    Hereditary pancreatitis is a genetic disease affecting the production of enzymes in the pancreas. In the pancreas, a genetic mutation causes the enzyme cationin trypsinogen to be made in a way which leaves it resistant to inactivation through autolysis. Normally this autolysis mechanism prevents trypsinogen from being activated inside the pancreas. However, when the abnormal trypsinogen is activated, it results to a chain reaction where all the trypsinogen in the pancreas is activated, effectively digesting the pancreas from the inside. [read more]

  • Hermaphroditism
    Hermaphroditism (or Intersex) is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). [read more]

  • Herpes simplex encephalitis
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a very serious disorder and one of the most severe viral infections affecting the human central nervous system. [read more]

  • Herpes Simplex Virus, Sacral
    Sacral herpes simplex virus or also called genital herpes is an infection of the lower back and buttocks and is a common recurrent skin condition associated with infection of the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV infection usually appears as small sores or blisters around the nose, mouth, buttocks, lower back and the genitals, though infections can develop almost anywhere on the skin where these tender sores may come back periodically in the same sites. [read more]

  • Herpes zoster
    Herpes zoster (or zoster), commonly known as shingles, is a viral disease marked by a painful skin rash with blisters in a limited area on one side of the body. [read more]

  • Herpes zoster oticus
    Herpes zoster oticus (HZ oticus) is a viral infection affecting the inner, middle, and external ear. HZ oticus manifests as severe otalgia and associated cutaneous vesicular eruption, typically of the external canal and pinna. When linked with facial paralysis, the infection is called Ramsay Hunt syndrome. [read more]

  • Herpetic keratitis
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis includes a wide variety of disease processes that HSV can cause in the human cornea. A variety of clinical manifestations of infectious and immunologic etiologies, such as neurotrophic keratopathy, infectious epithelial keratitis, necrotizing stromal keratitis, immune stromal keratitis (ISK), and endotheliitis, can affect all levels of the cornea. Although more common as a manifestation of recurrent HSV infection, HSV keratitis may also be detected during a primary infection. [read more]

  • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
    High altitude pulmonary edema is another form of altitude sickness this time affecting the lungs. Unlike high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema refers to hypoxia itself, as oxygen can no longer be processed by the lungs. [read more]

  • Hives
    Hives are also medically known as urticaria. It is characterized by batches of raised, reddish or whitish itchy welts that form in various sizes. Normally, the hives go away for a few weeks or even less but have the tendency to recur frequently. In most cases of chronic hives, a cause is never clearly identified. In some cases, the condition may be related to an underlying autoimmune disorder — when your body becomes allergic to itself. Chronic hives can also be linked to other health problems such as thyroid disease or lupus. While the underlying cause of chronic hives is usually not identified, treatment can help with symptoms. For many people, a combination of antihistamine medications provides the best relief. [read more]

  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to utilize the vitamin biotin effectively. This disorder is classified as a multiple carboxylase deficiency, a group of disorders marked by impaired activity of certain enzymes that depend on biotin. [read more]

  • Hordelum
    A sty (hordeolum) is a red, painful lump on the edge or inside of the eyelid that may look like a boil or a pimple. Often a sty is filled with pus. As it swells in size, the sty may make it difficult for the person to see clearly because he can't fully open his eye. [read more]

  • Hot Flashes
    Hot flashes, or hot flushes, are the sudden passing of warm feelings from the face going down to the other parts of the body, including the hands and feet. This is commonly experience by women undergoing menstruation, pre-natal situations and menopause. [read more]

  • Hot Tub Rash
    Hot tub rash, with other common names like barber's itch, folliculitis, or hot tub folliculitis may sound more like a bad joke than a skin disorder, but an infection of the hair follicles is not a laughing matter. Scarring and permanent hair loss might be the result in severe cases and even mild folliculitis can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. [read more]

  • HPV Infection
    HPV infection is a condition contracted from one of a group of more than 100 related human papillomaviruses (or HPVs). [read more]

  • Human Adjuvant Disease
    Human adjuvant disease is a connective-tissue disease that may develop after a person undergoes cosmetic surgery. Mammary augmentation procedures may lead to systemic lupus erythematosus and chylous effusion disorders especially when one is inserted with silicone gel implants. [read more]

  • Human Papillomavirus Infection
    HPV infection is a condition contracted from one of a group of more than 100 related human papillomaviruses (or HPVs). [read more]

  • Huntington's Chorea
    Huntington's chorea is a disease causing certain of the brain's nerve cells to waste away. It is also called huntington's disease. [read more]

  • Hurler syndrome
    Hurler syndrome, also called mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), Hurler's disease and gargoylism, is a genetic disorder that results in the deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes. In the absence of this enzyme, a buildup of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate occurs in the body. Symptoms appear during childhood and early death can take place due to organ damage. [read more]

  • Hydatidiform mole
    A hydatidiform mole (or hydatid mole, mola hytadidosa) is an anomalous growth containing a nonviable embryo which implants and proliferates within the uterus. [read more]

  • Hydrocele
    A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle that leads to swelling of the scrotum, the loose bag of skin underneath the penis. [read more]

  • Hydrosyringomyelia
    Hydrosyringomyelia refers to a group of conditions a person experiences when the spinal cord is damaged by an abnormal formation of fluid-filled cavities within the cord. [read more]

  • Hyperadrenalism
    Hyperadrenalism, more commonly known as Cushing's Syndrome, is an endocrine abnormality marked by the presence of high cortisol levels in the blood. Hyperadrenalism is also often called hypercortisolism or hyperadrenocorticism. Its more familiar moniker, “Cushing's Syndrome”, is attributed to Harvey Cushing, an American physician who is credited for its discovery and consequent study. According to the results of Cushing's studies, the disease is characterized by abnormal fat deposition. It also occurs commonly in dogs and domestic horses. In particular, Cushing's syndrome occurs when the adrenal cortex is invaded with a tumor and particularly deficient ACTH levels. [read more]

  • Hyperandrogenism
    Hyperandrogenism is an endocrine disorder that occurs in women, affecting roughly 10% of the female population. Occurring among all races and nationalities, this hormonal defect is known as the leading cause of infertility worldwide. The more popular form of this hormonal disorder is Hyperandrogenic Chronic Anovulation, more commonly known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). [read more]

  • Hyperbilirubinemia
    Hyperbilirubinemia is characterized by an excess of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a substance that forms when red blood cells break down. In infants, the bilirubin can accumulate in the blood and surrounding tissues, filling the baby's body with fluids. The result is a condition called hyperbilirubinemia. The excess bilirubin causes pigmentation or yellowing of the infant's skin and tissues, a condition known as jaundice. [read more]

  • Hypercholesterolemia
    Literally, Hypercholesterolemia means “high blood cholesterol”. Characterized by elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood, Hypercholesterolemia is not a disease per se, but a metabolic dysfunction which may be indicative of other diseases as well as contribute to several other forms of disease. Hypercholesterolemia is strongly correlated with “hyperlipidemia”, marked by high lipid levels, and “hyperlipoproteinemia", marked by high lipoprotein levels. A rare genetic form of this disorder is known as familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition occurring in families where members cannot properly metabolize cholesterol. [read more]

  • Hyperparathyroidism
    Hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an over activity of the parathyroid glands, often caused by an overproduction of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH regulates and helps maintain the levels of calcium and phosphate in the body. When one or more of the parathyroid glands becomes over-active, calcium levels are elevated while phosphate levels drop. [read more]

  • Hyperprolinemia
    Hyperprolinemia is a disorder resulting from excessive protein-building block (known as proline) in the patient's blood. This inherited condition has two types, namely Type I and Type II. [read more]

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a defect in the muscle of the heart known as myocardium. This disease is characterized by the thickening (or hypertrophy) of the myocardium without any evident cause. HCM is believed to be the leading cause of sudden, unexpected cardiac arrest in any age group. [read more]

  • Hyper_Igm_Syndrome
    Hyper IgM syndrome, or ‘Hypogammaglobulinemia with Hyper-IgM', is a type of genetic disease characterized by a distinctly high occurrence of Immunoglobulin M (i.e., IgM) antibodies. [read more]

  • hypocalcemia
    Hypocalcemia is a type of electrolyte disturbance characterized by a having low serum calcium levels. The human body regulates only the calcium that are not bound to proteins or ionized. Individuals with abnormally low levels of blood proteins may have plasma calcium that are inaccurate. In cases like this, the ionized calcium level is considered more accurate. [read more]

  • Hypochondrias
    Hypochondriasis is a psychiatric illness in which a person takes on anxiety attacks regarding his present health condition. This condition is traditionally known as hypochondria. [read more]

  • Hypochondroplasia
    Hypochondroplasia is a developmental disorder characterized by a stature that is short and disproportional and micromelia, the condition wherein the head appears large when compared to the other parts of the body. This condition tends to affect females more than males. [read more]

  • Hypocortisolism
    Hypocortisolism, or Addison's disease, is a disorder that results in the body producing insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by the adrenal glands [read more]

  • hypogonadism
    Hypogonadism is a condition characterized by a lack of function of the gonads as a result of a defect of the reproductive system. The gonads produces hormones and also plays a role in producing eggs and sperm. Infertility results from defective sperm and egg development. Hypogonadism is often used to describe a permanent defect of the reproductive system. [read more]

  • Hypohydration
    Hypohydration (or dehydration) is the removal of water from an object. Medically, it is a condition in which the body contains an inadequate volume of water for normal functioning. [read more]

  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, HLHS for short, is a condition characterized by severe malformation and underdevelopment of the left part of the heart. Individuals with HLHS experiences poor blood circulation since the right side of the heart compensates for the inefficiency of the left side. If left untreated, HLHS may lead to dangerously low blood circulation, shock and even death. HLHS is a rare condition that affects only 2 in every 100,000 live births. [read more]

  • Hysteria
    Hysteria is a mental illness associated with other psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by dissociative and conversion reactions depending on the patient's condition. [read more]

  • Ichthyophobia
    Ichthyophobia is a type of phobia characterized by a fear of fish, The term encompasses fear of fish in general or fear of a specific kind of fish. A phobia is defined as an irrational and intense fear of something or someone. [read more]

  • Icu Psychosis
    ICU psychosis is a mental illness suffered by a person who has experienced traumas while undergoing treatment at a hospital's intensive care unit (ICU). This illness is characterized by delusions, hallucinations and short-term memory loss. [read more]

  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of an unknown cause (idiopathic). As most causes appear to be related to antibodies against platelets, it is also called immune thrombocytopenic purpura. [read more]

  • Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome
    Iliotibial Band Syndrome is one of the primary causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a superficial thickening of tissue on the outside of the thigh, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting in the lower part of the knee. The band is crucial in stabilizing the knee during running, moving from behind the femur to the front during the gait cycle. [read more]

  • Imperforate anus
    An imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital defect in which the rectum is malformed. [read more]

  • Impetigo
    Impetigo is a superficial bacterial skin infection most common among children age 2–6 years. Mostly people who play close contact sports such as rugby, American football and wrestling are also susceptible, regardless of age. The name is from the Latin impetere ("assail"). It is also called as school sores. [read more]

  • Impotence
    Impotence is an inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Medical professionals commonly use the term “erectile dysfunction” to describe this disorder and to differentiate it from other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation and orgasm. [read more]

  • Inclusion conjunctivitis
    Inclusion conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white part, or sclera, of the eyeball) by the chlamydia trachomatis. [read more]

  • Incontinentia Pigmenti
    Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) is a genetic disorder that affects the skin, hair, nails and teeth. It is also called Bloch Sulzberger syndrome, Bloch Siemens syndrome, melanoblastosis cutis and naevus pigmentosus systematicus. [read more]

  • Infantile Paralysis
    Infantile paralysis is the old name for the disease poliomyelitis (or polio). It is an infectious disease transmitted from one's saliva or feces, and it can lead to paralysis and muscle dystrophy. [read more]

  • Infectious arthritis
    Infectious arthritis is a form of joint inflammation that is caused by a germ. The germ can be a virus, bacterium, or a fungus. Infection of the joints typically occurs after a previous infection elsewhere in the body. [read more]

  • Inguinal Hernia
    Inguinal hernias happen when the soft tissue sticks out through a fragile point or cut in the lower abdominal wall which can be painful when coughing, bending or lifting heavy objects. [read more]

  • Intercostal Neuralgia
    Intercostal neuralgia is a rare condition wherein abdominal pain is very much present. It is characterized by the swelling of the thorax-abdomen region located at the rib cage. [read more]

  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
    Intermittent explosive disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by extreme expressions of anger, often to the point of uncontrollable rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand. It is usually categorized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as an impulse control disorder. IED belongs to the greater family of Axis I impulse control disorders listed in the DSM-IV-TR, along with kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling, and others. [read more]

  • Interstitial Lung Disease
    Interstitial Lung Disease refers to a cluster of lung disorders. It usually involves certain lung areas like the tissues of the alveoli, basement membrane (structures supporting overlying epithelial and endothelial cells), pulmonary capillary endothelium, perilymphatic and perivascular tissues. The term Interstitial Lung Disease is used to make a distinction of the disease classified as belonging to this group from obstructive airway ailments. Although the majority of diseases in this group include fibrosis in the later stage, the term pulmonary fibrosis is completely disregarded in identifying this disease. [read more]

  • Intertrigo
    An irritation of touching skin surfaces in body fold regions (armpits, under the breasts, buttocks, belly, groin and sometimes between toes or fingers) is called intertrigo. It can be worsened by any conditions causing increased heat, friction and wetness and may be complicated by superficial skin infection with yeast or bacteria. [read more]

  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction
    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is the weakened ability of the intestines to completely push food through. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is classified into two categories: primary condition and secondary condition. Primary conditions are those with unknown cause (idiopathic), it can also be inherited from a parent; while secondary conditions are those caused by a different underlying ailment. [read more]

  • Intraductal Carcinoma
    Intraductal carcinoma, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is when abnormal cells multiply and form a growth within a milk duct of your breast. [read more]

  • Intraocular Lymphoma
    Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer that is capable of quickly spreading to the brain. [read more]

  • Iodine Deficiency
    Iodine deficiency is the result of lack if iodine in the diet. Iodine deficiency induced disorders include goiter and cretinism, which is a medical and physical condition characterized by severely underdeveloped physical and mental growth. [read more]

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and is also known as sideropenic anemia. It is the very common cause of microcytic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia happens when the dietary intake or absorption of iron is insufficient, and hemoglobin, which contains iron, cannot be formed. [read more]

  • Iron Overload
    In medicine, iron overload (also known as hemochromatosis) disorders are diseases caused by the accumulation of iron in the body. [read more]

  • Irritable Bladder
    Irritable bladder, or overactive bladder, is a problem with bladder function resulting in a sudden urge to urinate that is difficult to suppress. It may also result to incontinence, the involuntary loss of urine. [read more]

  • Ischemic Colitis
    Ischemic colitis is a medical condition mostly found in adults at 50 years of age or older. It is a condition in which the colon is inflamed and injured. The condition is also called colonic ischemia . [read more]

  • Jacobsen Syndrome
    Jacobsen syndrome is a medical condition categorized as a very rare chromosomal disorder with the absence of chromosome 11q. It can be the cause of mild mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearance, and many medical problems like heart ailments and bleeding disorders. Generally, it affects numerous phases of mental and physical advancement. [read more]

  • Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome
    Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is a rare medical condition; a type of Long QT syndrome. The disorder causes the muscles of the heart takes longer than average to recharge after every heartbeat. Once left untreated, the irregular heartbeats can lead to fainting and seizure attacks. Worse scenario would be sudden death. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that may cause loss of hearing (deafness). [read more]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy or JME is also called the Janz syndrome. This is a common type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy which represents 5-10% of all the types of epilepsies. This disease manifests primarily between the 12th-18th month and with myoclonus showing very early during the morning. Most of the patients also manifest absence and tonic-clonic seizures. Studies have shown at least six loci for JME of which 4 have specific causative genes. Most of the genes are ion channels together with the sole non-ion channel gene after manifesting effects on currents of ion channel. [read more]

  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
    JRA or Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is not just a single illness. It is, in fact, a group of illnesses of unidentified etiology. The manifestation is a chronic inflammation of the joint. Treatment advances in the last thirty years have altered the prognosis for the more acute types of this disease. The first treatment is limited with only the use of salicylates and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. The initial treatment resulted into numerous patients being bound to their wheelchairs. Some patients tried synovectomies to get rid of tissue excesses which result from uncontrolled arthritis. The second-line medicines that were added have improved the prognosis for those who suffered from JRA. It started with gold salt injection and gradually replaced by MTX or methotrexate which is a more effective solution. These drugs are administered with team approach background in centers of pediatric rheumatology. In there, occupational and physical therapies have allowed much improved physical functions. The introduction of etanercept (which is a biologic enemy of tumor necrosis factor or TNF) has introduced a new era in treatments. A few more biologic agents such as the anakinra (which is an IL-1 or interleukin-1 receptor opponent) could be used in some patients who are not responsive to second-line medication. The future holds an inhibition of IL-6 which could be effective in systemic sufferers with JRA with high levels. [read more]

  • Kabuki Syndrome
    Kabuki syndrome also called as Kabuki makeup syndrome (KMS) or Niikawa Kuroki syndrome in the past, is a rare pediatric inborn disease. This congenital disorder has no known cause and comes with numerous inborn anomalies and retardation of mental development. It was discovered by Niikawa and Kuroki who were Japanese scientists. It was named Kabuki syndrome because the individuals who are affected by this illness look like Kabuki dolls or Kabuki performers who are wearing white makeup. The name term Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome, obviously, relates to the two scientists who made the discovery of the illness. [read more]

  • Kallman Syndrome with Spastic Paraplegia
    Kallman syndrome, by itself, is a type of hypogonadism (which is a decrease in the function of the sex glands that produce hormones). This is caused by a lack of GnRH hormone (the one that releases gonadotropin). The term Spastic paraplegia with Kallman syndrome has not been discussed in the previous years. This is a very rare genetic disease which is characterized chiefly by lower leg weakness and mild spasticity. Other signs include lack of production of the sex hormones and also the inability to smell odors. [read more]

  • Karsch Neugebauer syndrome
    Karsch Neugebauer syndrome (Ectrodactyly) also known as “lobster claw syndrome”, is a rare congenital (present at birth) deformity of the hand. This deformity is characterized by webbing of the fingers or toes. This unusual placement or position presents the hand to look like the claws of a lobster. This disorder also exhibits a missing toe or a missing finger. Other names that this disorder goes by are split hand deformity, lobster claw hand, cleft hand, ectrodactilia of the hand, and split hand/foot malformation. [read more]

  • Kawasaki Syndrome
    Kawasaki Syndrome is a medical condition with unknown cause that results in inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis) and primarily affects young children. [read more]

  • Keratoconus
    A rare degenerative disorder marked by a progressive thinning and cone-shape appearance of the cornea of the eyes; it is categorized as a non-inflammatory eye ailment. It is considered as the most usual type of corneal dystrophy in the US. [read more]

  • Kidney Cancer
    Kidney cancer is also known as renal cell carcinoma arising from the renal tubule. It is the most common kind of kidney cancer in adults. It is notoriously resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, although some cases respond to immunotheraphy. [read more]

  • Kidney Failure, Acute
    Acute kidney failure is the sudden loss of the kidneys' ability to perform their main function — eliminate excess fluid and electrolytes as well as waste material from the blood. When the kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and waste accumulate in the body. [read more]

  • Kidney Stones
    Kidney stone also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. The terms nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis pertains to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively. [read more]

  • Kleptomania
    Kleptomania is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. Kleptomania is recognized from shoplifting or ordinary theft, as shoplifters and thieves generally steal for monetary value, or associated gains and usually display intent or premeditation, while people with kleptomania are not necessarily contemplating the value of the items they steal or even the theft until they are compelled. [read more]

  • Klippel Trenaunay Weber Syndrome
    Klippel Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome is a medical condition wherein blood vessels and lymph vessels fail to form as it should be. It is characterized by benign skin growths comprised of blood vessels, numerous lymph tissues, and varicose veins. [read more]

  • Labyrinthitis
    Labyrinthitis is a disorder associated with maintaining balance. The condition is an inflammatory process affecting the labyrinths (a part of the auditory system) that accommodates the vestibular system in the inner ear. The vestibular system is that part of the ear responsible for sensing head position changes. [read more]

  • Lafora Disease
    Lafora disease is a deadly autosomal hereditary disease marked by the presence of inclusion bodies within the cells of neurons, heart, liver, skin, and muscles. These inclusion bodies are known as Lafora bodies. Lafora Disease is name after a Spanish neuropathologist, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora. [read more]

  • Landouzy-Dejerine Muscular Dystrophy
    Landouzy-Dejerine muscular dystrophy, also known as Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant form of muscle weakness disorder. On the initial onset of this disorder, the first affected part is the facial, scapulo and humeral skeletal muscles. Landouzy-Dejerine muscular dystrophy is the third most prevalent genetic disease affecting the skeletal muscle. [read more]

  • LARYNGEAL CANCER
    Laryngeal cancer is the cancer of the larynx. It often results to permanent loss of voice or degeneration of the larynx. [read more]

  • Laryngeal Papillomatosis
    Laryngeal Papillomatosis is a rare medical condition characterized by the development of tumors in the larynx, vocal chords, or respiratory tract. This medical condition is caused and triggered by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection in the throat. In due course, these tumors will cause blockage to the airway passage, which may result to breathing problems. [read more]

  • Laryngocele
    Laryngocele is a rare medical condition where an air-filled sac connected with the larynx becomes enlarged. It can be of congenital nature. It can also be acquired. Players of wind instruments are probable victims of this rare disorder because of continuous strong expiration, which gives weighty pressure in the larynx, which later on leads to laryngeal ventricle dilatation. There external and internal type of Laryngocele and there is also a combination of both. [read more]

  • Laryngomalacia
    Laryngomalacia is a medical condition wherein the larynx is extremely soft enough to cause breathing difficulties and also can initiate voice quality negative effects. Because the larynx is very soft, it tends to collapse during inhalation causing blockage to the airway passage. Laryngomalacia is literally referred to as soft larynx. The condition is most common to occur in infants; however, it can also occur in older patients essentially those who have neuromuscular problems that are possible to develop weakness of the throat muscles. [read more]

  • Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome
    The Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome, sometimes called Bardet-Biedl synrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, hypogonadism, obesity, and renal failure. [read more]

  • Leber's Disease
    Leber's Disease, medically referred to as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), is a disease in which retinal ganglion cells degenerate causing loss of central vision. This disease occurs only on males. [read more]

  • Left Heart Failure
    Left heart failure is a condition wherein the left side of the heart becomes unable to pump enough blood to the different parts of the body. [read more]

  • Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome
    Legg-Calv?-Perthes syndrome is a bone disease affecting the hip joint. The disease causes a loss of bone mass which leads to the collapse of the whole joint, deforming the ball of the femur as well as the hip socket. It is also known to others as the Perthes disease. [read more]

  • Leiomyoma
    Leiomyoma is a benign muscle neoplasm which may develop in any body organ but occurs mostly in the esophagus, small bowel and the uterus. [read more]

  • Lentigo Simplex
    A type of color-containing (pigmented) lesion not caused by sun exposure, which looks like the freckle-like condition (lentigo) cause by sun exposure (solar lentigo) is called lentigo simplex. It can occur anywhere on the body, including areas that are not exposed to sunlight. Lentigo simplex can also occur as a single lesion even if multiple lentigos are associated with several inherited syndromes, where single lesions often develop on the lips or on the gums and may be caused by some forms of ultraviolet light therapy, therefore, the lesion may be seen as identical to those caused by exposure to sunlight. [read more]

  • Lentigo, Solar
    A dark lesion caused by natural or artificial ultraviolet (UV) lights is called a solar lentigo (plural, solar lentigines), also known as sun-induced freckle or senile lentigo. These lentigins may be single or multiple. Indicating excessive sun exposure, a risk factor for the development of skin cancer, solar lentigines are benign and are different from a simple lentigo (lentigo simplex) because it is caused by exposure to UV light. [read more]

  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder which is transmitted by the mother to her male offspring. Patients with the disease suffer from sever mental and physical disabilities as well as self-mutilating behaviors all throughout life. [read more]

  • Leukemia, B-Cell, chronic
    Leukemia, B-Cell, chronic, is a cancer of the white blood cells. It attacks a particular lymphocyte called B cell and thrives on the lymph nodes. When the B cell is damaged, it can no longer fight infections and kills other healthy blood cells in the process. [read more]

  • Leukemia, Myeloid
    Myeloid leukemia is a kind of leukemia that affects the bone marrow tissue. It has two distinct types, the acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia is characterized by the overpopulation of white blood cells in the bone marrow and get in the way of production of the normal blood cells. Chronic myeloid leukemia meanwhile is a stem cell disorder linked with chromosomal translocations. [read more]

  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome
    Leukocyte-adhesion deficiency syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes recurrent infections in the different parts of the body. It has two distinct genotypes known as type I and type II. Type II is known to create fewer infections but greater delay in developmental. [read more]

  • leukodystrophy, Globoid cell
    Globoid cell leukodystrophy, or Krabbe disease, is a rare, fatal degenerative disease that destroys the myelin content of the nervous system. [read more]

  • Lichen planus
    Lichen planus is an inflammatory illness affecting the skin and oral mucosa. [read more]

  • Lichen Sclerosis
    Lichen sclerosis is a skin disorder that can affect men, women, or children, but is most common in women. It typically occurs on the vulva (the outer genitalia or sex organ) in women, but sometimes develops on the head of the penis in men. Occasionally, lichen sclerosus ican be seen on other parts of the body, especially the upper body, breasts, and upper arms. [read more]

  • Liddle syndrome
    Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that causes problems with potassium deficiency and sodium resorption from the renal tubule. Hypertension tends to develop at infant stages because of this disease. [read more]

  • Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a kind of CAH brought about by defects during the first stages of adrenal cortisol synthesis. The disease commonly affects the adrenal glands and result to impaired development of sex characteristics. [read more]

  • Listeria Infection
    Listeria infection, also referred to as listeriosis, is a relatively rare bacterial infection that results from Listeria monocytogenes, a type of gram-positive motile bacterium. Listeria infection commonly affects newborn infants, elderly patients, and individuals with immuno deficiencies. [read more]

  • Lithiasis, Renal
    Kidney stones (also called renal lithiasis) are small, hard deposits of mineral and acid salts on the inner surfaces of the kidneys. [read more]

  • Liticaphobia
    Liticaphobia is described as the fear of lawsuits. [read more]

  • Liver cirrhosis
    Liver cirrhosis is disease characterized by the replacement of the liver tissue with fribrous scar tissue and regenerative lumps that lead to loss of liver functions. [read more]

  • Liver Spots
    Also known as liver spots and solar lentigines, age spots are flat, gray, brown or black spots. They differ in size and usually appear on the face, hands, shoulders and arms — areas most exposed to the sun. [read more]

  • Locked-In syndrome
    Locked-In syndrome is a medical condition where a patient is awake and conscious, but is unable to move any part of his body due to paralysis all almost all voluntary muscles. [read more]

  • Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder similar to the Marfan syndrome. It was first discovered by Harry Dietz and Bart Loeys. [read more]

  • LSA
    LSA or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a disease with no known pathogenesis that severely impacts the afflicted patient's quality of life. Approximately 14 individuals per 100,000 people are affected by LSA per year. Females have a predilection for the disease. Fifteen percent of cases involved patients 10 to 30 years old. [read more]

  • Luiphobia
    Luiphobia is, quite simply, an acute fear of syphilis. Syphilis, a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by a spirochaete bacterium, has many names. Throughout history, this infectious disease has been known alternatively as “the Pox”, “freedom disease”, “syph”, and “lues”. Hence, the term “luiphobia”, which literally means fear of the lues. [read more]

  • Lumbago
    Lumbago is a general term pertaining to persistent pain affecting the small of the back, or more specifically, the lumbar region. [read more]

  • lung Abscess
    Lung abscess pertains to an acute lung infection characterized by a localized accumulation of pus, inflammation, and tissue damage. [read more]

  • Lung Collapse
    In medicine (pulmonology), a pneumothorax, or collapsed lung, is a potential medical emergency caused by accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity, arising as a result of disease or injury, or spontaneously. [read more]

  • Lung Neoplasm
    Lung neoplasm is a condition in which the lung experiences excessive growth of new abnormal tissue. These tissues grow by cellular division and spread abnormally fast, continuing to grow long after the stimuli that initiated it has ceased. The growth may either be benign or malignant. [read more]

  • Lygophobia
    Lygophobia is an irrational fear of the dark, common among children but also observed in adults in varying degrees. Lygophobia is from the word “lyge”, meaning twilight, and “phobia”, meaning fear. Other terms synonymous to this condition are nyctophobia (meaning fear of night) and scotophobia (meaning fear of darkness). [read more]

  • Lymphedema Choriomeningitis
    Lymphedema choriomeningitis - or, more accurately, lymphocytic choriomeningitis - pertains to an infectious disease caused by a rodent-borne virus. Alternative names for this disorder are: lymphocytic meningoencephalitis, benign lymphocytic meningitis, la Maladie d'Armstrong, or serous lymphocytic meningitis. [read more]

  • Lymphedema Distichiasis
    Lymphedema distichiasis an inherited disorder in which an individual has extra eyelashes or a "double row of eye lashes," and swelling of arms and legs. [read more]

  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), which is an uncommon sexually transmitted disease and is characterized by its spreading though having unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex is caused by certain types of the bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. This disease causes swollen and painful lymph nodes, which can then break into large ulcers. As it develops, lymphogranuloma venereum goes through 3 distinct stages where the first 2 stages may be minor and you might not even be aware of any symptoms until you reach stage 3, called genitoanorectal syndrome. [read more]

  • Lysosomal Alpha-D-Mannosidase Deficiency
    Lysosomal alpha-D mannosidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that often causes mental and physical deterioration. [read more]

  • M?ni?re's disease
    By definition, this disease was named named after the French physician Prosper M?ni?re, who was the first to make a report in an 1861 article that vertigo was caused by inner ear. Today, M?ni?re's disease is recognized as a disorder of the inner ear that can affect both hearing and balance [read more]

  • Mal De Debarquement
    Mal de barquement Syndrome or MdDs or Disembarkment syndrome is a rare condition which usually occur after a sustained motion even like cruise or aircraft flight. The phrase means “sickness of disembarkation”. [read more]

  • Malaria
    Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by mosquito bites, known as Anopheles Mosquitoes. It is one of the most common vector-borne infectious diseases in most tropical and sub-tropical regions in Asia, Africa, and some parts of Americas. [read more]

  • Male Breast Cancer
    Breast cancer is not just a woman's disease. Men also have breast tissue that could undergo cancerous changes. While women are about 100 times more likely to get breast cancer, any man can still develop breast cancer. Male breast cancer is common between the ages of 60 and 70. [read more]

  • Male Hypogonadism
    Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't give out enough of the sex hormone testosterone. [read more]

  • Male Menopause
    Male menopause is a phase where men experience a decline of androgen production due to aging. The production of testosterone hormones do not stop, however, unlike the female ovaries. [read more]

  • Malouf Syndrom
    Malouf syndrome is a very rare syndrome primarily characterized by a heart disease in addition to abnormal ovaries. This congenital disorder is also known as congestive cardiomyopathy-hypergonadotropic hypogonadism syndrome. Malouf syndrome is derived from the name of Jean Malouf, who is a famous sideshow performer during the 19th century; she was born in Montreal. [read more]

  • Manic Depression, Bipolar
    Manic depression, bipolar covers a wide range of mood disorders. It is signified by the presence of one or more abnormally elevated mood episodes. This occurrence is clinically termed as mania, mostly associated with bipolar disorders. It is also referred as “manic-depressive disorder” but now changes into bipolar affective disorder, which involves episodes of alternating manic-depressive symptoms and good overly excited thoughts. There are 3 subdivisions of this disorder: bipolar I & II and cyclothymia depending on the type and gravity of the mood and thought episodes encounters. [read more]

  • Marinesco-Sjogren Syndrome
    Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which causes the destruction of the exocrine glands that is responsible for tear and saliva production. [read more]

  • Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome
    Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is a rare disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism due to a deficiency of the enzyme aryl sulphatase B, the enzyme necessary to break down the complex sugar glycosaminoglycan (formerly referred to as mucopolysaccharide). This complex sugar needs to be recycled and replayed to carry out its normal function of providing structure to skin, bones, organs, and airways. It belongs to a group of uncommon inherited diseases categorized as lysosomal storage disorders. Other names for Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome are mucolopolysaccharidosis VI and MPS VI. [read more]

  • Mastocytosis
    Mastocytosis is a group of unusual disorder of both children and adults caused by the presence of too many mast cells (mastocytes) and CD34+ mast cell precursors in a person's body. [read more]

  • Mastoiditis
    By definition, Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, which is that part of the temporal bone of the skull and is located behind the ear. [read more]

  • McArdle disease
    By definition MacArdle's disease is also known as Glycogen storage disease type V and is a kind of metabolic disorder that is characterized by the body's inability to produce enough of the muscle isoform called phosphorylase. Relatively recent, it was first identified in 1951 by the English physician whose name it now bears. [read more]

  • Measles
    2Measles, which is also known as, Rubeola is a viral disease that has had a long history with medical accounts of it going as far back as 600 B.C. It was first clinically described in an Arabic book which significantly distinguished it from small pox. Measles is one of the great childhood killers, claiming the lives of more then 200 million children and adults in the last 150 years. The development of a vaccine has made the effectively checked the disease. [read more]

  • Mediterranean Anemia
    Mediterranean anemia is a type of an inherited blood disorder that is characterized by reduced levels of hemoglobin and few red blood cells in the body. Genetic defects are largely the cause of this disease. Mild conditions do not usually require any form of treatment. Although the sever form would require regular blood transfusions. [read more]

  • Mediterranean fever
    By definition, Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that specifically afflicts a groups of patients who come from in and around the Mediterranean Sea- hence the name. The disorder is also very prominently present among Armenians, Sephardi Jews and people from Turkey and some Arab countries. [read more]

  • Medulloblastoma
    By definition, medulloblastoma is an extremely malignant primary brain tumor that comes from the cerebellum or posterior fossa of the human brain. It belongs to the family of tumors knows as cranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNET. [read more]

  • Megacolon
    Megacolon otherwise known as the Hirschsprung's disease, is a disease that usually hits the large intestine or the colon causing bowel movement problems. [read more]

  • Menetrier's disease
    M?n?trier disease which is also known as hyperplastic hypersecretory gastropathy, is named after the French physician Pierre Eug?ne M?n?trier and is a disorder in which the gastric mucosal folds or rugae become enlarged. [read more]

  • Meningitis In Children
    Meningitis is a severe bacterial infection that triggers the brain and spinal cord. It commonly affects children ages 6 to 12 months. [read more]

  • Meningitis, meningococcal
    By definition Meningococcemia occurs when there is the presence of Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus) which is a severe bacterical infection in the blood stream. Initially, the disease presents some difficulties in proper identification because it appears in different forms depending on the part of the body that it affects. It is possible that there can also be meningitis or septicaemia, or even a combination of both [read more]

  • Meningocele
    Posterior meningocele is a least common form of the condition known as spina bifida which is Latin for split spine. Spina bifida is a birth defect that affects the neural tube. What happens is that there is an incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube which contributes to an unformed spinal cord. The vertebrae found at the open part of the spinal cord is not fully formed as well and remains unfused and exposed. [read more]

  • Meningococcemia
    Meningococcemia is a fatal and acute infection of the bloodstream. It often results to vasculitis, which is an inflammation of the blood vessels. [read more]

  • Meningoencephalocele
    By definition, Encephalocele is also sometimes known by the Latin name cranium bifidum and is a neural tube defect that is characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it. These sacs actually protrude outside through openings in the skull. [read more]

  • Meningomyelocele
    Meningomyelocele is a condition in which protruded membranes cover the spine as well as some of the spinal cord through the vertebral column's defective bony encasement. The bony defect is referred to as spina bifida. [read more]

  • Meniscus Tear
    Meniscus Tear is the condition whereby there is a forceful rotation of the knee which usually causes the tearing of the meniscus. [read more]

  • Menstrual cramp
    Menstrual cramps often referred to as dysmenorrhea, is the pain in the lower abdomen experienced by women before and during their menstruation. [read more]

  • Mesenteric ischemia
    Mesenteric ischemia is a medical condition where inadequate blood supply inflames and injures the small intestine [read more]

  • Mesothelioma
    By definition, mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is almost always likely caused by a prior exposure to asbestos; an exposure which causes malignant cells to develop in the mesothelium which is the protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. The most common site for these cancers to develop is the pleura, which is the outer lining of the lungs and of the chest cavity. Other places it could occur include the peritoneum or the lining of the abdominal cavity and even in the pericardium which is a a sac that surrounds the heart. [read more]

  • Metabolic syndrome X
    Metabolic syndrome actually refers to a combination of several medical disorders which heighten the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Affecting a large demographic, its incidence and risk level increases with age with some current studies placing the American prevalence to be up to 25% of the population. Other terms are; metabolic syndrome X, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome and Reaven's syndrome [read more]

  • Metatropic Dwarfism
    Metatropic dwarfism is an inherited skeletal dysplasia due to a defect in endochondral ossification. The abnormalities also show an association with defects in the longitudinal proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes as well as in the production of normal matrix. [read more]

  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It can also be referred to as multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). The organism is usually sub-categorized as Community-Associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) or Hospital-Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) depending upon the circumstances of acquiring disease, based on current data that these are distinct strains of the bacterial species. [read more]

  • Methylmalonic acidemia
    This autosomal genetic disorder is also called methylmalonic aciduria and one that particularly affects the body's branched-chain amino acids. It is considered a classical type of academia that is organic in origin. [read more]

  • Microcephaly
    Microcephaly is a neurological disorder which results in an individual with a much smaller head circumference for individual's age and sex compared with the average head sizes. [read more]

  • Microscopic Polyangiitis
    Microscopic polyangiitis is an autoimmune disease resulting from the inflammation of blood vessels causing damage to the organ system. [read more]

  • Microtia, Meatal Atresia And Conductive Deafness
    Microtia an inborn deformity of the outer ear, which may be only on one side or both sides. When only one side is affected, the right ear is usually affected. [read more]

  • Migraine
    A migraine can be disabling with symptoms so severe, all you think about is finding a dark, quiet place to lie down. Up to 17 percent of women and 6 percent of men are experiencing migraine. [read more]

  • Migraine With Aura
    Migraine with Aura is a condition whereby the person experience unusual visual sensations during or before the attack of migrain. It is characterized by the appearance of blind spots and flashes of lights. [read more]

  • Mikulicz' Disease
    Mikulicz's disease involves enlarged lachrymal and salivary glands with a little autoimmune reactions and good response to glucocorticoids. A study suggests that it is an IgG4-related systemic disease. [read more]

  • Milia
    Milia is a skin condition usually seen in infants where there are presence of tiny white goose bumps across the infant's nose and chin. [read more]

  • Milliaria
    Milliaria most commonly known as heat rush or prickly heat, is a condition usually affecting children and even adults leaving in tropical climates where the weather is hot or humid. It occurs when the sweat ducts are blocked and the perspiration is stucked in the skin causing rashes and redness of the affected skin, it may also be in a form of small blisters that is often very itchy. [read more]

  • Minimal Change Disease
    Minimal change disease is a kidney disease that is common among children. It is also known as lipoid nephrosis and nil disease. [read more]

  • Minkowski-Chauffard Disease
    Minkowski-Chauffard syndrome is a type of hemolytic anemia that is by hemolysis, a process during which the red blood cells undergo an abnormal breakdown. [read more]

  • Mitochondrial Disease
    Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders relating to the mitochondria, the organelles that are the "powerhouses" of the eukaryotic cells that comprise higher-order lifeforms (including humans). The mitochondrion changes the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions. [read more]

  • Mitochondrial Diseases
    Mitochondrial disorders are disorders that affect the skeletal muscles as well as the heart muscles causing problems in the body's organs such as the nervous system, visual system, renal system and, digestive and circulatory systems. [read more]

  • Mitral Valve Regurgitation
    Mitral valve regurgitation otherwise known as the mitral regurgitation or the mitral insufficiency, or the mitral incompetence, is a medical condition where the heart's mitral valve does not close tightly causing the blood to flow back in the heart causing fatigue and shortness of breathing. [read more]

  • Mitral Valve Stenosis
    Mitral valve stenosis otherwise known as the mitral stenosis is a condition whereby the heart mitral valve is narrowed which thereby prevents the valve from opening fully and causes obstruction of blood flow between the left chamber of the heart. [read more]

  • MODY syndrome
    Referring to any several rare hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus due to dominantly inherited defects of insulin secretion, maturity onset diabetes of the young or MODY acts like a mild version of type 1 diabetes. the continued partial insulin production and normal insulin sensitivity however mean it is not type 2 diabetes in a young person. The most common forms of the disease are MODY 2 and MODY 3 but as of 2004, six more types have been named and more are likely to be added. [read more]

  • Mold Allergy
    There are over a thousand identified types of mold found in the environment. However, only a few dozen are culprits in triggering an allergic reaction. Mold allergy is the hypersensitivity to exposure to certain types of mold, which can either thrive outdoor or indoor. [read more]

  • Monilethrix
    Said to be an autosomal dominant hair disease resulting in short, fragile and broken hair that appears beaded, Monilethrix got its name from the Latin word monile which means necklace and thrix, which is the Greek word for hair. It has not been determined though whether the disease is a disorder of the function or the structure of the hair. [read more]

  • Monkeypox
    Monkeypox is a rare infectious disease caused by monkeypox virus. The disease is first identified in laboratory monkeys, giving it its name. The disease is more prevalent in Central and West Africa, but an outbreak occurred also in the United States in 2003. Monkeypox can be difficult to distinguish from mild smallpox and chickenpox. [read more]

  • Morning Sickness
    Morning sickness also called nausea, vomiting of pregnancy (emesis gravidarum or NVP), or pregnancy sickness, affects between 50 and 95 percent of all pregnant women as well as some women who use hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapy. The nausea could be mild or induce actual vomiting. [read more]

  • Mother To Baby Infections
    Mother-to-baby infections are diseases that are transmitted when a mother's amniotic membranes rupture. In the stage where her ?water bag breaks?, microbes such as viruses and bacteria can enter the womb. Other harmful microbes can also enter the womb during labor, which can affect the baby's growth and overall health. Some diseases meanwhile can be passed from skin contact. The diseases that are considered mother-to-baby-infections are E. coli infection and staphylococcus aureus infections. There are also diseases that come from body fluids. There are some illnesses carried by a woman during pregnancy, and they can be passed on to the baby through body fluids. These diseases include gonorrhea, HIV, herpes virus infection, and hepatitis B and C. [read more]

  • Motion Sickness
    Motion sickness (also known as car sickness, sea sickness, air sickness) occurs when two "motion messages" to the brain conflict. One "motion message" comes from the inner ear that controls balance and another "motion message" is from the eyes. During this changes in position caused by travel, these two "motion messages" conflict thereby causing motion sickness. [read more]

  • MPO deficiency
    Myeloperoxidse deficiency or MPO is a common genetic disorder featuring deficiency, in either quantity or function of the enzyme myeloperxidase. Said enzyme can be found in certain phagocytic immune cells, particularly polymorphonuclear leukocytes. [read more]

  • MRKH
    Also called Mullerian agenesis, MRKH is the condition in a female where the mullerian ducts fail to develop and a uterus will not be present. MRKH stands for Mayer-Rokitansky-K?ster-Hauser Syndrome, derived from the names Augsut Franz Joseph Karl Mayer, Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Herman K?ster, and G.A. Hauser. [read more]

  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
    Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome otherwise known as the Kawasaki disease is a medical condition where there is an inflammation of the walls of the arteries throughout the body which may include the coronary arteries affecting the lymph nodes, skin and mucous membrane inside the throa, nose and mouth of the person. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis
    A group of autosomal recessive metabolic disorders, Mucopolysaccharidosis is caused to the absence or malfunctioning of lyosomal enzymes. Said enzymes are needed to break down the molecules called glycosaminoglycans. [read more]

  • Mucormycosis
    Mucormycosis also known as zygomycosis or phycomycosis is a rare yet life threatening and serious infection of fungi, usually affecting the face or oropharyngeal cavity. Occasionally, when caused by Pythium or other similar fungi, the condition may affect the gastrointestinal tract or the skin. It often begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most rapidly spreading fungal infections in humans. [read more]

  • Mullerian agenesis
    Also known as MRKH syndrome, Mullerian agenesis refers to a condition in a female where the mullerian ducts fail to develop and a uterus will not be present. MRKH stands for Mayer-Rokitansky-K?ster-Hauser Syndrome, derived from the names Augsut Franz Joseph Karl Mayer, Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Herman K?ster, and G.A. Hauser. [read more]

  • Multifocal ventricular premature beats
    A form of irregular heartbeat in which the ventricle contracts prematurely, ventricular premature beat (VPB) or extrasystole is also known as premature ventricular contraction (PVC). The disorder may be perceived as a “skipped beat” or as palpitations. PVCs are said to be a natural probe since they induce Heart rate turbulence whose characteristic can be measured and utilized to evaluate cardiac function. [read more]

  • Multiple chemical sensitivity
    Described as a chronic, recurring condition, Multiple chemical sensitivity is characterized by several adverse and variable affects from exposure to otherwise low levels of substances in modern human environments. MCVS has also been termed toxic injury (TI), chemical sensitivity (CS), chemical injury (CI), 20th century syndrome, environmental illness (EI), sick building syndrome, idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), and Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance (TILT). [read more]

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
    Sometimes called multiple endocrine adenomatosis or Wemer's syndrome, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited disorder affecting the endocrine glands. Occurring only in about 3 to 20 persons out of 100,000, MEN1 is quite rare but affects both sexes equally and has no geographical, ethnic, or racial preferences. [read more]

  • Multiple Hereditary exostoses
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a medical condition that is rare, in which bony spurs or lumps (exostoses, or osteochondromas) develop on a child's bone. The disease is synonymous with Multiple hereditary exostoses and Multiple osteochondromatosis. The latter is the term used by the World Health Organization. Exostoses are do not exist at birth. However, 96 percent of affected people develop multiple exostoses by the time they are 12 years old. [read more]

  • Multiple system atrophy
    A disorder in which multiple parts of he nervous system experience degeneration, multiple system astrophy (MSA) encompasses three syndromes namely Shy-Drager syndrome, striatonigral degeneration, and olivopontocerebellar atrophy. The three were previously thought to be unrelated but are now known to all be parts of the same disorder. [read more]

  • Muscle Dysmorphia
    Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he or she is not muscular enough. People who suffer from muscle dysmorphia tend to hold delusions that they are "skinny" or "too small" but are often above average in musculature. Referred to as bigorexia or reverse anorexia nervosa, it is a most specific type of body dysmorphic disorder. [read more]

  • Muscular dystrophy
    Referring to a group of genetic and hereditary muscle disease that cause progressive muscle weakness, muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. There are nine diseases that are classified as muscular dystrophies namely Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss. [read more]

  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis
    Also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a poorly understood and debilitating disorder of uncertain cause or causes. According to a 1999 study among adults in the United States, CFS is thought to affect approximately 4 per 100 adults, and commonly occurs among women ages 40s and 50s. [read more]

  • Myasthenia gravis
    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder, a neuromuscular disease that can lead to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatiguability. The name is coined from Greek and Latin terms, which literally means serious muscle weakness. [read more]

  • Mycetoma
    Mycetoma, also referred to as Madura Foot, is a highly relevant disease commonly encountered in arid and semi-arid regions all over the world. This condition can be found in Mexico, the Sahel, in pan-Arabia, Brazil and in the semi-arid areas within India. Mycetoma can also exist in countries as distant as Romania. Mycetoma consists of two common forms. These are the bacterial mycetoma which is also referred to as actinomycetoma and the fungal mycetoma or also known as eumycetoma. These two common presentations of this condition are very hard to determine and differentiate from each another even under the electron microscopy. [read more]

  • Mycosis Fungoides
    Mycosis Fungoides is also referred to as Alibert-Bazin Syndrome or granuloma fungoides. It is the most common presentation of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma wherein the skin is the primary part of the body that is affected. As the disease progresses, it can also affect the internal organs and the blood. This condition was initially described in 1806 by a French dermatologist named, Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert. Mycosis fungoides caused several misconceptions because it stands for a fungal disease characterized by a mushroom-like presentation. It was named as such by Alibert based upon his description of the disease's severe case which appears similarly to a mushroom. However, it is far from a fungal disease or infection. It is actually a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. [read more]

  • Mycosis Fungoides Lymphoma
    Mycosis Fungoides Lymphoma is classified as the most common presentation of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In general, the skin is the primary part of the body that is affected. However, it can advance internally as the disease progresses. Initially described in 1806 by a French dermatologist named, Jean-Louis-Marc Alibert, mycosis fungoides lymphoma caused some misconceptions. It stands for a fungal disease characterized by a mushroom-like presentation. It was named as such by Alibert based upon his description of the disease's severe case which appears similarly to a mushroom. However, it is far from a fungal disease or infection. It is actually a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. [read more]

  • Myelitis
    Myelitis is a disease that affects humans which is characterized by swelling or inflammation of the spinal cord. This condition targets and causes disruption in the functions of the central nervous system, particularly the part linking the brain and extremities. [read more]

  • Myelodysplasia
    Myelodysplasia is characterized by a diverse group of hematological conditions. This particular disease is associated with ineffective blood cell production. It is presented with varying chances of transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia. In majority of cases, this condition is also associated with severe anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
    Myelodysplastic Syndromes or MDS was previously known as Preleukemia. It is characterized by a diverse group of hematological conditions. This hematological disease is associated with ineffective blood cell production. It is presented with varying chances of transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia. In majority of cases, this condition is also associated with severe anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Myelomeningocele
    Myelomeningocele otherwise known as the Spina Bifida is a birth defect that is often called the neural tube defect which is caused whenever the tissue found in the spinal cord of a fetus does not close orderly resulting in to a defect in the spinal cord and the backbone of the infant. [read more]

  • Myeloperoxidase Deficiency
    Myeloperoxidase deficiency is considered a common genetic disorder which is characterized by a deficiency in the quantity of enzyme myeloperoxidase or its lack of functionality in the human body. This enzyme can usually be found in some types of phagocytic immune cells, the polymorphonuclear leukocytes in particular. Myeloperoxidase deficiency typically has no distinct signs of immunodeficiency among majority of affected patients. This is despite its immune deficiency presentation which is especially observed in candida albicans infections. Basically, this condition shows no specific manifestations of an immunodeficiency. The absence of major symptoms for Myeloperoxidase deficiency suggest that the role of the enzyme myeloperoxidase in immune responses might be similar with that of other mechanisms of intracellular killing of bacteria that had been phagocytosed. [read more]

  • Myoadenylate Deaminase Deficiency
    Myoadenylate Deaminase Deficiency or MADD is classified as a metabolic disorder with a recessive genetic cause. This condition affects about 1-2% of the Eastern descent populations which makes it not particularly a rare disease. MADD is somewhat rarer in the Oriental populations. Myoadenylate Deaminase which is also referred to as AMP deaminase is an enzyme responsible in converting adenosine monophosphate or AMP into inosine monophosphate or IMP. This process frees ammonia molecule. This is a portion of metabolic process responsible in converting sugar, fat and protein to cellular energy. A cell usually converts sugar, fat and protein to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the mitochondria to utilize energy. Processes within the cell, the muscles in particular then convert ATP to adenosine diphosphate or ADP which frees the energy to perform work. Failure to deaminate AMP molecules covers three major effects which are: 1. The cell and body loses considerable amounts of AMP 2. Ammonia is not freed or released in the event that the cell performs work 3. Maintenance of IMP levels within the cell is impaired [read more]

  • Myocardial Infarction
    Myocardial Infarction is the medical term for heart attack which is the occurrence of blood clot which hampers and block the blood flow in the coronary artery which is a blood vessel that supplies blood to a part of the muscle of the heart. This interruption of the flow of blood will often damage or even destroy the part of the heart muscle. [read more]

  • Myocarditis
    Myocarditis is a cardiology condition marked by an inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart, due to either viral or bacterial infection. [read more]

  • Myofacial Pain Syndrome
    Myofascial pain syndrome is type of muscle pain which centers around the trigger points or those sensitive points of the muscles. [read more]

  • Myomas
    Myomas other wise known as the uterine fibroids, fibromyomas and leiomyomas, is a condition where there is growth of fibroids in the uterus. [read more]

  • Myopathy
    The word myopathy literally means muscle disease. “Myo” is from the Greek word for muscle, while “pathy” is Greek for “suffering”. More specifically, myopathies are neuromuscular conditions wherein the muscle fibers are damaged and no longer function for a number of reasons, thus resulting in muscular weakness. Myopathy implies a primary defect in the muscle. Even mild muscle complaints, such as cramps, stiffness, and spasms are, in fact, associated with this disorder. Myopathy is a very broad term. Specific classes are available with more distinct classifications. Some of these classes are dystrophies, myotonia, neuromyotonia, mitochondrial myopathies, and familial periodic paralysis, among others. [read more]

  • Myopathy-Centronuclear
    Centronuclear myopathies (or CNM) are a group of rare congenital myopathies that occur when cell nuclei are abnormally located in the center of the skeletal muscle cells (whereas, normally, they are located in the periphery). A myopathy implies a disease of the muscle tissue itself – myo is from the word muscle and pathos literally means disease. CNM is considered very rare, but its most commonly occurring form is Myotubular Myopathy (or MTM). [read more]

  • Myositis Ossificans Progressiva
    Myositis ossificans progressiva, also known as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, is one of two kinds of heterotopic ossification or calcification of the muscle. This is a rare genetic condition, with an autosomal dominant pattern, in which the ossification occurs even without injury and grows in an often predictable pattern. [read more]

  • Naegleria Infection
    Naegleria infection is a rare infection or disease whereby the naegleria amoeba enters the body through the nose while swimming or other water activity, which goes to the brain through the ofactory nerve thereby causing inflammation or swelling and eventually to the destruction of the brain tissues. [read more]

  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance and a deep need for admiration. They believe that they are superior to others and have little regard for other people's feelings. However behind this mask of ultra-confidence lies a fragile self-esteem, vulnerable to the slightest criticism. [read more]

  • Nasal Polyps
    Nasal Polyps are the soft and usually not cancerous or benign growth of polyps in the lining of the nose or the sinuses. [read more]

  • Naxos Disease
    Naxos Disease is an autosomal recessive modification of Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD, also known as Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC). It is a very rare syndrome characterized primarily by the heart disease and wooly hair. [read more]

  • Nearsightedness
    Nearsightedness otherwise known as the myopia is a condition whereby the person can see clearly the objects near him clearly but not those which are far away which are usually blurred. [read more]

  • Neck Pain
    Neck pain is a medical condition where there is an acute and chronic pain in the neck which may be caused by poor posture. [read more]

  • Neisseria Meningitidis
    Neisseria Meningitidis is simply referred to as meningococcus. It is a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium that is remarkably known for its significant role in meningitis, which is medically known as the inflammation of the meninges. Neisseria Meningitidis is the only form of bacterial meningitis identified to cause prevalent cases or epidemics. This syndrome does not only refer to meningitis but actually refers to several types of diseases caused by the Neisseria Meningitidis bacteria. [read more]

  • Neonatal Hemochromatosis
    Neonatal Hemochromatosis is a rare and severe liver disease. It is also known as perinatal hemochromatosis or neonatal iron storage disease. [read more]

  • Neonatal Hepatitis
    Neonatal hepatitis also known as perinatal hepatitis is a rare fulminant liver disease. It is characterized by extremely excessive deposition of iron in the liver, pancreas, endocrine glands, and heart. It is a life threatening condition wherein death is common during the fetal or infant stage. [read more]

  • Neonatal Ophthalmitis
    Neonatal ophthalmitis pertains to a discharge of pus from the eye of a newborn infant. It is also alternatively known as opthalmia neonatorum. [read more]

  • Nephritis
    Nephritis pertains to kidney inflammation, often as a result of toxins, infections, and auto-immune diseases. The term nephritis is derived from the Greek words “nephro”, which means “of the kidney”, and “itis”, meaning “inflammation”. [read more]

  • Nephroblastoma
    Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer which affects infants and children which usually occurs and develops in the nerve cells of the body. It usually occurs in and around the adrenal glands but it some cases it may also grow in the chest, neck and pelvis. [read more]

  • Nephropathy
    Nephropathy pertains to disease or damage of the kidney. Previously, nephropathy was known by its older term, nephrosis. [read more]

  • Nervous System, Paraneoplastic Syndromes
    Paraneoplastic syndromes particularly that of the nervous system is a result of the body's reaction to the presence of cancer or to substances that an existing tumor located in the nervous system may produce. [read more]

  • Neuroendocrime Carcinoma Of The Skin
    Neuroendocrime Carcinoma of the skin or the Merkel cell carcinoma, is a type of cancer that appears as a flesh colored or bluish red nodule on the skin, commonly in the face, head or neck. [read more]

  • neuroma
    Neuroma is a term generally used to describe any swelling or inflammation of a nerve, but more specifically used in reference to a tumor (usually benign) growing in the nerve cells. [read more]

  • Neuroma, Plantar
    A Plantar Neuroma or an Intermetatarsal Neuroma is an unusual growth of nerve tissue in the different parts of the body, most especially the third and fourt toes whereby there is a burning pain the ball of the foot. [read more]

  • Neutropenia
    Neutropenia is a condition of an abnormal low number of a type of a particular type of white blood cell called a neutrophil. White blood cells are the cells in the blood that has an important role in the body's immune by fighting off infection. Because white blood cells could be affected by many diseases, doctors will often check the "white blood cell count" in evaluating health conditions. [read more]

  • Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome
    This condition is also known referred to as Multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome, Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome or Gorlin Syndrome. This condition can be inherited. A person with this disease has multiple defects. Affected areas of the body include the skin, eyes and bones, nervous and endocrine systems. This condition had its very first definition in 1960. It is an autosomal dominant condition that causes unusual appearance of the face and a higher risk for cancer. 1 case per 56,000-164,000 population had been reported to have this condition. A child who had inherited the defective gene from either his mother or father will most likely have NBCCS. [read more]

  • Niacin Overdose
    Niacin overdose pertains to an excessive ingestion of niacin, a component of the vitamin B complex primarily responsible for converting food into energy and controls the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. If taken in excessive doses, niacin can cause peptic ulcers, liver damage, and skin rashes. [read more]

  • Nicotine, Dependence
    Nicotine dependence is a condition where the person is vulnerable to a rather addicting chemical known as nicotine that is found in cigars and pipes. [read more]

  • Nil Disease
    Nil disease, also known as minimal change disease, is a kidney illness that affects young children. This illness also affects the blood's hemoglobin levels resulting to abnormalities in the blood serum. [read more]

  • Nocardiosis
    Nocardiosis is an infectious disease which affects the lungs or the whole body. Affectation of the lungs is termed as Pulmonary Nocardiosis while affectation of the entire body is referred to as Systemic Nocardiosis. Nocardiosis is caused primarily of an infection by bacterium of the genus Nocardia. The common forms are Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis. Men are more commonly affected particularly those whose immune systems are already compromised. Among patients afflicted with brain infection, rate of mortality goes beyond 80%. Among the other forms, mortality rate is at 50% even with therapy. [read more]

  • Nocturia
    Nocturia pertains to a condition characterized by excessive urination at night. Patients with nocturia constantly need to get up during the night to urinate and may thus suffer from sleep distortions. While it can occur in children and younger adults, nocturia more typically affects the elderly. [read more]

  • Nodules, Thyroid
    Thyroid Nodules is a condition whereby there is one or more nodules that develop within the person's gland. It is usually a water-filled lump and is usually noncancerous but develops and become large to press on the person's windpipe. [read more]

  • Noma
    Noma came from the Greek term numein which means to devour. This condition is also referred to as Cancrum Oris or Gangrenous Stomatitis. Noma is a form of gangrenous disease which leads to destruction of the tissues of the face. Commonly affected areas are the cheeks and mouth. Noma has significantly high rates of morbidity and mortality. A rough estimate of 80% had been reported. Children under the age of 12 years who are living in the poor countries of Africa have high predisposition to this disease. Asian children as well as several countries within South America also present a certain degree of predisposition. Majority of the children who develop Noma are around the ages 2 to 6 years old. An estimated number of 500,000 individuals had developed this disease according to the WHO. 100,000 new cases arise every year. [read more]

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or NHL is characterized by a certain group of cancers which arise from lymphocytes. NHL has distinctive clinical presentation from Hodgkin Lymphoma based on its pathology and epidemiology. It is also different from Hodgkin Lymphoma based on the commonly involved sites, clinical behavior and medical treatment. Diseases associated with non-Hodgkin Lymphomas presents diversity. The course of the diseases varies as well as the treatments. Prognoses for recovery among patients are also variable. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually develops in the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils or in other organs which are related to the lymphatic system. Majority of the cases initially present as infiltration of lymph nodes. However, there are some subtypes which are restricted to other organs of the lymphatic system. [read more]

  • Non-Specific Urethritis
    Non-Specific Urethritis (shortened as NSU) is a type of urethritis characterized by inflammation of the urethra that cannot be attributed to Chlamydia, gonorrhea, or any infectious cause. Most cases of non-specific urethritis are sexually transmitted, while some have no evidence of infections at all. [read more]

  • Nonischemic Priapism
    Nonischemic Priapism is a medical condition where there is a sustained and frequently painful erection that is not associated with sexual stimulation. In Nonischemic Priapism the blood that usually fills the penis does not subside or drain from the penile shaft upon orgasm. [read more]

  • Nontropical Sprue
    Nontropical Sprue otherwise known as the Celiac sprue, is a condition triggered by consumption of the protein gluten whereby the person's immune reaction occurs in the small intestine which results in the damage to the surface of the small intestine and to the inability to take nutrients found in food. Thus, it is an enteropathy which is usually a gluten-sensitive disease which nontropical sprue and gluten-sensitive enteropathy, celiac disease occurs in people who have a susceptibility to gluten intolerance [read more]

  • Nonulcer Stomach Pain
    Nonulcer Stomach Pain is a medical condition where there is a disorder of the uppe gastrointestinal system which can cause that of the symptoms of peptic ulcer. It is thus, characterized by a gnawing and discomfort in the upper abdomen but there is absence of ulcer and other problem in the digestive system. [read more]

  • Nose Foreign Body
    Nose foreign body pertains to the presence of an object not normally present in the nose or the nasal cavity. Common objects found inside the nasal cavity include tissue paper, food material, toys, beads, and rocks. [read more]

  • Nummular Eczema
    Nummular eczematous dermatitis, or nummular eczema, is a term used to describe an itchy rash that develops patches on the skin. The sores grow bigger as time goes by, and soon becomes a chronic condition. [read more]

  • Occipital Neuralgia
    Occipital neuralgia is a distinct form of headache marked by throbbing, piercing, or chronic pain occurring in the back of the head, upper neck, and behind the ears, usually on only one side of the head. [read more]

  • Occupational Asthma
    Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by specific working conditions that results in a limited airflow to the lungs or excessive response of the airway. [read more]

  • OCD
    Osteochondritis dissecans is a condition of having a painful and inflamed loose joint. The formation of a lesion within the cartilage gives rise to a secondary inflammation. [read more]

  • Ocular Melanoma
    Ocular Melanoma is a condition which occurs in the uvea or the vascular layer of the eye between the retina and the sclera or the white of the eye. It may occur in in the front part of the uvea or the iris and ciliary body or in the choroid layer or the back part of the uvea. [read more]

  • Ocular Toxoplasmosis
    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a disease of the retina due to an intracellular protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. [read more]

  • Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2
    Oculocutaneous albinism is a condition resulting in the lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. Other affected individuals may show an almost-normal level of pigmentation. Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 is the most common type of albinism due to a mutation of the P gene. [read more]

  • Oculomelic Amyoplasia
    Oculomelic amyoplasia is a genetic disorder resulting in limb contractures from birth and eye abnormalities. [read more]

  • Odontoma
    The odontoma is a benign tumor usually associated with an unerupted tooth. [read more]

  • Odynophobia
    Odynophobia or algophobia is an extreme and abnormal fear of pain. [read more]

  • Ogilvie's Syndrome
    Ogilvie syndrome is found in severely ill patients with a serious acute pseudo-obstruction and dilation of the colon that has no mechanical obstruction . [read more]

  • Oikophobia
    Oikophobia, which is also known as Domatophobia is the irrational fear of houses, in a home environment, or in a house. [read more]

  • Oligodendroglioma
    Oligodendroglioma pertains to a rare brain tumor that grows from the cells that encompass the supportive connective tissue around the nerve cells of the brain. Oligodendroglioma more commonly develops in adults than in children, and more commonly in men than in women. [read more]

  • Oligohydramnios
    Oligohydramnios is a condition characterized by a deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid present in the gestational sac during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Oligospermia
    Oligospermia pertains to a deficiency of sperms in the semen. Also known as oligozoospermatism, this condition affects male fertility, but, in some cases, may only be temporary. [read more]

  • Omenn Syndrome
    Omenn syndrome is a severe combined immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the recombination activating genes, affecting both B-cells and T-cells. [read more]

  • Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever
    Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever is a very contagious infection caused by the Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. [read more]

  • Onchocerciasis
    Onchocerciasis is an infectious condition in which slender threadlike roundworms invade and are deposited under the skin or in some cases, the eyes. [read more]

  • Ondine's Curse
    Ondine's Curse is a respiratory disorder which results in episodes of respiratory arrest during sleep. It is a serious disorder and fatal if not treated. The disorder is also referred to as congenital central hypoventilation syndrome or primary alveolar hypoventilation. [read more]

  • Onychogryphosis
    Onychogryphosis is a nail deformation characterized by the thickening of a toenail at the point where the nail curves, giving it a somewhat claw-like appearance. Onychogryphosis typically affects the big toe nail. [read more]

  • Oophoritis
    Oophoritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of either one or both ovaries, usually occurring alongside an infection and possibly affecting female fertility. [read more]

  • Opitz Syndrome
    The Opitz syndrome is a problematic developmental condition that involves various parts of the body. It is mainly characterized by bizarre facial features, abnormally small size of the head, learning disabilities and behavioral problems. [read more]

  • Opportunistic Infections
    An opportunistic infection is caused by pathogens in an unhealthy immune system, which presents the "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect. [read more]

  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. [read more]

  • Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant
    Optic atrophy, autosomal dominant is also called dominant optic atrophy, Kjer optic atrophy, or Kjer's autosomal dominant optic atrophy. It is a condition that affects the optic nerves of both eyes reducing a person's vision and may lead to blindness. [read more]

  • Oral Leukoplakia
    Leukoplakia is an adherent white plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the mouth including the tongue. [read more]

  • Oral Lichen Planus
    Oral lichen planus is a condition of inflammation in the mouth lining. The inflammation may also occur inside the cheeks and may affect other parts of the mouth as well as the throat. [read more]

  • Oral Thrush
    Oral thrush is a medical condition whereby there is an unusual accumulation of Candida Albicians in the lining of the mouth. It usually manifests as lesions in the tongue and in inner cheeks. [read more]

  • Orchitis
    Orchitis is the medical inflammation where there is the inflammation of one or both testicles. It is usually connected to mumps. [read more]

  • Orf
    Orf is described as a viral disease that commonly infects sheep and goats. It can be easily acquired by humans through direct contact of infected animals or contaminated fomites. It was also reported that reindeers have caused similar cuts to humans. [read more]

  • Orf
    Orf pertains to an exanthemous zoonotic disease caused by a viral skin virus, which primarily affects sheep and goats, but may also be transmitted to humans. The word ?orf? itself is derived from an Old English term that means ?rough?. It is also alternatively known as pustular dermatitis (CPD), contagious ecthyma, thistle disease, sore mouth, or scabby mouth. [read more]

  • Oropharyngeal Cancer
    Oropharyngeal cancer pertains to types of carcinomas occurring in the mouth, lips, tongue, gums, salivary glands, as well as parts of the throat located behind the stomach. It is also alternatively known as oral and throat cancer. [read more]

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease
    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition in which a growth plate at the tibial tuberosity has inflamed. [read more]

  • Osteitis Deformans
    Osteitis deformans is also known as Paget's disease. It is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. [read more]

  • Osteonecrosis
    Osteonecrosis is rare type of disease that often leads to the inadequate supply of the blood in the patient's bone tissue. As any living tissue, the bone will require a certain quantity of blood to be able to function properly. Without the adequate supply of blood, this condition lead to bone tissue death. [read more]

  • Osteoporosis
    Osteoporosis is a bone condition that is characterized by the gradual loss of the normal bone density that will result to the fragility of the bone. Osteoporosis may often lead to abnormality of the porous bone. [read more]

  • Otospondylomegaepiphyseal Dysplasia
    Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, or otherwise known as OSMED is categorized as a genetic disorder of the bone growth. This disorder often results in serious skeletal abnormalities, accompanied by severe hearing loss as well as distinctive facial features. People suffering from this disease often experience pain on the joints and back and are only capable of limited joint movement. [read more]

  • Ovarian Insufficiency
    Ovarian insufficiency is a deficiency of the needed functions of the ovaries. These dysfunctions may cause complications such as amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine bleeding. It may also lead to sterility among females. [read more]

  • Overactive Thyroid
    Overactive thyroid disease, otherwise known as hyperthyroidism, is a condition which occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine, resulting to the significant acceleration of the body's metabolism. [read more]

  • Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection
    Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection or OPSI is known as the rapidly fatal septicaemia infection that is brought about by the absence of the protection of the spleen against certain types of bacteria. Most patients who either have a non-functional or absent spleens can die in a few hours if exposed by uncommon infections. However, this medical condition can be prevented with the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. [read more]

  • Pachydermoperiostosis
    Pachydermoperiostosis is categorized as a rare disorder that is primarily characterized by clubbing of the fingers, excessive sweating and thickening of the skin of the face. It medical condition typically appears during early childhood or adolescence, and progresses slowly within the next ten year or so. [read more]

  • Pacman Syndrome
    The Pacman syndrome is categorized as a rare syndrome that is characterized by the abnormal development of the bone that primarily affects the long bones as well lower spine of the patient. [read more]

  • Pallister-Hall Syndrome
    Pallister-Hall syndrome is medical disorder that primarily affects the natural development of several parts of the body. Most people suffering this condition may have extra fingers on the toes and fingers as well as skin between the hands and feet. Other patients may suffer severe malformations. [read more]

  • Pancreas Divisum
    Pancreas divisum is categorized as a common congenital anomaly that affects the pancreatic ducts. This affects the natural digestion of food, as ezymes are primarily produced in the pancreas. [read more]

  • Pancreatic Cancer
    Pancreatic cancer usually develops in the pancreas tissues. The pancreas are responsible for secreting enzymes that will aid in the digestion as well as regulate hormones that would help regulate sugar. [read more]

  • Pancreatic Islet Cell Neoplasms
    Pancreatic Islet Cell Neoplasms develop into two different categories: the nonfunctional and functional varieties. However, most cases of this medical condition are found functional, which means the neoplasms secrete hormonal products into the patient's bloodstream, leading to the development of more recognizable symptoms. [read more]

  • Pancreatitis
    Pancreatitis is an inflammation of pancreas. The pancreas is a big gland behind the stomach and just close to the duodenum. [read more]

  • Panic Disorder
    Panic disorder is the medical term for a psychiatric condition characterized by recurring panic attacks in combination with significant behavioral change or at least a month of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks. [read more]

  • Panniculitis
    Panniculitis is characterized as the inflammation of the subcutaneous fat. Generally, human fat is divided into a number of lobules by what is known as the connective tissue septae. The septae contains the blood that supplies the lobule. The arteriole is responsible for supplying the lobule while the venules drain the septae. Panniculitis is the disorder that disrupts the supply from the arteriole or the drainage of the septae. These septae contain the blood that supply the lobule. A feeder arteriole supplies the center of the lobule while venules drain the septae. Disorders which disrupt the arterial supply lead to a lobular panniculitis while venous disorders lead to a septal panniculitis. [read more]

  • Papilledema
    Papilledema is characterized as the swelling of the optic nerve. This is the point where the option nerve joins the eye, where the swelling causes a fluid pressure within the patient's skull or what is known as the intracranial pressure. This swelling can be due to an inflammatory illness or infection. [read more]

  • Papular Mucinosis
    Papular mucinosis is categorized as a highly rare skin disease. This is chronic and progressive in nature. [read more]

  • Paramyotonia Congenita
    Paramyotonia congenita is categorized as an autosomal dominant disorder affecting the muscle. This medical condition is characterized by paradoxical myotonia, which is a defined as myotonia , which usually appears during exercise as well as during sever exposure to the cold. During episodes, the patient may suffer from difficulty in making voluntary movements and breathing. [read more]

  • Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration
    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a disease that is primarily characterized by the rapid development of what is known as severe pancerebellar dysfunction. PCD is typically associated with some gynecologic tumors, lung and breast cancer, particularly those with small cell lung carcinoma as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. [read more]

  • Paratyphoid Fever
    Paratyphoid fevers is also otherwise known as Enteric fevers. These composed a group of enteric illnesses often stimulated by bacterium Salmonella paratyphi strains. The three species of the Salmonellae which is known to have caused paratyphoid are Salmonella paratyphi A, S. schotmulleri, and S. paratyphi C or S. hirschfeldii. The species are usually transmitted through contact with the contaminated water and food. Paratyphoid fever is also similar to typhoid fever in some aspects but with more benign course. [read more]

  • Parcopresis
    Parcopresis is also known as shy bowel syndrome. This is a psychological disorder of a person who doesn't seem to get to remove their bowels or defecate in other places' comfort rooms but their own where they feel a certain level of privacy. [read more]

  • Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria
    Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria is also termed as Donath-Landsteiner syndrome. This is a disease usually affecting humans and is characterized by abrupt presence of the hemoglobinuria in urine especially after being exposed to very cold temperatures. [read more]

  • Parturiphobia
    Parturiphobia is also known as Tokophobia, which is the fear of childbirth or giving birth. Other terms for Partuphobia also include tocophobia. It is found normal for first time mothers to develop this fear since they find it really a life-threatening process. While it is true to be a life-threatening process some mothers really feel that they will really suffer during childbirth and aren't sure it they could withstand it. [read more]

  • Patterson Pseudoleprechaunism Syndrome
    Patterson syndrome is also called pseudoleprechaunism. This is very rare syndrome that first mistakenly diagnosed as Donohue Syndrome or Leprechaunism. [read more]

  • Pediatric T-Cell Leukemia
    Pediatric T-cell leukemia is a rare type of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia occuring to children. It is a cancer involving the lymphoblasts which forms lymphocyte cells. [read more]

  • Pendred Syndrome
    Pendred syndrome is otherwise called Pendred disease. This is a disorder, which is genetic in nature that leads to sensorineural hearing loss involving both ears and goitre occationally accompanied with hypothyroidism. Pendred syndrome has been associated to mutations specifically in the PDS gene which is responsible for coding of the pendrin protein. [read more]

  • Peptic Ulcer
    Peptic Ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer disease or PUD, are sores that develop on the stomach lining, esophagus, the upper small intestine and other areas of the gastrointestinal tract, making it extremely painful for the patient. [read more]

  • Perilymph Fistula
    Perilymph fistula, or PLF, is an abnormal opening in the fluid-filled inner ear. Possible places where PLF can occur are: between the middle ear/mastoid sinus, the intracranial cavity, other spaces in the temporal bone, or the bone of the ear called the otic capsule. In most cases it is a tear in thin membranes called oval window and round window, between the middle and inner ears. Perilymph fistula is generally considered a rare disorder and may occur in one or both ears. [read more]

  • Perilymphatic Fistula
    Perilymph fistula is also known as labyrinthine fistula. This is a condition wherein there is leakage of the inner ear fluid entering into the middle ear. This condition is believed to be a complication due to stapedectomy. Perilymphatic fistula are classified into four categories, namely congenital, iatrogenic, spontaneous, and traumatic. [read more]

  • Perinatal Infections
    Perinatal infection is described as an infection which is caused by less common parasites, bacteria, or viruses passed from the mother to the baby during her pregnancy or at childbirth which the baby can get from the mother's vagina at birth. [read more]

  • Peritoneum Cancer
    Peritoneum cancer pertains to cancer originating from the peritoneum, a membrane that lines the insides of the abdomen including all the organs found here like the intestines, liver and stomach. Peritoneum cancer is a rare type of cancer mainly affecting women, similar to ovarian cancer. Peritoneum cancer is also alternatively known as primary peritoneal cancer or PPC. [read more]

  • Peritonitis
    Peritonitis is defined as an the swelling or inflammation of the serous membrane which lines a part of our abdominal cavity and the viscera it contains. This mebrane is called peritoneum. The swelling may be localised in just one part or covering generally the whole lining of the cavity. Peritonitis usually manifest an acute course which may depend largely on either localised or generalised infection. People with Peritonitis are usually treated with surgical emergency. [read more]

  • Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome
    Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome is also known as Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder. This disorder results in a persistent arousal of the genitalia, with or even without orgasm or engorgement which is even unrelated to any feelings of desire sexually. Arousal caused by this syndrome can sometimes be very intense and can persist for over an extended period of time for days or even weeks. [read more]

  • Pertussis
    Pertussis is popularly called whooping cough. This is a very highly contageous disease that caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria. Pertusis is one of the top causes of vaccine-preventable deaths with most deaths occuring to very young infants who are unvaccinated or who are not completely vaccinated. [read more]

  • Pharmacophobia
    Pharmacophobia otherwise known as fear of medicine or fear of taking medicines is a persistent and unwarranted fear of taking medicine or drugs. This is an abnormal state of the mind which each year causes many people distress. [read more]

  • Phenylketonuria
    Phenylketonuria or PKU is a birth defect; more specifically, a mutation of the gene causing to produce the enzyme needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. People with this disease are generally advised to limit food with high-protein like cheese, meats and nuts. [read more]

  • Photosensitive Epilepsy
    Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) affects three to five percent of epileptics. Seizures occur when the affected individual is exposed over a period of time or space to images that have patterns, including flashing lights and regular patterns. Attacks are usually caused by certain visuals, with females more likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Symptoms surface in childhood, peaking at the onset of puberty. [read more]

  • Photosensitivity
    Photosensitivities are people are sensitive to sunlight. [read more]

  • Pica
    Coined after the Latin name of magpie, a bird with an indiscriminating and voracious appetite, the medical disorder pica is characterized by an individual's appetite for non-nutritive substances (such as coal, feces, chalk, paper and soil) including raw food or ingredients (like flour, starch and raw potato). An individual affected with the disorder exhibits the behavior for over a month, at the stage where eating these kinds of objects is not developmentally appropriate. Pica is observed among pregnant women, small children, especially those who are developmentally disabled. [read more]

  • Pick's Disease
    Named after the first doctor to describe it, Pick's disease is an incurable and unique fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disease that causes about 0.4-2 percent of dementia. Symptoms usually appear in people 40 to 60 years slowly leading to declining mental abilities. It gradually destroys the brain cells and damages their function, disturbing cognitive processes such as problem solving, memory and reasoning. One's ability to use as well as understand spoken, written and signed language is also affected. [read more]

  • Pickwickian Syndrome
    Pickwickian syndrome, also known as obesity hyperventilation syndrome, is a condition where blood oxygen falls during sleep, causing hyperventilation. Hypercapnia, or the increased amounts of carbon dioxide in the body occurs, as well as difficulty in breathing. [read more]

  • Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
    The disorder pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) results when the lining of our joints become swollen. Commonly affecting the hip and knee, the lining produces extra fluid that induces swelling and makes motion very painful. PVNS may be localized or diffused. Diffused PVNS usually affects larger joints like the knees, while the localized type damages smaller joints like hands or feet. [read more]

  • Pinealoma
    Pinealoma is defined as a rare type of tumor that grows at a slow rate in the patient's brain. This disease is often referred to as pineocytoma or pinealocytoma. [read more]

  • Placental Abruption
    Placental abruption is a pregnancy complication in which the placental lining has separated from mother's uterus. [read more]

  • Pleural Effusion
    Pleural effusion is a condition in which excess fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity of the lungs, impairing the ability to breath because of the lungs' limited expansion during inhalation. [read more]

  • Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome is associated with severe, long-term iron deficiency anemia that causes difficulty in swallowing because of growing web-like tissue membranes in the throat. The disorder is also referred to as Paterson-Brown-Kelly syndrome or sideropenic dysphagia. [read more]

  • Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
    Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is a lung disease due to the inhalation of fine silica dust. [read more]

  • Poikiloderma of Civatte
    Poikiloderma of Civatte is described as a chronic, benign condition of the skin usually affecting fair-skinned adults. This condition is believed to have been caused by a long exposure to the sun's heat. This condition usually affects women who are of older ages and it also progresses as the age goes higher. [read more]

  • Poland Syndrome
    Poland syndrome is a physical condition in which an individual has one-sided congenital malformations of the body characterized by underdeveloped chest muscles and webbed fingers. The abnormalities usually occur on the same side of the body. [read more]

  • Poliomyelitis (Polio)
    Poliomyelitis is a very contagious disease caused by poliovirus. The disease is usually referred to as polio or infantile paralysis. [read more]

  • Polyarthritis
    Polyarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the inflammation of five or more joints. [read more]

  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
    Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder due to multiple cysts in the kidneys. The disease may also damage the liver and pancreas. In rare cases, it can also damage the heart and brain. [read more]

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is the most common hormonal disorder of women of reproductive age, which may lead to infertility. [read more]

  • Polycythemia
    Polycythemia, or erythrocytosis, is a condition where there is a net increase in the total number of blood cells, primarily in the red blood cells, of the body. There are different types of polycythemia: primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera), secondary polycythemia, chuvash polycythemia, and relative polycythemia [read more]

  • Polycythemia Vera
    Polycythemia vera is a blood disorder due to the excess of red blood cells or over production of white blood cells and platelets. The excess red blood cells cause the thickening of blood. [read more]

  • Polyendocrine Deficiency
    Polyendocrine Deficiency is a disease of which there are two classifications. These are simply called Type I and Type II. This disease is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders represented by autoimmune activity alongside more than one endocrine organ. [read more]

  • Polyneuritis
    Polyneuritis is a widespread inflammation of several peripheral nerves at the same time. [read more]

  • Polyps, Uterine
    Uterine polyps are growths appearing on the inner wall of the uterus, and protruding into the uterine cavity, caused by overgrowth of cells. [read more]

  • Pompe's Disease
    Pompe's disease is a metabolic disorder in which the body an acid maltase deficiency. [read more]

  • porencephaly
    Porencephaly is a disorder of the central nervous system due to a cyst or cavity in a cerebral hemisphere that may occur before or after birth. [read more]

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to one or several terrifying events that involved physical harm or the threat of it. These events may include a threat to the life of the patient, a death of someone close to the patient or serious physical injury or threat of it. Some cases may be caused solely by a severe psychological trauma. [read more]

  • Post-Nasal Drip
    Post-nasal Drip or PND (although this tern is deemed obsolete) happens when excessive mucus is produced by the sinus. This excessive mucus can accumulate in the throat or the back of the nose. It is now referred to as Chronic Upper Airway Cough Syndrome. [read more]

  • Post-Vietnam Syndrome
    Post-Vietnam syndrome is a kind of post-traumatic stress disorder experienced by the veterans of the Vietnam War. This is commonly characterized by anxiety attacks, depression and hallucinations wherein patients relive their memories of the event. [read more]

  • Postpartum Depression
    Postpartum depression is a type of depression occurring in women soon after having a baby. It occurs in 15% of women, usually after a few months upon delivery. A person experiencing postpartum depression worries about her baby's health continuously, develops negative thoughts towards the baby and experiences fears about harming the baby. Obviously, women with postpartum depression may become incapable of taking care of their babies. When women with postpartum depression become suicidal, she may try to kill her baby and other children, thinking that she wouldn't want to abandon them once she successfully commits suicide. [read more]

  • Potter's Syndrome
    Potter's syndrome, also known as Potter's disease, refers to a congenital defect in which the infant is born with missing, incomplete, or deformed kidneys. [read more]

  • Prader-Willi Syndrome
    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, food preoccupation, learning difficulties and having a small stature. It is a very rare disorder that happens in only in 1 in 12,000 or 15,000 live births. It was discovered by Andrea Prader, Heinrich Willi, Alexis Labhart, Andrew Ziegler, and Guido Fanconi of Switzerland in 1956. [read more]

  • Premature Ventricular Contractions
    Premature ventricular contractions are abnormal heartbeats disrupt heart's regular rhythm. [read more]

  • Primary Alveolar Hypoventilation
    Primary alveolar hypoventilation or primary alveolar hypoventilation syndrome is a respiratory disorder marked by difficulty in breathing and may tend to get worse when sleeping due to impairment in the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the blood. The condition results to short periods of breathing cessation during nightly episodes of apnea and often occurs in people suffering from obesity hypoventilation syndrome. [read more]

  • Primary Amenorrhea
    Primary amenorrhea is a condition characterized by absence of menstrual periods by the age of sixteen (16). [read more]

  • Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a rare congenital disorder, which causes defect in the action of the tiny hair-like structures that lines the respiratory tract and fallopian tube. The disease is also known as immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting to reduced or absent mucus clearance from the lungs increasing susceptibility to long-term respiratory infections. [read more]

  • Primary Immunodeficiency
    Primary immunodeficiency is also referred to as primary immune disorders. These conditions refer to the absence of the body's immune defenses making the affected individuals more susceptible to germ- causing infections. [read more]

  • Primary Lateral Sclerosis
    Primary lateral sclerosis is a progressive degenerative characterized by progressive muscle weakness present in the voluntary muscles. The disease belongs to the category of motor neuron diseases; which usually develops when nerve cells responsible for voluntary muscle movement degenerate and die. [read more]

  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
    Primary ovarian insufficiency also referred to as premature ovarian failure, is the abnormal functioning of the ovaries before a woman turns 40 years old, in which the ovaries fail to produce estrogen in normal amounts that may lead to infertility and other problems. [read more]

  • Primary Polycythemia
    Primary polycythemia, also called polycythemia vera, is a blood disorder due to the excess of red blood cells or over production of white blood cells and platelets. The excess red blood cells cause the thickening of blood. [read more]

  • Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts located inside and outside the liver, which causes bile duct blockage, bile accumulation in the liver resulting to damaged liver cells and eventually lead to liver failure. [read more]

  • Prinzmetal's Variant Angina
    Prinzmetal's variant angina also known as variant angina, Prinzmetal's angina or angina inversa is a syndrome characterized by cardiac chest pain at rest usually when lying in bed, which usually occurs in cycles. [read more]

  • processing Disorder
    Sensory integration disorder or dysfunction is a neurological disorder resulting from the brain's inability to process information received by the body's five basic sensory systems. [read more]

  • Proctitis
    Proctitis is a medical condition characterized by inflamed lining if the rectum. [read more]

  • Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia
    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a disorder of the mitochondria marked by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in the skeletal muscle. The condition is characterized by progressive paralysis of the extraocular muscles resulting to bilateral, proportioned, progressive ptosis leading to ophthalmoparesis later on. The most familiar clinical presentations of progressive external ophthalmoplegia include weakness of the external eye muscles and intolerance to exercise. Other symptoms may include opacity in the lenses of the eyes (cataract), sensory axonal neuropathy, loss of hearing, complete loss of coordination in muscle movements, lack of the function of gonads (hypogonadism); rigidity, tremor, and postural instability (parkinsonism); and clinical depression. Neurologists can diagnose the disorder. [read more]

  • Progressive Multifocal Encephalopathy
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disease; an opportunistic infection occurring in individuals with deficient and ineffective immune response and individuals going through long-term chemotherapy for cancer. [read more]

  • Prolactinoma
    Prolactinoma is a condition in which a noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland in the brain overproduces the hormone prolactin. A decrease in normal levels of sex hormones (testosterone in men,estrogen in women) is a major effect of increased prolactin. [read more]

  • Prolapsed Bladder
    Prolapsed bladder is the condition in which the bladder bulges into the vagina. It is also called cystocele. [read more]

  • Prolapsed Uterus
    Prolapse uterus or uterine prolapse is the descent of the uterus into the vagina due to stretched and weakend pelvic floor musles and ligaments. [read more]

  • Prostatitis
    Prostatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflamed prostate gland caused by an infection. The prostate is the walnut-shaped organ in males that is responsible for semen production, the fluid necessary for the nourishing and transportation of sperm. [read more]

  • Protanopia
    Protanopia is also known as Red-Green Color Blindness. Red-green color blindness is split into two different types: People with protan color blindness are less sensitive to red light, and those with deuteranopia or deuteranomly (the second type of red-green color blindness) related to sensitiveness on green light. Males are more prone to this disorder. [read more]

  • Prune Belly Syndrome
    Prune belly syndrome is a congenital defect that occurs in about 1 in 30,000 newborn babies. It is a rare birth defect of the urinary system. The disease got its name because of the wrinkled skin that develops in the abdomens of those affected. Prune belly syndrome is also known as Abdominal Muscle Deficiency Syndrome, Eagle-Barrett Syndrome, and Obrinsky Syndrome. [read more]

  • Prurigo Nodularis
    Prurigo nodularis is a skin disease that consists of itchy nodules on the arms and legs. Patients often incur excoriated lesion because of scratching. [read more]

  • pruritus
    Pruritus is an itchy skin condition that may be the result of rashes or other itchy skin condition. [read more]

  • pruritus Ani
    Pruritis ani is an itching around the anus. It is also called anal itching. [read more]

  • Pseudogout
    Pseudogout, also known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease is a rheumatologic disorder that consists of red, swollen joints that resemble gouty arthritis and acute synovitis. [read more]

  • Pseudomembranous Colitis
    Pseudomembranous colitis is the inflammation of the large intestine due to the use of antibiotics, which disrupt the balance of good and bad bacteria causing the harmful microorganisms to increase and spread in the colon. It is sometimes referred to as antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficile colitis. [read more]

  • Pseudopapilledema
    Pseudopapilledema is an atypical elevation of the eye's optic disc. It consists of acid mucopolysaccharides. Pseudopapilledema develops in severe cases of hyperopia and optic nerve drusden. [read more]

  • psychogenic Polydipsia
    Psychogenic polydypsia is a kind of psychological disorder characterized by abusive water consumption. Because of this the patient's antiduretic hormones are reduced and urine will have low electrolyte concentration. [read more]

  • Pterygium Of The Conjunctiva
    Pterygium of the conjunctiva refers to a small growth in they eye due to the ultraviolet-light exposure. It can also develop in the nasal area when the sun's ray refract when they hit the cornea and become focused on the limbic area. [read more]

  • Pulmonary Edema
    Pulmonary edema is the abnormal build up of fluid in the lungs or increased blood pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs that forces fluids into the airs sacs. [read more]

  • Pulmonary Edema Of Mountaineers
    Pulmonary edema of mountaineers is a complication of lung problems and mountain sickness due to the lack of oxygen at places of high altitude. Also known as altitude sickness, the condition leads to hypoxemia and hypoxia, where less oxygen reaches the blood. [read more]

  • Pyelonephritis
    Pyelonephritis is a kind of urinary tract infection that affects the pyelum or pelvis. It is sometimes called pyelitis. [read more]

  • Pyloric Stenosis
    Pyloric stenosis is a serious condition of forceful spitting or vomitting due to the enlargement of pylorus preventing food from entering the small intestine. [read more]

  • Pyropokilocytosis
    Pyropokilocytosis is a severe congenital disease that affects the red blood cells. It is a kind of hemolytic anemia and is under the disease group homozygous hereditary elliptocytosis. This disease causes a defect in spectrin which leads to an insufficient count of red blood cells. [read more]

  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency is a common neurodegenerative disorder that involves abnormal mitochondrial metabolism. It deprives the body from producing energy due to a dysfunctional lactate buildup. The main feature of this disease is the degeneration of gray matter with foci of necrosis as well as the proliferation of capillaries in the brainstem. [read more]

  • Q Fever
    Q fever is an infectious disease spread by infected cattle and other animals. It is caused by specie of bacteria named Coxiella burnetti. It first became known in the United States in 1999. When cultured, the bacteria can be a potential form of biological warfare, just like anthrax. [read more]

  • Quadriplegia
    Quadriplegia or spinal cord injury is the parlysis of most of the body that includes the arms and legs. [read more]

  • Queensland Tick Typhus
    Queensland tick typhus - also alternatively known as Spotted Fever or Rickettsial Spotted Fever - is a type of bacterial parasitic disorder. [read more]

  • Query Fever
    Query fever or Q fever is an acute or chronic infectious disease caused by a species of bacteria often found in sheep, goats, and cattle. [read more]

  • Rabbit Fever
    Rabbit fever is an infectious disease that attacks the skin, eyes, and lungs. It is also referred to as deerfly fever or tularemia. [read more]

  • Rabies
    Rabies is a viral zoonotic neuro-invasive infection that often causes an inflammation of the brain (a condition known as acute encephalitis). Rabies is from the Latin word “rabies” meaning “rage, fury, or madness”. Rabies can be fatal when affecting non-vaccinated humans, especially after neurological symptoms have occurred. However, the effects can be curbed if the patient is promptly vaccinated shortly after exposure to the virus. When the disease becomes symptomatic, however, it becomes invariably fatal. [read more]

  • Ramsay Hunt Paralysis Syndrome
    Ramsay Hunt paralysis syndrome comprises three distinct neurological conditions described by James Ramsay Hunt in early 19th century - Ramsay Hunt syndrome type I, Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome type III. [read more]

  • Rapid Gastric Emptying
    It is also referred to as the Dumping syndrome. This condition is a collection of symptoms which is most likely to happen if an individual had undergone a surgery to remove most if not all of the part of the stomach or a bypass surgery. The condition occurs when the contents of the stomach that has not been digested are dumped in the small intestine too quickly. [read more]

  • Reactive Arthritis
    Reactive arthritis (acronym: ReA) is a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy and an autoimmune disorder that results from an infection in another part of the body. It is called “reactive” because it is caused by another infection; and “arthritis” because it presents with symptoms very similar to a range of conditions collectively called “arthritis”. Other names for this condition include venereal arthritis, arthritis urethritica, and polyarteritis enterica. [read more]

  • Reactive Hypoglycemia
    Reactive hypoglycemia is characterized by recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia that occur within 2-4 hours after ingesting a high carbohydrate meal. The condition is believed to be a consequence of excessive insulin release triggered by glucose overload that persist even after the glucose from the meal has been digested or disposed by the body. Literally, hypoglycemia is low blood sugar. Most forms of hypoglycemia occur while fasting. However, reactive hypoglycemia is one that occurs right after eating a meal. [read more]

  • Rebound Headache
    Rebound headaches are cycles of headaches. They are also referred to as medication overuse headaches. [read more]

  • Rectal Itching
    Rectal itching is an itching around the anus. It is also called pruritis ani or anal itching. [read more]

  • Rectal Prolapse
    Rectal Prolapse is a medical disorder where the walls of the rectum jut out of the anus and can be seen outside the body. There are 3 main kinds of rectal prolapse: full-thickness (the entire rectum protrudes), mucosal prolapse (only the rectal mucosa protrudes), and internal intussusceptions (rectum collapses but does not protrude from the anus) [read more]

  • Rectal Ulcer
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a condition in which a single ulcer typically occurs in the rectum that may cause rectal bleeding with straining or when having bowel movements. [read more]

  • Rectocele
    Rectocele is a condition in which the rectum's front wall bulges into the vagina. [read more]

  • Red Eye
    Red eye also called subconjunctival hemorrhage, is a harmless condition in which the white of the eye appears red due to a broken tiny blood vessel. [read more]

  • Refractive Errors
    Refractive errors are conditions in which the light passing through eye often loses focus. This is a cause for vision acuity. This condition is due to genetic or environmental factors, and the effects can either lead to blurry vision, astigmatism, myopia and hyperopia. The condition can be diagnosed by visual eye examination, retinoscopy and by the use of an automated refraction factor to measure the errors of eye focus. Treatment is by wearing prescription glasses, and contact lenses, as well as undergoing refractive eye surgery. [read more]

  • Refsum Disease
    Refsum disease is a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies where the white matter of the brain is damaged, affecting motor movements. Refsum disease usually begins in childhood or adolescence and progresses through time. [read more]

  • Relapsing Fever
    Relapsing fever is an infection transferred by a tick or a louse which is characterized by repeated episodes of fever. Other names for relapsing fever are tick-borne relapsing fever and louse-borne relapsing fever. [read more]

  • Renal Agenesis
    Renal agenesis is an inborn condition in which an infant is born without one or both kidneys. The absence of one kidney at birth is called unilateral renal agenesis; while the absence of both kidneys is called bilateral renal agenesis. [read more]

  • Renal Colic
    Renal colic is a painful urinary system condition commonly due to kidney stones. Colic is a misnomer since the pain in this type of disorder is chronic, not intermittent. There are 2 varieties: dull and acute. [read more]

  • Repetitive Strain Injury
    Repetitive strain injury (RSI) pertains to a range of conditions that result from the overuse of certain tools such as a computer, guitar, or knife, or other activities that require movement repetition. RSI commonly affects the muscles, tendons, and nerves of the hands, arms, and upper back. RSI is also alternatively known as occupational overuse syndrome, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD). [read more]

  • Respiratory System Cancer
    Respiratory system cancer is a range of carcinomas commonly found in the respiratory system. Respiratory system cancer may encompass all organs involved in the breathing process, including: lung cancer, mouth cancer, oral cancer, throat cancer, tongue cancer, larynx cancer, pharynx cancer, and bronchial cancer. [read more]

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pertains to a group of genetic eye conditions characterized by progressive night blindness preceded by an extended period of tunnel vision. In retinitis pigmentosa, abnormalities of the photoreceptors or the presence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cause progressive visual loss in affected patients. [read more]

  • Rett Syndrome
    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly affecting females. This disease is categorized as a pervasive development disorder by the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). [read more]

  • Rheumatoid Spondylitis
    Rheumatoid spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory arthritis. It is also referred to as ankylosing spondylitis or spondylitis. [read more]

  • Rhinitis
    Rhinitis is a condition describing the irritation and swelling of the inner part of the nose. This condition is also seen to affect the throat, eyes and ears. It is also associated with sleeping problems. Rhinitis can also be triggered by an allergy. There are two types: allergic and no-allergic rhinitis. [read more]

  • Rhinitis, Vasomotor
    Hay fever is a condition resulting from an allergic reaction to indoor or outdoor airborne allergens, such as dust mites, pollen, or pet dander. [read more]

  • Rib Inflammation
    Rib cage inflammation, also known as costochondritis, is the swelling of the ribs due to injuries and other abnormalities experienced by the chest. [read more]

  • Rift Valley Fever
    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a type of viral zoonosis; meaning, it primarily affects domestic livestock, but can be transmitted to humans. It is most commonly spread among humans through bites of infected mosquitoes or direct contact with infected animals. [read more]

  • Rod Myopathy
    Also known as nemaline myopathy and nemaline rod myopathy, rod myopathy pertains to a congenital, hereditary neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive and non-progressive muscle weakness of varying severity. Rod myopathy is clinically classified into several groups, ranging from mild (typical), intermediate, severe, to adult-onset. However, this categorization is somewhat ambiguous, with categories commonly overlapping. [read more]

  • Rubella
    Also known as German measles, Rubella pertains to a relatively common childhood infection which literally means “little red” in Latin. While it is more common in children, it also affects adults. Affected adults recover more slowly than children. [read more]

  • Russell Silver Syndrome
    Russell-Silver syndrome is a rare disorder that affects slow development, low birth weight, and obvious differences in the size of the sides of the body. [read more]

  • Salpingitis
    Salpingitis is an infection in the fallopian tubes, often synonymous to PID. There are 2 types: acute and chronic salpingitis. Acute salpingitis happens when the fallopian tubes are swollen and stick together causing a blockage. Chronic salpingitis is milder but lasts longer that acute salpingitis. It may also result in hydrosalpinx. Salpingitis usually involves many types of organisms or is polymicrobal. [read more]

  • Sandfly Fever
    Sandfly Fever, otherwise known as the papaataci fever, the phlebotomus fever, and three-day fever is a medical condition referring to the viral infections from sandfly bites. [read more]

  • Sarcoma, Bone Cancer
    Sarcoma is one form of primary bone cancer that primarily results in immature tissue in bone marrow. It is also called Ewing's sarcoma, which often occur in children, adolescents, and young adults, from 10 to 20 years old. [read more]

  • Say Meyer Syndrome
    Say Meyer syndrome is a familial condition characterized by short stature, trigonocephaly, motor impairment, and mental retardation. Say Meyer syndrome is named after Burhan Say, a Turkish medical geneticist, and Julia Meyer, an American physician, who both discovered the disorder. [read more]

  • Scalded Mouth Syndrome
    Scalded mouth syndrome is a condition in which the tongue, lips, or most areas of the mouth feels a burning pain without obvious reasons. It is sometimes referred to as burning mouth syndrome, stomatodynia, burning tongue syndrome, burning lips syndrome, and glossodynia. [read more]

  • Scheuermann's Disease
    Scheuermann's disease is a disease that is a type of juvenile osteochondrosis or disorder of the spine. [read more]

  • Schilder's Disease
    Schilder's Disease otherwise known as the Diffuse Myelinoclastic Sclerosis is a type of neurodegenerative disease tjhat manifest throough pseudotumoural demyelinating lesions and is considered as one of the borderline of multiple sclerosis. [read more]

  • Schistosomiasis
    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasites with several species of fluke of the genus Schistosoma. The parasite is commonly found in Africa, Asia, and South America particularly in regions with water that is polluted with freshwater snails that may carry parasite. [read more]

  • Schizoaffective Disorder
    Schizoaffective disorder is a kind of schizophrenia associated with other psychiatric disorders. A person with a schizoaffective disorder can also show signs of mania as well as depression. This condition can also go with other schizophrenic conditions such as schizopherniform and schizotypal disorders. [read more]

  • Schmidt Syndrome
    Schmidt syndrome is an adrenal defect that commonly occurs with another glandular disorder. Schmidt syndrome is also known as “autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2”, a more heterogeneous form of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome which affects one or more endocrine organs but has also been known to invade other non-endocrine organs. Schmidt syndrome is a more commonly occurring type of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. [read more]

  • School Phobia
    This phobia is the sudden dislike of a young child or fear of going to school which is usually a sign of separation anxiety. Children who have this phobia tend to fake illness and create excuses to avoid going to school. To deal with the phobia it requires awareness of the original school-related issue. [read more]

  • Scleroderma, Limited
    Limited scleroderma is a condition that affects the body's connective tissue specifically only on the skin of the lower arms and legs, neck and face. It is also called CREST syndrome. [read more]

  • Scoliosis
    This is a medical condition wherein the person's spine is curved sideways and may also be rotated. When the spine is seen in x-rays, it may look more like a letter ‘S' or a ‘C'. It is categorized as congenital, idiopathic or developed due to a secondary symptom of another condition like celebral palsy. [read more]

  • Scrapie
    Scrapie is a fatal and degenerative disease involving the nervous systems of goats and sheep. It is a contagious form of spongiform encephalopathy associated with chronic wasting disease of deer and mad cow disease. This contagious disorder can't infect humans. Scrapie is somehow similar to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans. This communicable disease predominantly affecting goats and sheep have a very long incubation period. [read more]

  • Scrotal Masses
    Scrotal masses are fluid or solid materials found in, on, or around the testicles. It may also indicate a serious condition such as cancer. [read more]

  • Sea Sickness
    Sea sickness is a type of motion sickness which is characterized by a feeling of nausea and sometimes vertigo which is experienced after spending time on a craft on water. This is usually because of the rocking motion of the craft such as boat. Some can instantly feel sea sick when they set foot on a boat. [read more]

  • Sebaceous Cysts
    Sebaceous cysts or epidermoid cysts are small painless bumps that slowy grow beneath the skin on the face, neck, trunk, and sometimes in the genital area. [read more]

  • Sensorineural Hearing Loss
    Sensorineural hearing loss is hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or the cochlea, which is the part of the brain that processes sound. It may be present at birth or congenital. It may also be acquired as a result of aging, excessive noise, diseases like meningitis. [read more]

  • Separation Anxiety
    Separation anxiety is a kind emotional stress experienced by children who face separation from their parents or primary caregivers. When not treated, this may lead to anxiety and dependence disorders upon adulthood. [read more]

  • Septic Arthritis
    Septic arthritis is a bacterial infection in a joint. [read more]

  • Serious Digitalis Intoxication
    Serious Digitalis Intoxication is adverse reaction to a drug medically known as digitalis or digoxin; a medicine that slows heart rate, improves contraction and helps eliminate fluids from body tissues. Serious digitalis intoxication can result to more heart complications and may even lead to death if left undistinguished. Serious Digitalis Intoxication is one of the most serious and dangerous adverse drug reactions recorded in clinical medicine. [read more]

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an infectious respiratory condition in humans. It was reported to have an initial outbreak that has turned out to be pandemic during November 2002 to July 2003. But it was only on February 2003 when SARS reached public spotlight. [read more]

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    SARS is an infectious respiratory illness that had an outbreak in February 2003. SARS starts with flu-like symptoms and either the condition develops or subsides to chronic respiratory phase. When SARS develops to the second phase the condition can be deadly. [read more]

  • Sexual Dysfunction
    Sexual Dysfunction is a sexual problem which refers to a problem during any phase of the cycle of sexual response that usually prevents the individual from experiencing sexual satisfaction. [read more]

  • Sexual Headache
    Sexual Headache is a medical condition whereby a person experience severe headache just before or during orgasm. [read more]

  • Sezary SYndrome
    Sezary syndrome also referred to as Sezary's disease is a rare type of cutaneous lymphoma characterized by skin redness, leukemia and enlarged lymph nodes. It is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is a cancerous disease involving the skin. This is a disease marked by a great increase of the white blood cells known as T-lymphocytes. [read more]

  • Sheehan Syndrome
    Sheehan syndrome is a rare condition that happens in women who suffered a severe uterine bleeding during and after childbirth. In this medical condition the resulting blood loss and hypovolemic shock may cause damage to the pituitary gland leading to hypopituitarism. Sheehan syndrome is also known as postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis. [read more]

  • Short Stature
    Short stature or dwarfism caused by a medical condition resulting in an adult height ranging from 2 feet 8 inches to 4 feet 8 inches. [read more]

  • Shoulder Arthritis
    Shoulder Arthritis is a medical condition that is characterized by the excessive pain in the shoulder due to the grinding of the bones against each other due to the absence of cartilage. [read more]

  • Shprintzen Syndrome
    Shprintzen Syndrome goes by different names like velocardio-facial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This medical condition is a rare inherited syndrome of cardiac deficiencies and craniofacial abnormalities. [read more]

  • Sick Building Syndrome
    Sick building syndrome is a collection of ailments due to a poorly maintained workplace. This can be due to structural defects, poor ventilation and facilities, as well as disorganized arrangement of offices. [read more]

  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
    Sick sinus syndrome is the abnormal functioning of the sinus node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart. [read more]

  • Sideroblastic Anemia, Autosomal
    Sideroblastic anemia, autosomal is a type of sideroblastic anemia that is inherited in autosomal recessive mode of transmission. This hereditary sideroblastic anemia is a medical condition wherein the body has enough iron but cannot integrate it into hemoglobin. In this inherited form of anemia, the red blood cells become overloaded with iron thus reduce the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. [read more]

  • Silvery Hair Syndrome
    Silvery hair syndrome is a rare genetic condition marked by a partial nonexistence of pigmentation in the eye, skin and hair; cluster of pigmentation in hair shafts, immunodeficiency and neurological manifestations. [read more]

  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome
    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome is a rare genetic congenital disorder marked by accelerated growth and other abnormalities. The syndrome is also known as Sara Agers Syndrome and Bulldog Syndrome. The syndrome somehow resembles another overgrowth syndrome referred as Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome; another syndrome concerned with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). [read more]

  • Singultus
    Singultus or hiccups sound like a person is catching his or her breath while sobbing [read more]

  • Sinus Cancer
    Sinus Cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the bones surrounding the sinus cavity or the membrane lining of the nose. [read more]

  • Sinus Infection
    This condition is also referred to as Sinusitis. It is the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses which can be a result of infection from fungal, bacterial, viral allergic or autoimmune issues. [read more]

  • Sinus Node Disease
    Sinus Node Disease is a disorder affecting the heart rhythm due to the sinus node in the heart. [read more]

  • Skin Tags
    Skin tags or fibroepithelial polyp is a tiny benign tumor that forms mainly in areas where the skin forms creases, like in the neck, groin and armpits. The size of the tumor may range from a grain of rice to the size of a golf ball. Its surface maybe smooth or has an unusual appearance. It is raised in the skin on a fleshy stalk referred to as peduncle. [read more]

  • Slapped Cheek Disease
    Slapped cheek disease is a condition that results in face rashes that look like slapped marks. milar rashes. [read more]

  • Sleepwalking
    Sleepwalking, also referred to as somnambulism, is a condition during which an individual is unaware of walking while sleeping. [read more]

  • Smallpox
    Smallpox is a very serious and infectious disease that is brought about by the variola virus. The name was derived from the pus-filled blisters that form and appear during the duration of the illness. Smallpox is contagious; it spreads through tiny drops of saliva when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks usually during close face-to-face contact. [read more]

  • Snoring
    Snoring is an annoying condition that may indicate a serious medical condition. It occurs when air flows past cause the tissues in the throat to vibrate, which creates hoarse or harsh sounds. [read more]

  • Solar Lentigines
    Solar lentigines are flat, dark spots on the areas of the skin most exposed to the sun. They may be gray, brown or black spots with varying sizes. They are also called liver spots and age spots. [read more]

  • Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome
    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a condition in which a single ulcer typically occurs in the rectum that may cause rectal bleeding with straining or when having bowel movements. [read more]

  • Sparganosis
    Sparganosis is a medical condition that is caused by a parasitic tape worm. [read more]

  • Spasmodic Torticollis
    Spasmodic torticollis is a disorder where the muscles of the neck contract uncontrollably causing the head to turn in different postures. Cervical dystonia is another name for spasmodic torticollis. The contraction tends to worsen during standing or walking which makes even the simplest task difficult. [read more]

  • Spermatocele
    Spermatocele is a painless and noncancerous cyst that has developed in the epididymis. [read more]

  • Sphingolipidosis
    Sphingolipidosis is a group of disorders involving the abnormal metabolism and storage of a substance called sphingolipid. Symptoms will differ depending on the particular disease. Examples of disorders from this group of diseases include gangliosidosis, Gaucher's disease and Niemann-Pick disease. [read more]

  • Spinal Shock
    Spinal shock is a rare medical condition that can occur after spinal cord injury and involves a period of absent reaction. This state can either be permanent or last for hours to weeks. After this period episodes of excessive impulses may follow. It can be accompanied by temporary paralysis of the legs that is often linked to injury in the spine. [read more]

  • St. Anthony's Fire
    St. Anthony's fire is a very painful burning sensation in the arms and legs due to excessive exposure to ergotamines. Ergotamines are produced by particular fungi known as Claviceps purpurea, which usually contaminates rye and wheat. Ergotamines is a drug used for controlling migraine and in inducing abortion. Ergotamines are nerve toxins and can cause blood vessel constriction resulting in tissue death (gangrene). [read more]

  • Stagnant Syndrome
    Stagnant loop syndrome results when a portion of the small intestine has been cut off from the normal flow of food and digestive juices. It is sometimes called blind loop syndrome or stasis syndrome. [read more]

  • Staph Infection
    This infection is caused by staphylococcus. Staphylococcus is a type of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are comprised of thirty-one species. It resides usually in the mucous membranes and skin of humans and other organisms and is usually harmless. If it resides deep in the body staph infection can be deadly. [read more]

  • Stasis Syndrome
    Stasis syndrome results when a portion of the small intestine has been cut off from the normal flow of food and digestive juices. It is sometimes called blind loop syndrome or stagnant loop syndrome. [read more]

  • Steatosis
    Steatosis is a mildest type of a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is the accumulation of fat in the liver but usually does not causes liver damage. [read more]

  • Stenosing Tenosynovitis
    Stenosing tenosynovitis or trigger finger is a condition that catches the fingers or thumb in a bent position. The affected finger may straighten with a snap but may be locked in a bent position if the condition is severe. [read more]

  • Stomatitis
    Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures inside the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and roof or floor of the mouth. [read more]

  • Stomatodynia
    Stomatodynia is a condition in which the tongue, lips, or most areas of the mouth feels a burning pain without obvious reasons. It is sometimes referred to as burning mouth syndrome, scalded mouth syndrome, burning tongue syndrome, burning lips syndrome, and glossodynia. [read more]

  • Strabismus
    Strabismus is a condition where one's eyes are not able to properly align under normal conditions.One eye is misaligned in relation to the other when focusing on a a subject. Both eyes are not able to focus in unison, in the same direction, at the same point, at the same time. [read more]

  • Strumpell-lorrain Disease
    The common feature of these syndromes is progressive, often severe, spasticity in the lower extremities of the patient's body. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is also known as familial spastic paraparesis and Strumpell-Lorrain syndrome. A number of clinical reports have documented that HSP syndromes are heterogeneous. Syndromes are categorized as uncomplicated or pure when only spinal involvement occurs, and they are classified as complicated when they are associated with neurologic abnormalities such as ataxia, mental retardation, dementia, extrapyramidal dysfunctions, visual or hearing dysfunctions, adrenal insufficiency, and ichthyosis. Inheritance of the disease may be X-linked, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant. The most useful classifications now are based on inheritance and genetic linkage. Clinical distinctions between pure and complicated forms of HSP have some utility; however, age of onset usually has no clear relation to the HSP genotype. [read more]

  • Subconjunctival Hemorrhage
    A subdural hematoma is the result of a head injury. Intracranial hematoma occurs after a blood vessel ruptures in the brain or between the skull and brain producing blood that compresses the brain tissue. [read more]

  • Subdural Hematoma
    A subdural hematoma is the result of a head injury. Intracranial hematoma occurs after a blood vessel ruptures in the brain or between the skull and brain producing blood that compresses the brain tissue. [read more]

  • Subfertility
    Subfertility, also known as infertility, is the inability of a couple to get pregnant despite a year of frequent and unprotected sex. [read more]

  • Sudeck's Atrophy
    Sudeck's atrophy, or Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSDS) is the inflammation of the muscle joints due to an incurred injury. This condition arises after a patient has undergone treatment for the affected joint. [read more]

  • Supranuclear Ocular Palsy
    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), also called Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, is a neurodegenerative disease that affects cognition, eye movements, and posture. [read more]

  • Suriphobia
    Suriphobia (also called musophobia) is a fear of mice or other small rodents, from the French "souris" meaning mouse and the Greek "phobia" meaning fear. It is a specific phobia, unlike social phobias or agoraphobia, and like all phobias, the fear must be intense, irrational and persistent to be considered a true clinical phobia. [read more]

  • Swallowing Difficulties
    Difficulty swallowing may be a medical condition in which an individual needs more time and effort to move his or her food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach. The condition may also be associated with pain. The condition is also known as dysphagia. [read more]

  • Swimmer's Ear
    Swimmer's ear is an infection of the outer ear and ear canal. It can be associated with a middle ear infection (otitis media) if the eardrum gets ruptured. [read more]

  • Swyer Syndrome
    Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a kind of female hypogonadism in which no functional gonads are present to induce puberty in an otherwise normal girl whose karyotype is then found to be XY. [read more]

  • Sympathetic Ophtalmitis
    Sympathetic ophtalmitis or SO for brevity is a medical condition referring to the granulomatous Uveitis which is a kind of inflammation of both eyes as a result of a trauma to one eye. [read more]

  • Synostosis
    Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect resulting to an abnormally developed brain and misshapen head. [read more]

  • Synovial Osteochondromatosis
    Synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a rare disease that creates a harmless change or proliferation in the synovium or joint lining tissue which changes to form bone forming cartilage. Typically there is only one joint affected, mostly either the knee, hip, or elbow. [read more]

  • Synovitis
    Synovitis is the medical term for inflammation of a synovial membrane, which line the joints which possess cavities, called synovial joints. The condition is typically painful, particularly when the joint is moved. The joint usually swells because of fluid collection. [read more]

  • Syringobulbia
    Syringobulbia is a neurological disorder marked by a fluid-filled cavity (syrinx) within the spinal cord that extends to involve the brainstem (medulla). It typically occurs as a slit-like gap within the lower brainstem that may affect one or more of the cranial nerves, causing facial palsies of various kinds. Additionally, sensory and motor nerve pathways may be affected by compression and/or interruption. This disorder is closely associated with syringomyelia, in which the syrinx is limited to the spinal cord, and to the Chiari I malformation. [read more]

  • Syringomas
    Syringomas are harmless adnexal tumors derived from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat ducts. Generally, they present as soft, flesh-colored to slightly yellow dermal papules on the lower eyelids of healthy individuals. [read more]

  • Syringomyelia
    Syringomyelia (SM) is a disorder in which a cyst develops within the spinal cord. This cyst, known as a syrinx, expands and elongates over time, destroying the center of the cord. [read more]

  • Systemic Mastocytosis
    Systemic mastocytosis, often called systemic mast cell disease (SMCD), is marked by mast cell infiltration of extracutaneous organs, which is in contrast to cutaneous mast cell disorders, which involve only the skin. [read more]

  • Tailbone Pain
    Tailbone pain, also known as coccydynia, refers to the inflammation of the coccyx, the bone located in between the buttocks. [read more]

  • Takayasu's Arteritis
    Takayasu's arteritis is categorized as a rather uncommon form of vasculitis. It features a spectrum of conditions that is characterized by an inflammation of the blood vessels. Takayasu's arteritis causes damage to the large arteries particularly the aorta, the principal blood vessel that is responsible for carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the organs in the body. [read more]

  • Talipes Equinovarus
    A clubfoot, or talipes equinovarus (TEV), is a birth defect wherein the foot is twisted in (inverted) and down. [read more]

  • Tangier Disease
    Tangier disease is a rare inherited disorder marked by a severe reduction in the amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol," in the bloodstream. [read more]

  • Tapeworm Infection
    Tapeworm infection is the occurrence of tapeworms that may form into cysts affecting other tissues such as the lungs and liver, or the develop into adult tapeworms inside the intestines. [read more]

  • Tardive Dyskinesia
    Tardive dyskinesia is a symptom caused by the long-term or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics, but also those such as antiemetic metoclopramide. These neuroleptic drugs are typically prescribed for psychiatric disorders. [read more]

  • Tay-Sachs Disease
    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD, also known as GM2 gangliosidosis, Hexosaminidase A deficiency or Sphingolipidosis) is a genetic disorder, fatal in its most common variant known as Infantile Tay-Sachs disease. [read more]

  • Teeth grinding
    Teeth grinding, which is also known as bruxism is the unconscious clenching, grinding, or gnashing of teeth. [read more]

  • TEN
    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a life-threatening dermatological condition that is commonly induced by a reaction to medications. It is marked by the detachment of the top layer of skin (the epidermis) from the lower layers of the skin (the dermis) all over the body. [read more]

  • Testicle, Undescended
    Undescended testicle, also referred to as cryptorchidism, is a condition in which the testes did not completely descend into the scrotum. [read more]

  • Testosterone Deficiency
    Testosterone deficiency or male hypogonadism is the body's insufficient production of the sex hormone testosterone. [read more]

  • Testotoxicosis
    Familial male precocious puberty (also called testotoxicosis) is a form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in which boys experience early onset and progression of puberty. Signs of puberty can start as early as an age of 1 year. [read more]

  • Tethered Spinal Cord
    Tethered Spinal Cord is an uncommon neurological disorder. [read more]

  • Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome
    Tethered spinal cord syndrome otherwise known as the Occult Spinal Dysraphism Sequence is a neurological disorder that is caused by tissue attachments causing preventing movement of spinal cord within the spinal column. [read more]

  • Tetrapelgia
    Tetrapelgia, also known as quadriplegia or spinal cord injury, is the parlysis of most of the body that includes the arms and legs. [read more]

  • Thalassemia
    Thalassemia, also called as Mediterranean Anemia, Cooley's Anemia or Homozygous Beta Thalassemia, is a group of inherited disorders in which there is a fault in the production of hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying pigment found in red blood cells). [read more]

  • Thallium Poisoning
    Thallium Poisoning is a medical condition caused by exposure and ingestion of thallium which is a soft and malleable metal that was usually used to poison rats. [read more]

  • Thiamin Deficiency
    Thiamin Deficiency otherwise known as Beriberi, is a medical condition that refers to the lack of thiamine pyrophospate, which is the active form of vitamin known as Vitamin B-1, which acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism and the formation of glucose. [read more]

  • Throat Cancer
    Throat cancer is a type of carcinoma affecting the pharynx (which connects the mouth and the nasal cavity), vocal cords, and/or the larynx or voice box. [read more]

  • Thrombasthenia
    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an extremely rare disorder of the blood, wherein the platelets lack glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Hence, no fibrinogen bridging can arise, and bleeding time is significantly prolonged. [read more]

  • Thromboembolism
    Thromboembolism is the medical condition whereby there is a formation of clot or thrombos is the blood vessels that breaks loose and carried by bloodstream to plug another vesses in the lungs, brain,gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and leg. [read more]

  • Tic Douloureux
    Tic douloureux or trigeminal neuralgia is a condition in which the trigeminal nerve function is disrupted. Sensation from the face to the brain is carried by the trigeminal nerve. [read more]

  • Tick Paralysis
    Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not due to an infectious organism. The illness is the result of a neurotoxin produced in the tick's salivary gland. After prolonged attachment, the engorged tick releases the toxin to its host. [read more]

  • Tick-borne Encephalitis
    Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral infectious disease concrened with the central nervous system. The disease most often manifests as meningitis (inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or meningoencephalitis (inflammation of both the brain and meninges). Although TBE is most commonly recognized as a neurologic disease, mild febrile illnesses can also arise. [read more]

  • Tietze Syndrome
    Tietze syndrome, also known as costochondritis, is the swelling of the rib cage due to injuries and other underlying diseases that affect the rib cage cartilage. [read more]

  • Tinea
    Tinea otherwise known as Dermatophytes is a fungeal infection that is caused by a group of fungi that usually invades the dead keratin of the skin, hair and nails. It may be spread from person to person or anthropophili animal to person or zoophilic. [read more]

  • Toothache
    Medically, referred to as odontalgia that is experiencing pain in or around a tooth. [read more]

  • Touraine-Solente-Gole Syndrome
    Touraine-Solente-Gol? syndrome is marked by cutis verticis gyrata (corrugated overgrowth of the scalp, or so-called "bull-dog scalp" lesions) also involving the forehead, face, and extremities; clubbing of the digits due to soft tissue hyperplasia; elephantiasis of long bones, enormously large hands and feet; periosteal lesions, fatigability, blepharitis, arthralgia, periosteal overgrowth, and occasionally pulmonary osteoarthropathy. This syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males, though it is more severe in females. It occurs at the time of puberty, up to third decade, with the general health and mental status not affected. It is inherited dominantly with variability of expression. This condition is distinguished from the Brugsch syndrome by the presence of acromegaly. [read more]

  • Toxoplasmosis
    A parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis infects most warm-blooded animals, including humans. This primary host of the disease however is the felid (cat) family. It is estimated that up to one third of the world's population carries a Toxoplasma infection. [read more]

  • Toxoplasmosis Songenital
    Congenital toxoplasmosis is the infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Transient Ischemic Attack
    Transient ischemic attack is a temporary or intermittent neurological event, which serves as a warning of an impending stroke. [read more]

  • Travellers' Diarrhoea
    Travellers' Diarrhoea this is common when travellers visit a place that has poor sanitation. Travellers' Diarrhoea is characterized by elevated frequency of formless bowel movements and is usually comes with abdominal cramps, urgency, vomiting, swelling, fever, and depression. [read more]

  • Treacher Collins Syndrome
    Also known as Franceschetti-Zwahlen-Kleain syndrome or mandibulo facial dysostosis, Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial deformities. Found in 10,000 births, the disease's typical features include downward slanting eyes, a small lower jaw, and malformed or absent ears. [read more]

  • Trichomoniasis
    Sometimes referred to as “trich,” Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trich is primarily an infection of the genitourinary tract. The disease is most common among women and uncircumcised men. [read more]

  • Tricuspid Atresia
    A form of congenital heart disease, Tricuspid atresia is the complete absence of the tricuspid valve, causing the absence of right atrioventricular connection. This disorder is contracted during prenatal development, when the heart does not finish developing. [read more]

  • Trigger Thumb
    Trigger finger or trigger thumb is a stenosing tenosynovitis disorder where the sheath around the tendon in a thumb or finger becomes swollen, or nodules from on the tendon. Though it usually affects the thumb, more than one finger may be affected at a time including the middle finger or ring finger. [read more]

  • Triploid Syndrome
    This disorder is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder. Affected individuals have 3 chromosomes for a total of sixty-nine rather than the normal 46 chromosomes. Unborn children with Triploid syndrome are usually lost through early miscarriage but those who make it survive for as long as five months. [read more]

  • Triploidy
    This disorder is a rare lethal chromosome abnormality caused by the presence of an entire extra set of chromosomes. Unborn children with triploidy has 69 chromosomes rather than 46. Most fetuses are miscarried during pregnancy and those that survive usually have severe growth retardation and multiple birth defects. [read more]

  • Trisomy 21 Syndrome
    Trisomy 21 syndrome is a form of down syndrome, which is caused by the abnormal cell division involving the 21st chromosome during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell. [read more]

  • Tungiasis
    Tungiasis is a skin infestation of the Tunga penetrans flea. The flea is also known as chigoe flea, jigger, nigua, or sand flea and is found in the tropical parts of Africa, Caribean, Central and South America, and India. The disease is endemic in NIgera and Trinidad and Tobago where during the 1980s, tungiasis among children reached 40%. The disease is also rarely found outside said areas. [read more]

  • Turcot Syndrome
    A genetic disease characterized by polyps in the colon in additions to tumors in the brain, Turcot syndrome is the association between familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The first reported case was done by Canadian surgeon Jacques Turcot, hence, the name. Turcot syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner with both parents carrying a Turcot gene and a 1 in 4 risk for each of their boys and girls of receiving both parental Turcot genes and suffering from the syndrome. [read more]

  • Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome
    Also known as Feto-Fetal Transfusion Syndrome, Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a complication with high morbidity and mortality that can affect identical twins or higher multiple pregnancies where two or more fetuses share a common placenta. Severe cases have a 60-100% mortality rate. [read more]

  • Tylenol liver Damage
    Tylenol liver damage is a liver disease brought about by abusive consumption of the drug Tylenol, an effective analgesic and antipyretic medication used to treat headache and fever. [read more]

  • Tyrosinemia
    Tyrosinemia is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is a building block of most proteins. There are three types of tyrosinemia namely Type I, Type II, and Type III. [read more]

  • UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
    A genetic metabolic disorder, Galactosemia affects an individual's ability to properly metabolize the sugar galactose. In 1917, Goppert first described the disease, citing a defect in galactose metabolism that was identified by a groups led by Herman Kalckar in 1956. The disease's incidence is about 1 per 47,000 births (classic type) and is much rarer in Japan and much more common in Italy, particularly the traveler region. The disease is also very common within the Irish Traveler population. This is credited to consanguinity within a relatively small gene pool. [read more]

  • Ulcer, Duodenal
    Duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the first part of the small intestine. [read more]

  • Ulcer, Gastric
    Gastric ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that occurs in the stomach. [read more]

  • Ulcer, Pressure
    Pressure ulcer or bedsores are the areas of damaged skin and tissue due to sustained pressure. [read more]

  • Ulcer, Stomach
    Stomach ulcer or gastric ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that occurs in the stomach. [read more]

  • Ulcerative Colitis
    Ulcerative colitis or colitis ulcerosa is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large intestine and rectum. A systemic disease affects many parts of the body outside the intestine, it is often confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). [read more]

  • Upington Disease
    An extremely rare malformation disorder, Upington disease only has one published source that claims its existence in three generations from South Africa. It is characterized by pelvic anomalies and multiple bone tumors. [read more]

  • Ureter Cancer
    Ureter Cancer or the Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter is a cancer that grows in the urinary system that is either on the kidney which is responsible for collecting urine or the pelvis which empties the urine into a tube called the ureter that leads to the bladder. [read more]

  • Urethral Stricture
    Urethral stricture is a medical condition where there is an abnormal narrowing of the urethra which is responsible for releasing the urine in the body. [read more]

  • Urethritis
    Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra that manifest through the painful and often difficult urination. [read more]

  • Urge Incontinence
    Urge incontinence is the condition in which an individual involuntarily losses his or her urine. [read more]

  • Urinary Calculi
    Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid, crystal aggregations of dissolved minerals in urine. They typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis refer to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively. [read more]

  • Urinary System Cancer
    Urinary System Cancer is a the cancer that affects the urinary system that is consist of the ureter, bladder and kidneys which regulates the water and chemical balance in the body. [read more]

  • Urinary Tract Infection
    UTI is a bacterial infection that greatly affects any part of the urinary tract. The most common kind of UTI is called cystitis which is a bladder infection and pyelonephritis which is a kidney infection. [read more]

  • Urinary Tract Infection
    A urinary tract infection or UTI is categorized as an infection that primarily affects the urinary system. This infection is basically limited to the bladders and can be very painful an annoying. Complications may occur when the infection will spread to the kidneys. Women are known to be more at risk of urinary tract infection than men. [read more]

  • Urine Retention
    Urine Retention otherwise known as the Ischuria is the medical condition that refers to the person's inability to urinate. [read more]

  • Urogenital Adysplasia
    Urogenital adysplasia syndrome or renal agenesis is a rare disorder characterized by anomalies of the kidneys, urinary tract, and/or reproductive system. [read more]

  • Uterine Cancer
    Uterine cancer is a most common form of carcinoma that begins in the endometrium or the lining of the uterus. Also called endometrial cancer, this type of cancer typically appears after the reproductive years, mostly in the sixth or seventh decade of life. [read more]

  • Uterus Didelphys
    Uterus didelphys is medical anomaly where the two tubes of the uterus do not join completely and develops into two separate cavities. This is also known as double uterus, which each uterus having its own cervix and a divided or double vagina. This condition has been known to be quite rare and may not even be diagnosed at times. [read more]

  • Vaginal Discharge
    Vaginal discharge, also known as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation of the female genital tract. It is a result of various sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea. [read more]

  • Vaginitis
    Vaginitis is the swelling of the vagina, which is the female genital, that can lead to discharge, pain and itching. There are common types of vaginitis which are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infection, trichomoniasis and atrophic vaginitis. [read more]

  • Van Goethem Syndrome
    Van Goethem syndrome is a birth defect that is also called radiodigitofacial dysplasia. [read more]

  • Varicose Veins
    Varicose veins looks like gnarled, enlarged veins. The veins that are usually affected are those found in the legs and feet. For other people pain and discomfort can be felt. Varicose veins can also indicate other disorders especially in the circulatory system. [read more]

  • Vasovagal Attack
    Vasovagal Attack otherwise known as the vasovagal reaction, is medical term used to described the reflex of the involuntary system that usually results into the slow down of the heart and the dilating of the vessels which caused the lessening of the oxygen supply in the brain. [read more]

  • Vater Association
    Vater Syndrome, sometimes called Vacterl Association, refers to the non-random association ofv ertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, renal and/or radial anomalies and Preaxial limb anomalies (Weaver, David and Brandt, Ira (1999). Catalog of Prenatally Diagnosed Codition, JHU Press, pp. 248). More specifically , it refers to the abnormalities in structures deduce from the embryonic mesoderm. [read more]

  • Velocardiofacial Syndrome
    Velocardiofacial Syndrome, otherwise known as the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, DiGeorge Syndrome Strong Syndrome, is a disease or a condition that is characterized by the deletion of a chromosome that occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location named or designated as q11.2 It usually one of the causes which causes hypemasality, language delays and speech sound errors (D'Antonio LL, Scherer NJ, Miller LL, Kalbfleisch JH, Bartley JA (2001). "Analysis of speech characteristics in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and children with phenotypic overlap without VCFS". Cleft Palate Craniofac. J. 38 (5): 455-67). [read more]

  • Venereal Warts
    Venereal warts is more commonly known as warts in the genitals is categorized as one of the most common types of sexually transmitted diseases. As its name suggests, this disease primarily affects the moist tissues found in the genitals. While these warts can be treated with medications and surgery, it poses a health risk that should be treated seriously. [read more]

  • Ventricular Fibrillation, Idiopathic
    Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation or V-fiB or VF, for brevity, is a term which is most frequently used to describe the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation in the intact heart (Aliot, E., Clement, J., Prystowsky, E. (2008). Fighting Sudden Cardiac Death: A World Wide Challenge, Blackwell Publishing, p.240). It is characterized by the uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles located in the heart. It usually causes cessation of blood circulation which eventually leads to death. [read more]

  • Ventricular Septal Defect
    Ventricular septal defect or VSD for brevity is a defect in the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart called the ventricular septum which consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion which is close to the atrioventricular node, It is the most common congenital heart defects in adults and older children (Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. (2002) The Incidence of congenital heart disease, p 39). [read more]

  • Vesicoureteral Reflux
    Vesicoureteral Reflux or VUR for brevity is the medical term that is characterized by the retrograde flow of the urine from the bladder to the kidneys. [read more]

  • Vestibular Neuronitis
    Vestibular Neuronitis sometimes referred to as the vestibular neuropathy, is a medical condition characterized by an acute and sustained dysfunctioning of the peripheral vestibular system accompanied by nausea and vertigo. [read more]

  • Vibrio Vulnificus
    Vibrio Vulnificus is a gram negative bacteria, most commonly rod shaped, belongs to the genus vibrio which usually present in estuaries and coastal areas and is commonly associated with the vibrio cholera which causes cholera. [read more]

  • Vincent's Stomatitis
    Vincent's stomatitis is more commonly known as Trench mouth, which has been known to be quite prevalent among soldiers who were are stuck during the World War I in the trenches. This is caused by a severe form of gingitivis caused by poor living conditions and poor nutrition. [read more]

  • Viral Exanthem
    Viral exanthem is also called non-specific viral rash. This is a type rash which is caused by infection due to virus. There are, however, many viruse that causes similar rashes making it difficult to distinguish it from another. [read more]

  • Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
    Viral haemorrhagic fevers is actually categorized as a group of illnesses that are primary caused by a number of highly distinct virus families that includes filoviruses, arenaviruses, , flaviviruses and bunyaviruses. Some of these virus may cause some relatively mild illnesses, while others can result to life-threatening diseases. [read more]

  • Viral Hepatitis
    Viral Hepatitis is the medical condition that is characterized by the inflammation of the liver caused by viruses such as the cytomegalovirus. [read more]

  • Vitamin A Deficiency
    In developing countries Vitamin A deficiency is common and often seen in developed countries. This deficiency contributes to blindness because it can make the cornea very dry and destroying the retina and cornea. Pregnant women are at risk because there is a high possibility that they acquire this deficiency. [read more]

  • Vitiligo
    Vitiligo is a rare skin condition characterized by the loss by color pigmentation of the areas of skin resulting to an irregular white patching. It is associated with systematic diseases like the Pernicous anemia, hyperthyroidism and Addison's disease. [read more]

  • VKH
    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome or Uveodematologic Syndrome or just VKH for brevity, is an immune-mediated disease. It is a rare condition which may affect both dogs and human and involves melanocyte-containing organ, which is characterized by the inflammation of the inside of the eye or the uveitus, occurrence of poliosis or the whitening of the hair, vitiligo or the loss of the pigmentation of the skin and even meningitis. The mechanism of the disease is said to be the T helper cell mediated autoimmune attack of melanocytes in the skin and uvea and in the central nervous system and inner ear of human (Sigle K, McLellan G, Haynes J, Myers R, Betts D (2006). "Unilateral uveitis in a dog with uveodermatologic syndrome". J Am Vet Med Assoc 228 (4): 543-8). [read more]

  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
    Von Hippel-Lindau disease or VHL for brevity is a rare genetic condition which usually involves the unusual and abnormal growth of tumors in different parts of the body which is usually rich in blood supply. [read more]

  • Vulvodynia
    Vulvodynia is a medical condition which refers to the disorder which causes vulvar pain and discomfort. [read more]

  • WAGR Syndrome
    WAGR syndrome otherwise known as the WAGR complex, Wilms tumor-aniridia syndrome, aniridia-Wilms tumor syndrome, is a genetic disorder which affect children and made them to developed Wilms tumor, Aniridi, Genitourinary disorders and mental retardation. (Fischbach BV, Trout KL, Lewis J, Luis CA, Sika M (2005). "WAGR syndrome: a clinical review of 54 cases". Pediatrics 116 (4): 984-8). [read more]

  • Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
    Waldenstr?m macroglobulinemia , WM for brevity, is a type cancer disease which involves the lymphocytes or the subtype of white blood cells. It is usually a type of lymphoproliferative disease, and is often said to share the same characteristics with the non-Hodgkin Lymphomas ( Cheson BD (2006). "Chronic Lymphoid Leukemias and Plasma Cell Disorders", in Dale DD, Federman DD: ACP Medicine. New York, NY: WebMD Professional Publishing). [read more]

  • Wallis Zief Goldblatt Syndrome
    Wallis Zieff Goldblatt syndrome otherwise known as the cleidorhizomelic syndrome is a medical condition which can be described as an inherited skeletal disorders which is manifest mainly through the rhizomelic short stature and defects in the lateral clavicular of the person affected (Wallis C, Zieff S, Goldblatt J (1988). "Newly recognized autosomal dominant syndrome of rhizomelic shortness with clavicular defect". Am J Med Genet 31 (4): 881-5). [read more]

  • Water Intoxication
    Water intoxication is also referred to as hyperhydration or simply water poisoning. It is the potential disturbance of the brain function where in normal balance of electrolytes is forced outside of safe limits by water. It is also the extreme retention of water with sodium reduction. [read more]

  • Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, WFS for brevity is usually bilateral and massive, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia (Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N (2005). Robins and Coltran: Pathological Basis of Disease, 7th, Elsevier, pp. 1214–5) [read more]

  • Watermelon Stomach
    Watermelon Stomach or the Gastric antral vascular ectasia, GAVE for brevity, is a condition where there is improper function especially in the antrum or the last part of the stomach. It is a rare condition which is cause by the chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. [read more]

  • Weissenbacher Zweymuller Syndrome
    Weissenbacher Zweymuller Syndrome is a genetic disorder where there is abnormalities in the skeletal system of the person. [read more]

  • Werdnig-Hoffman Disease
    Werdnigg-Hoffman Disease otherwise known as the Sever Infantile Spinal Muscular Atropy or simply Spinal Muscular Atropy Type I is an sutosomal recessive condition that presents either neonatally as floppy baby or with progressive weakness and wating within the first year of life owing to widespread lower motor neuron degeneration (Souhami, R. and Maxham,J. (2002) Textbook on Medicine, p 1391). [read more]

  • Wernicke's Encephalopathy
    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a medical condition that is caused thiamine or vitamin B-1 deficiency. [read more]

  • West Syndrome
    West Syndrome also known as the “Infantile Spasms” is a rare form of epilepsy in infants. The syndrome is related to the age of the person and usually occur in the 3rd and 12th month especially the 5th month of the infant. [read more]

  • Whipworm
    Whipworm is a roundworm that looks like a whips with wider handles, that affects the human large intestine. [read more]

  • Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
    Whooping Cough otherwise known as the Pertussis is a higly contagious diseased that is said to be caused by a bacteria named Bordetella Pertussis. The disease is often described as the whooping which is generally on high-pitched that usually occur in the case of infected babies and children only (Finger H, von Koenig CHW (1996). Bordetella-Clinical Manifestations. In:Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al. Eds.) 4th., Univ of Texas Medical Branch). [read more]

  • Willebrand Disease, Acquired
    Acquired Willebrand disease otherwise known as the Von Willebrand disease is the a hereditary coagulation abnormality which arises from a quantitative or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor which is a multimeric protein that is usually required for platelet adhesion. [read more]

  • Wilms Tumor-Aniridia Syndrome
    Wilms tumor-aniridia syndrome otherwise known as the WAGR complex, aniridia-Wilms tumor syndrome, is a genetic disorder which affect children and made them to developed Wilms tumor, Aniridi, Genitourinary disorders and mental retardation. (Fischbach BV, Trout KL, Lewis J, Luis CA, Sika M (2005). "WAGR syndrome: a clinical review of 54 cases". Pediatrics 116 (4): 984-8). [read more]

  • Wilms' Tumor
    Wilms' tumor otherwise known as the nephroblastoma, is a tumor which often leads to cancer of the kidneys that more frequently occurs in children. It is frequently detected to children between the ages of two and three and often manifests as a lump in the abdomen. [read more]

  • Woodhouse Sakati Syndrome
    Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome is an unusual autosomal recessive genetic disorder which results to the malformation and deficiencies affecting the endocrine system (Woodhouse NJ, Sakati NA (1983). "A syndrome of hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, deafness, and ECG abnormalities". J. Med. Genet. 20 (3): 216-9). [read more]

  • Worms
    Worms are parasites that may thrive inside the human gastrointestinal tract. In this condition worms eat up the nutrients of their host causing weakness and malnutrition and sometimes, death. [read more]

  • Worms In Children
    Worms in children are an infestation of certain worms on children's gastrointestinal tract. These worms can be ingested through eating contaminated food as well as playing games on the ground with only bare feet. [read more]

  • Wrinkles
    Wrinkles are natural signs of aging and are largely considered a cosmetic problem and not a serious medical condition. As a person ages, the skin gradually loses its elasticity, creating fine lines and creases on the skin. There are a number of medications and skin resurfacing techniques available today to help people retain their youthful skin. [read more]

  • X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita
    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita genetic disorder where it involves the endocrine tissues particularly the adrenal glands. It is usually manifests by adrenal insufficiency where there is reduction of the adrenal gland function which causes incomplete development of the adrenal cortex or the outer layer of the gland. It usually affects male thus, the symptoms includes manifestation of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism which are shown through the less and even lack of sex hormones which causes undeveloped reproductive tissues and cyptorchidism or the undescended testicles and infertility. In women, this disorder is rare but symptoms includes insufficiency of sex hormones and amenorrhea or lack of mentruation. It is said to be caused by the mutation and deletion of the NRRoB1 located at the X chromosome Xp21.3-p21.3 which are responsible for giving DAX1 or the transcription factor protein which controls the activity of certain genes. [read more]

  • X-Linked Ichthyosis
    X-linked ichthyosis is a heriditary skin condition which is due to the deficiency of the steroid sulfatase. During prenatal, the X-linked ichthyosis is a condition that affects the placental oestrogen production inasmuch as the steroids from the male fetus are not fully utilize because of the difficulty in the removal of the sulfate group. People with this kind of disorder has low estriol levels and results in to the inability to go into spontaneous labor. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Variant Type
    Variant type Xeroderma pigmentosum or XPV for brevity, is a complementary group of the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum whereby the gene involved is the POLH located at the 6p21.1-p12. Usually person who has Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant type suffer from mutation of the gene that codes particular DNA polymerase named as the polymerase-? (eta) which are used when cells goes to a S-phase where there is a damage in the DNA. [read more]

  • XY Female
    XY Female otherwise known as the Swyer syndrome or the XY gonadal dysgenesis is a form of female hypogonadism where there is no functional gonads in a woman to start off her puberty as compare to a normal woman where her karyotype is an XY. The gonads of the woman who suffer this syndrome has no functional streaks. Treatment includes undergoing estrogen and progesterone therapy and the removal of the gonads inasmuch as it may turn to be a cancer in the end. [read more]

  • Yips
    Yips are characterized as a sudden and involuntary jerk or tremor that affects the wrists and hands. This condition is more commonly found among golfers and can interrupt a putting stroke. In some cases, yips can be associated with a neurological dysfunction that affects certain muscle groups. [read more]

  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
    It is an uncommon disease that results from a tumor referred to as gastrinoma which often occurs in the pancreas. The tumor then extracts the hormone that causes gastrin which in turn results to elevated growth of gastric acid which leads to extreme recurring ulcers of the esophagus, stomach and the upper portions of the small intestine. [read more]

  • Zygomycosis
    Zygomycosis is a medical condition characterized by infection that is said to be caused by the fungi of the orders Mucorales and Entomophthorales. [read more]

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