ILLNESSOPEDIA

Free Online Database Of Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments

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1050 results found for "gro"



  • 11 Beta Hydroxylase Deficiency
    It is important to understand what congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is before the nature of 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency can be fully explained. CAH refers to any one of the many autosomal recessive illnesses that result from flaws in cortisol synthesis steps done by the adrenal glands. All of the types of CAH have either overproduction or malfunctioning of sex steroids. 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency is just one of the types of CAH and is a result of mutation in the gene called CYP11B1. This type is next only to 21-hydroxylase deficiency when it comes to its prevalence, comprising only 5-8% of the entire number of cases. [read more]

  • 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    The hormones estrogen and androgen play critical roles in the development of sexual organs. 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozyme (17?-HSD) acts as a catalyst between the biologically inactive and active types of hormones. Any deviation from this normal process results into various abnormal conditions. [read more]

  • 21 hydroxylase deficiency
    21-hydroxylase deficiency is also called as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and is a disorder that is often inherited. This disorder affects the adrenal glands which are located above the kidneys and these glands produce hormones that are responsible for regulating many important human body functions. The two hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are produced by an enzyme called the 21-hydroxylase. Patients that have 21-hydroxylase deficiency lack the 21-hydroxylase enzyme which then affects the cholesterol conversion to aldosterone and cortisol. When the precursors of these two hormones are stored excessively in the adrenal glands, they are changed into androgens (which are male sex hormones). Whether the patient is male or female, growth development could be hampered because of this deficiency. [read more]

  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, rare (NIH)
    The disorder known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by the deficiency or deletion of a tiny piece of chromosome 22. This deletion happens near the midsection of a chromosome located at q 11.2. [read more]

  • 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3B HSD) is a very rare disorder of the genes involving steroid biosynthesis. This deficiency results into the decrease on the production of adrenal steroid groups which are inclusive of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and the sex steroids. A decrease on the secretion of mineralocorticoid would result into various salt wasting degrees in males and females. And for the 46 XY males, a deficiency in androgen would result into ambiguous genitals (the females are seen with enlarged clitoris). [read more]

  • 3-methyl glutaconic aciduria
    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria also known as MGA is a term that is used to depict at least 5 varying disorders which makes the body incapable of creating mitochondrial energy. Due to this impairment, 3-methylglutaric acid and 3-methylglutaconic acid create a buildup and their presence can be detected in the patient's urine. 3-Methylglutaconic acid, by classification, is an organic acid. The potency of this acid is made possible by the roles of the double carboxylic acids. The acid function makes the 3-methylglutaconic acid detectable. [read more]

  • 3C Syndrome
    3C syndrome is also known as cranio-cerebello cardiac (CCC dysplasia) or Ritscher-Schinzel (named after Ritscher and Schinzel who discovered the illness) and is a very rare case of disease. This syndrome is characterized by heart defects or heart malformations and other symptoms that involve the brain. As of 2006, a Kuwaiti medical journal showed that only 30 cases have been reported worldwide and these cases were discovered in Europe and North America. Due to the limited number of cases reported, this disease was classified as a rare type of illness. The molecular basis for this syndrome is still unknown. [read more]

  • 3M Syndrome
    3M syndrome is known by many names. It can also be called as Three M syndrome or dolicospondylic dysplasia; le Merrer syndrome or gloomy syndrome (because prevalent symptoms show malformities on the patients' faces). This is a very rare illness where only 32 patients have been reported to have acquired it. Its name originated from the names of the authors who first described the characteristics of the illness. The authors' names were Miller, J.D., Malvaux P. and the third is McKusick, V.A. No mental retardation has been mentioned as a result of 3M. This disorder is known as an autosomal recessive trait of the genes and can be inherited. [read more]

  • 46,xx gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid
    46 Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid can be best described as a female in her adolescent period that experiences no changes even during this age of puberty. This is because this disorder is a type of female hypogonadism. When this disorder is acquired, the ovaries do not develop and function to perform their duties. With this type of disorder, female patients experience a deficiency in their supply of estrogen while the LH and FSH levels are at their peak. It is advisable to give the patient hormonal treatments such as the introduction of estrogen and progesterone to the body. [read more]

  • 47 XXY Syndrome
    47 XXY syndrome is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome, or simply, the XXY syndrome. Chromosome aneuploidy causes the occurrence of this condition. The male patients develop an extra X chromosome. Typically, males should have one each of the X and the Y chromosomes. Patients who suffer from this condition have smaller testicles when compared to their normal male counterparts and thus, they acquire problems on infertility. There are very few symptoms to this syndrome and the cases vary among boys and men. The term for this illness was named after an endocrinologist, Harry Klinefelter. 1942 was the year when he first described the XXY syndrome. The patients who suffer with XXY syndrome are called XXY males or 47,XXY males. [read more]

  • 47 XYY Syndrome
    The XYY syndrome should never be interchanged with the XXY syndrome which is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome. XYY syndrome is a condition when a male patient acquires an extra Y chromosome in addition to the normal one X and one Y chromosomes. It is often argued whether the term ‘syndrome' should be used in connection to the XYY condition since the patients' phenotypes are normal and they do not have knowledge of their karyotype. [read more]

  • 48,XXXX Syndrome
    48 XXXX syndrome is a very rare disorder of the chromosomes where the normal XX combination becomes a quadruple X grouping. This condition is also called tetrasomy X, 48, XXXX or quadruple X and is only seen among females as there is no Y chromosome involved. The first occurrence of this disorder was discovered in 1961 and since then, there are about 100 reported cases globally. [read more]

  • 48,XXYY Syndrome
    Previously known to be a variant or type of the Klinefelter's syndrome, this condition is an anomaly of the sex chromosome. The features usually include gynecomastia (having enlarged male breasts), ulcers of the skin, deformed craniofacial features, and being unusually tall. It is also believed to affect 1 in every 17,000 male babies that are born. XXYY is just one of the many variations of chromosomal defects which include the following: 47 xxy, xy, xxxxy, and xxxy; also the xyy. These syndromes affect males whereas female counterparts include the Turner syndrome and other varieties with added X chromosomes. [read more]

  • 49 XXXXX Syndrome
    The 49 XXXXX syndrome (also called as Penta X or pentasomy X) is a chromosomal condition that affects females. In a normal setup, females have only two X chromosomes and anything beyond this is abnormal. In the case of Penta X syndrome, there are an additional three X chromosomes which now totals five. The three additional X chromosomes are the ones that cause multiple problems. These extra X chromosomes are formed together with the two healthy chromosomes inside the nucleus of the human body cells. [read more]

  • Aarskog Ose Pande Syndrome
    Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is a rare type of medical disorder where the main symptoms include lipodystrophy on the buttocks and face. Since this is an adipose tissue defect, the loss of body fat in the body could get severe and this state could progress extensively. There are three kinds of lipodystrophy: localized lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and total lipodystrophy. One other symptom is Rieger anomaly. This anomaly is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of teeth (it could also mean the delay of tooth eruption) and some abnormalities of the eyes and face. Having sparse hair is also a common sign. This does not only mean hair on one's head but also body hairs. Other defects include retardation of bone age and abnormal motion of the joints (which could eventually lead to dislocation). This syndrome could begin to affect the patient as early as the fetal stage. It could ruin the growth of the fetus in the uterus by slowing its development. When this happens, many other systems are affected. Development of the patient's skills on speech could also be delayed when this disorder is acquired. This and all other symptoms are similar to characteristics of many other diseases that is why the physician should perform a thorough checkup of the patient to be able to diagnose the real condition. Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is also considered as a variant of Short syndrome. This symptom does not only mean having a short stature but also having low weight at birth and fat losses on the skin. [read more]

  • Aarskog Syndrome
    Aarskog syndrome is an inherited disorder that is often characterized by abnormalities of the face, short stature, genital abnormalities and mucoloskeletal anomalies. [read more]

  • Aase Smith syndrome (or Aase syndrome)
    Aase Smith syndrome also known as Aase syndrome is a very rare disorder that can be inherited. It is often characterized by skeletal and joint defects. Aase syndrome is known as an autosomal dominant condition. The genetic origin of the illness is still not known. Anemia which results from this syndrome is often caused by the underdevelopment of bone marrows. These bone marrows are where formation of blood cells takes place. The syndrome was named after two pediatricians who were David Weyhe Smith and Jon Morton Aase. [read more]

  • Aase Syndrome
    Aase syndrome is a rare congenital defect characterized by anemia accompanied with certain skeletal deformities. [read more]

  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be diagnosed on anyone but the most viable candidates are men aged over 60. Couple this range of age with some of the common risk factors and the patient is on his way to developing this condition. This disorder happens when a blood vessel enlarges abnormally or causes a protrusion. The abdominal aorta, which is a huge blood vessel, is the one responsible in supplying blood to the abdomen, the legs and the pelvic area. When this abdominal aortic aneurysm raptures, is truly becomes life-threatening and should be attended to immediately. [read more]

  • Aberrant subclavian artery
    Aberrant subclavian artery is also known as the aberrant subclavian artery syndrome. This condition is a rare anatomical variety of the source of the left or the right subclavian artery. This abnormality has the most number of cases when it comes to the anomaly of inborn vascular aortic arch. The aberrant artery commonly occurs just distal on the left portion of the subclavian artery. It then passes later to the mediastinum when it is on its way to the upper right extremities. This course may be the root cause of a vascular ring about the mediastinal makeup. [read more]

  • Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome or AMS is a very uncommon genetic disorder that can be inherited. This syndrome is characterized by various physical defects which usually affect areas of the face, fingers, skin, and the genitalia (penis symptoms and some defects on the testes). Patients of AMS could also have other malformations on their abdominal walls or on their nipples. Other traits include having underdeveloped eyelids (or Ablepharon); the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes; mouths that look like that of a fish's (also known as Macrostomia); cracked skin; ears that appear to be low-set (also known as pinnae). The eye defects could appear due to ablepharon. Some people with AMS could also have very thin or sparse hair (alopecia); their skin appears to be wrinkled, dry, coarse, or thick; their fingers could also be webbed and with inadequate extension; the genitalia could have external malformations. In very few cases of Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome, the patient could have little or no nipples at all (having small nipples is known as hypoplastic nipples). One of the worst characteristics could be the protrusion of some parts of the large intestine through a dilated portion of the abdominal wall (this condition is called ventral or abdominal hernia). Infants and children who suffer from AMS may have some delays on the development of their language skills. Some of them may manifest signs of mild retardation of the mind while others may grow up to be normal. A disorder that appears to have the same features as Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is the Barber-say syndrome. The latter is characterized by laxity of the skin; ablepharon; hypertelorism, macrostomia, telecanthus, acute hirsutism, and helix agenesis of the pair of ears. Less common signs of AMS include undescended testes and hernia on the umbilicus. [read more]

  • Acanthocheilonemiasis
    Acanthocheilonemiasis is an uncommon tropical infectious illness which is caused by Acanthocheilonema perstans, a parasite. This parasite causes rashes of the skin, chest and abdominal pains, joint and muscle pains, lumps on the skin and also neurologic defects. This disease is often transmitted when small flies bite the victim and the bite has the parasite with it. The scientific name of the fly that transmits the ‘infectious bite' is A.Coliroides. Studies manifest that the white blood cell levels at elevated when the parasite is present in the human body. Acanthocheilonemiasis belongs to the parasitic diseases group which is called nematode or filarial diseases. This disease is often found in Africa only because the parasite is found abundantly on this region. Uganda, specifically, has had a lot of reported cases. A handful of patients were found in South America. Other names for this disease are Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans, Dipetalonema perstans, Mansonella perstans, and Dipetalonemiasis. [read more]

  • Acanthosis nigricans
    Acanthosis Nigricans is a dermatological condition where the skin appears to be brown to black in color. It also appears to be poorly defined, often velvety and is considered to be a state of hyperpigmentation. This is usually present in the lateral and posterior folds of the groin, the neck, the axilla, the umbilicus, and also some other areas. The changes on the skin's pigment are the sole signs of acanthosis nigricans. It can be noticed that it appears very slowly (sometimes it can take months or years). It is very rare that the affected areas may itch. This condition can begin at any age but it is more evident among darker-skinned individuals. [read more]

  • Acanthotic Nevus
    Acanthotic nevus is an alternate name for seborrheic keratosis. It is a rare skin disease that consists of discolored lesions that appear to be oily. Since these lesions seem to be stuck on the epidermis, they are sometimes mistaken for cancerous growths. Acanthotic nevus develops usually on people who are above the age of 40. Among the symptoms of this disease is itching, swelling of lesions as well as irritability. Surgical treatment may be needed to remove the lesions. [read more]

  • Achard-Thiers syndrome
    The Achard Thiers syndrome, also called the Diabetic Bearded Woman syndrome or diabete des femmes a barbe, is a rare disease which occurs commonly among women who are in their postmenopausal stage. Its name was derived from the combination of the names of Joseph Thiers and Emile Achard. This is characterized by insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (an example is glucosuria) and also indications of excess in androgen. This syndrome has the combined features of Cushing syndrome and Adrenogenital syndrome. It is a form of virilizing disease which is adrenocortical in origin. And since androgen is excessive on this disease, the common manifestations are masculinization (the voice pitch is lowered) and menstrual disorders (the menstrual flow can be sparse or non-existent). There are also cases of growth of ‘manly hair' all over the body. The most common complication of this disorder is hirsutism. [read more]

  • Achilles Tendinitis
    Achilles Tendinitis is inflammation ans irritation of the Achilles tendon usually resulting due to sudden increase in the intensity or frequency of exercise. [read more]

  • Achondroplasia
    Achondroplasia is a kind of autosomal disorder of the dominant genes which commonly causes dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs are short in stature and their average height when they reach adulthood is at 123 centimeters (about 4 feet and 0.6 inches) for females and 131 centimeters (about 4 feet and 3.8 inches) for males. [read more]

  • Achondroplastic Dwarfism
    Achondroplastic Dwarfism is a medical condition characterized by the occurrence of the disturbance of the growth of the bones. [read more]

  • Acid maltase deficiency
    Acid maltase deficiency or AMD is a type of autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by an extreme buildup of glycogen contained by vacuoles (in almost all cell types) that are lysosome-derived. Quantities of free extralysosomal glycogen that are in excess have also been depicted. AMD was first observed and described by JC Pompe in 1932 at Amsterdam. He reported a case of a baby girl, aged 7 months, who became chronically ill from what they believed to be pneumonia. The autopsy that was done later showed an uncommonly engorged heart but with normal valves. This condition was called cardiomegalia glycogenica diffusa by Pompe. He considered it as a disorder that is analogous to the von Gierke syndrome. This very first article was soon followed by reports that seemed similar. The two other authors described the children as afflicted with cardiomegaly and acute muscle weakness. They died in their early infancy. Their disease was linked to an excess in the deposition of glycogen in numerous tissues. This disorder was then named the Pompe disease and by the year 1957, it was typified as type 2 glycogenosis by GT Cori. [read more]

  • Acinetobacter Infection
    Acinetobacter refers to a particular group of bacteria that is commonly found in soil as well as in water. It can also thrive in the healthy skins of people, especially among healthcare personnel, causing all types of diseases. The acinetobacter infection is mostly contracted inside a healthcare facility. [read more]

  • Acne Keloidalis Nuchae
    Acne keloidalis nuchae typically develops and affects the back of the head as well as the nape. This is caused by the hairs that grow into skin causing an inflammation and scarring. This condition has been found to be most common among people with curly and stiff hairs. [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma also known as a vestibular schwannoma is a primary intracranial tumor that is benign. This is a tumor of the cells that form myelin of the CN VIII or vestibulocochlear nerve. Neuroma is a derivation of a Greek word which means ‘tumor of the nerve'. The name ‘acoustic' is a misnomer because the tumor hardly occurs from the cochlear or acoustic part of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The precise medical name is vestibular schwannoma. This is because it engages the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve and it occurs from schwann cells (the cells that are responsible for the peripheral nervous system myelin sheath). [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma is a medical condition that is characterized by the growth of a tumor that usually develops in nerves near the ear. is a benign, usually slow-growing tumor that develops from certain nerves in the inner ear. No one knows exactly what causes acoustic neuroma. As an acoustic neuroma develops, it presses against the nerves related to balance and hearing, causing early symptoms such as: one-sided or high-tone hearing loss, ringing in the ear, dizziness, and problems with balance. Once a diagnosis of acustic neuroma is made, the doctor can describe the available treatment options. [read more]

  • Acquired Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis is an inherited disorder of the skin. This disorder is an extreme type of ichthyosis which can afflict both sexes all over the world. When this disease is acquired because of a causal disorder, although, it is very rare; it is still not known how this occurs. But there are studies that claim that it can result from mutations of the genes. The mutated genes can be passed from one generation onto the next. The mutation is believed to cause the abnormality in the skin's standard lifecycle. Normal people shed dead skin cells unnoticed but patients of ichthyosis produce new cells of the skin at a rate where their rate of shedding could not cope. This way, there is a dead skin cell buildup and the patient's skin would then appear to be dry or scaly. Acquired ichthyosis often occurs in adulthood. It could occur before or after a systemic condition diagnosis. [read more]

  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome also termed as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a compilation infections and symptoms that result from a specific damage to an individual's immune system. This is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (or HIV) and other similar viruses such as SIV or FIV. The late phase of HIV and AIDS exist to slow down the viral progression. Currently, there is still no cure for this illness. AIDS can be transmitted through direct contacts of the bloodstream or of a mucous membrane with any of the body fluids such as semen, blood, vaginal fluid, breast milk, or preseminal fluid. The modes of transmission could be sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, oral sex, anal sex, or a contact with hypodermic needles that are contaminated with the virus. Another unfortunate means of getting the virus is the exchange of fluids between the baby and its mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Acrochordon
    Small growths of skin that develop in some people on the neck, face, groin and armpits are called skin tags or acrochordons. These skin tags do not become cancerous or malignant since they are harmless. [read more]

  • Acrodysostosis
    Acrodysostosis also known as acrodysplasia, Arkless-Graham, or Maroteaux-Malamut is defined as a very rare inborn skeletal illness which is marked by defects on the bones of feet, hands, and the nose. Retardation of the patient's learning and mental development is a common occurrence. [read more]

  • Acrodysplasia
    Acrodysplasia or acrocephalosyndactyly is an uncommon medical condition which is often characterized by a bulbous nose, bony growths, and loose extra skin throughout infancy. This is also a very rare genetic disease. A synonymous word is acrocephalosyndactyly. [read more]

  • Acromegaly
    Acromegaly was derived from the Greek word ‘akros' meaning ‘extremities' or ‘extreme' and ‘megalos' which means ‘large'. This is a syndrome which results as the pituitary gland has an overproduction of hGH or growth hormone following the closure of the epiphyseal plate. There are several disorders that could cause the pituitary gland to come up with this circumstance. Most of these conditions involve a tumor that produces GH which is derived from a distinctive cell type (called somatotrophs) and named pituitary adenoma. [read more]

  • Acromicric Dysplasia
    Acromicric dysplasia is a very rare inherited illness that is often characterized by unusually short feet and hands, retardation of the patient's growth and delays on bone maturation which lead to short stature, and mild abnormalities of the face. The face often appears with a happy or ‘smiling' expression thus the descriptive word geleophysic which is derived from the Greek word ‘gelios' which means ‘laughing' and ‘phylis' meaning ‘nature'. Most of the number of cases for this illness has occurred in random for no obvious reason (sporadic). It has not been ruled out, though, that this is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. The disease database clearly indicates that acromicric dysplasia is similar to Geleophysic dwarfism (also known as Geleophysic dysplasia) and Focal mucopolysaccharidosis. [read more]

  • Acromicric Skeletal Dysplasia
    Acromicric skeletal dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder that features unusually short hands and feet. Patients with this disease may suffer from slow development and delayed bone growth that often leads to a short stature with facial deformities. No treatments yet are found for this disorder. [read more]

  • Acrophobia
    Acrophobia is derived from the Greek word ‘akpoc' which means ‘summit'. This phobia is described as the irrational dread of high places. This belongs to a certain category of phobias which are called motion and space discomfort (these two share like etiology and choices of treatment). This phobia could become very dangerous because those who suffer from it could experience attacks of panic when on a high place. As a result, they could become so agitated and they would have troubles getting themselves down to the ground safely. Vertigo is often associated or link with acrophobia and it is sometimes misconstrued as the phobia itself. The former is a feeling of nausea which is correctly described as a sensation of being spun. Vertigo can be caused by acrophobia when the person gets to a high place and then experience nausea. This type of vertigo that is triggered by heights is referred to as height vertigo. [read more]

  • Actinic Keratosis
    Actinic keratosis also known as solar keratosis, even AK is a premalignant condition of the skin where the signs include crusty, scaly, thick patches. This disorder is common among fair-skinned individuals who are often exposed under the sun (white people have less protection from their skin's pigment). This condition is often accompanied by damage made by the sun. Since a few of these are pre-cancer carcinomas, they should be attended to immediately. When a person's skin is exposed under the sun, the signs such as crustiness and thickness begin to appear. These bumps are often rough and dry and they start out as flat areas but soon develop into something tough which often resembles a wart. Actinic keratosis is about 2.0-6.0 mm. in range and they can be light or dark, pink or tan, it can even be red in color or it can be a combination of all the mentioned colors. It could appear on the areas that are exposed under the sun such as the chest, back, ears, neck, face, scalp, forearms, hands, and lips. [read more]

  • Actinomycosis
    Actinomycosis (pronounced ak-tuh-nuh-my-KOH-sihs) is a rare and infectious bacterial disease among humans. This is generally caused by Propionibacterium propionicus and actinoyces israelii, A.gerencseriae. This condition is unlikely a polymicrobial infection. Actinomycosis is a sub-acute to chronic bacterial disease which is caused by the filamentous, anaerobic to microaerophilic, and gram positive bacteria that are non-acid fast. [read more]

  • Activated Protein C Resistance
    Activated protein C resistance is a hemostatic disease which is characterized by a reduced anticoagulant response to APC or activated protein C. The result is a heightened risk of venous thrombosis. The activated protein C resistance or APCr was first studied and reported by Dahlback in 1993. Activated protein C with protein S as its co-factor degrades Factor VIIIa and Factor Va. Activated protein C resistance is the failure of protein C to cleave Factor VIIIa and/or Factor Va. This permits for a longer extent of thrombin generation and could proceed to the hypercoabulable phase. The most common form of hereditary resistance to activated protein C is Factor V Leiden. Acquired types occur together with elevated concentrations of Factor VIII. It has been evaluated that up to 64% of people who are afflicted with venous thromboembolism could also have activated protein C resistance. [read more]

  • Acute articular rheumatism
    Acute articular rheumatism is a rare and non-contagious medical condition brought about by a bacterial joint infection that can possibly come with a heightened risk of the development of heart complications. Adults are the common victims affected by this disease. However, statistics have shown that less than 200, 000 Americans are afflicted with this condition, which explains why it is categorized as a rare disease. [read more]

  • Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis
    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is more popularly known as Sweet's syndrome, which is a type of skin disorder characterized by sudden appearance of painful skin lesions and fever. This condition often appear on the patient's back, face, arms or neck and red bumps may rapidly increase in size and can possibly progress to blisters. [read more]

  • Acute gouty arthritis
    Acute gouty arthritis is characterized as sudden pain attacks in the joints, most especially in the legs and feet due to the buildup of uric acid in the joints. Gout is generally caused by an abnormality in the individual's metabolism which results to the proliferation if uric acid that consequently reduced the ability of the kidney to get rid of the uric acid. Patients suffering from sickle cell anemia, diabetes and obesity as well as kidney disorders are among the people who are most likely to develop acute gouty arthritis. [read more]

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, otherwise known as acute lymphocytic leukemia is another form of cancer of the white blood cells. In this case, the immature and malignant white blood cells continues to multiply in an abnormally rapid thereby causing overproduction in the bone marrow. This disease causes damage and death by actively crowding out the Bone marrow's normal cells and spread to the other organs in the body. ALL is found to be common among children and young adults. [read more]

  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or ANUG is characterized as a plymicrobial infection of the patient's gums that normally leads to bleeding, inflammation, necrotic gum tissue and deep ulcerations. Patients with this condition also suffer from fever and halitosisi. ANUG is also known as Vincent's angina, a popular term whioch was coined in WW1 when a great number of soldiers suffered from this condition. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
    Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD) is a rare hereditary disease that is the result of the lack of an enzyme required to convert fat to energy. People with MCADD cannot refrain from eating for very long. Fasting starts after the body has used all the food that the person has eaten, then begins to use the body's own fat to make energy. When people with MCADD fast, they can experience a variety of serious life threatening symptoms or even death. Persons with MCADD cannot utilize this fat to make energy, consequently, the body begins to fail and malfunction once the food the person has eaten runs out. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very short chain, deficiency of
    Short Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCADD) is a condition in which the body fails to oxidize fatty acids because an enzyme is either missing or not functioning correctly. Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD) is a rare condition that stops the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). People affected with this disorder are not able to break down a certain group of fats called short-chain fatty acids efficiently. Some affected infants will display vomiting, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), a lack of energy (lethargy), poor feeding, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Other features of this disorder may include poor muscle tone (hypotonia), developmental delays, seizures, and a small head size (microcephaly). The symptoms of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be activated by periods of fasting or during illnesses such as viral infections. In some cases, signs and symptoms may not exhibit themselves until adulthood, when some individuals may develop muscle weakness and wasting. Other people with gene mutations that can lead to this disorder may have such mild symptoms that they are never diagnosed. [read more]

  • Addiction
    Addiction was a term used to describe an attachment, devotion, dedication, inclination, etc. Nowadays, however, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, social life, or mental state. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as compulsive overeating and problem gambling. Factors that have been suggested as causes of addiction include biological/pharmacological, genetic, and social factors. [read more]

  • Addison's Disease
    Addison's disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces inadequet amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It may arise in children as well as adults, and may occur as the result of a large number of underlying causes. The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who initially described the condition in his 1855 On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. The adjective "Addisonian" is used for features of the condition, as well as individuals with Addison's disease. The condition is typically diagnosed with blood tests, medical imaging and additional investigations. Treatment is with replacement of the certain hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). If the disease is the result of an underlying problem, this is addressed. Regular follow-up and monitoring for other health problems is required. [read more]

  • Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
    Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form, also known as Christian syndrome or Craniostenosis arthrogryposis cleft palate, is a rare disease that affects multiple systems which causes malformations of the palate, thumbs, and upper limbs. [read more]

  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Adenocarcinoma of the lung (or lung cancer) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both women and men in the United States and throughout the world. Lung cancer has beaten breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In 2007, 160,390 people were projected to die from lung cancer in the United States, which is more than the number of deaths from colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer combined. Only about 2% of those diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body are living five years after the diagnosis, although the survival rates for lung cancers diagnosed at a very early stage are higher, with approximately 49% surviving for five years or longer. Cancer arises when normal cells undergo a transformation that causes them to grow and multiply without the normal controls. The cells form a mass or tumor that varies from the surrounding tissues from which it arises. Tumors are dangerous because they take nutrients, oxygen, and space from healthy cells. [read more]

  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma
    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that develops within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. Other sites of origin include the trachea, lacrimal gland, skin, breast, and vulva. This neoplasm is defined by its characteristic histologic appearance. Adenoid cystic cancer (AdCC) is a very rare type of cancer that can develop in many different body sites. It most often arises in the areas of the head and neck, in particular the salivary glands; but has also been reported in the breast, lacrimal gland of the eye, lung, brain, bartholin gland, and the trachea. It is sometimes known as adenocyst, adenocystic, malignant cylindroma, adenoidcystic, ACC, AdCC. [read more]

  • Adenoma
    Adenoma is characterized as a collection ogu growth that is glandular in origin. Adenomas usually grow in major body organs such as the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and colon. These growths are usually benign in nature but can progress into malignant over. While it can be ntbenign, it can also present some potentially serious complications by mass effect and production of large volumes of hormones. [read more]

  • Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a type of disorder of the purine metabolism that affects patients both behaviorally and biochemically. Patients afflicted with this disorder normally have autistic features and display some mild psychomotor delays. [read more]

  • Adhesive Capsulitis
    Adhesive capsulitis is also known as frozen shoulders, a condition that is characterized by the abnormal stiffness and pain on the shoulder joint area. As the condition progresses and worsens, the individual will experience a limited range of motion. This condition usually affects one shoulder at a time. [read more]

  • Adrenal cancer
    Adrenal cancer is a very rare disease that begins in the patient's adrenal glands, which is located on the top section of the kidneys. The tumors can rapidly increase the production of hormones. The good news is about 99% of adrenal tumors are non-cancerous and would not normally require any form of treatment when small in size. It does not produce any detectable symptoms which is why patients diagnosed with this disorder find out about this condition purely by accident in other examination for completely unrelated diseases. [read more]

  • Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenital, X-linked (Adrenal Hypoplasia)
    There are four types of congenital adrenal hypoplasia that have been recognized and they are the following: an X-linked type or the OMIM 300200 which is caused by a deletion or mutation of the AHCH gene or the DAX1 gene (found in the X chromosome dosage-receptive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital vital region). This type is often linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It might be a component of an adjacent deletion of chromosome (this may include congenital adrenal hypoplasia, OMIM 310200 or the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and OMIM 307030 or glyce3rol kinase deficiency; the second type is the autosomal recessive type and it is caused by a deletion or mutation of the gene which is responsible for coding for SF-1 or steroidogenic factor 1 on OMIM 184757 or chromosome 9q99. This type is also linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; The third type is an autosomal recessive type. This type has a vague etiology (or OMIM 240200); The fourth type of adrenal hypoplasia which is linked with the retardation of intrauterine growths, genital defects, and metaphysical dysplasia is the OMIM 300290 or the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysical dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, genital defects) association. The X-linked type adrenal hypoplasia congenital is a disease which is mainly acquired by males. It usually involves several endocrine tissues of the body most especially the gmall glands above the kidneys or the adrenal glands. The characteristics that often manifest are a reduction in the function of the adrenal gland; hypoglycemia; dehydration, feeding difficulties; and shock. Other male patients might also be sexually underdeveloped. The females who are rarely affected also have adrenal insufficiency and a deficiency of sex hormones. [read more]

  • Adrenogenital Syndrome
    The more proper term for adrenogenital syndrome is congenital adrenal hyperplasia or CAH. This refers to numerous other autosomal recessive disor which result from biochemical paths of cortisol setoidogenesis from cholesterol done by the adrenal glands. Most number of these conditions could have lesser or greater sex steroid production and they can alter primary or secondary sex characteristic development among adults, children and infant patients. Only a few cases of people with CAH can be appropriated with intersex condition although this attracted the attention of the American public in the 90's and since then, there have been various accounts that have been circulated. It is estimated that 95% of CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Conditions Caused by CAH The most common conditions that are caused by adrenogenital syndrome are: ambiguous genitals (in some female patients wherein it can be initially hard to know the exact sex of the infant); salt-wasting that causes vomiting (which may lead to dehydration and eventually—death); the early appearance of pubice or the occurrence failure or the delay of puberty (including sexual infantilism); too much facial hair; virilization; irregular menstrual periods during the adolescent stage; infertility caused by anovulation; and hypertension. [read more]

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
    Adrenoleukodystrophy is also known as ALD, Sudanophilic leukodystrophy and Schilder's disease. This is a rare disorder that is inherited which often leads to progressive damage of the brain, adrenal gland failure and eventually, death. ALD belongs to a group of disorders that are inherited which are called Leukodystrophies. Leukodystrophies often progressively destroy the myelin (a complex fatty neutral tissue which insulates numerous nerves of the peripheral and central nervous systems). The absence of myelin intensifies destruction. Patients of this disorder have a missing essential protein called the transporter protein. The transporter protein is needed in carrying an enzyme (the one used in breaking down long chain fatty acid in a normal person's diet). A long chain fatty acid accumulation can bring about brain damage and adrenal gland damage. Usually, the patients of ALD are males who inherit the X-linked disorder. Leudodystrophies are not similar to demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis where the myelin is normally formed but is eventually lost through immunologic dysfunction or for other causes. [read more]

  • Agammaglobulinemia
    Agammaglobulinemia is also called hypogammaglobulinemia. It is the most ordinary type of primary immunodeficiency which accounts to about 50% of all the cases. The three major kinds can be defined as: early onset, late onset, and X-linked. It was only after more than 50 years since the clinical manifestation was first recorded in 1952 by a certain Bruton. He described that the defect on the molecule in XLA or X-linked agammaglobulinemia has been explicated. To honor Bruton, the responsible gene was named Btk which means Bruton tyrosine kinase. It is estimated that 90% of the patients with the early-onset kind of agammaglobulinemia and the lack of B cells have defects on their Btk genes. The late-onset type is often referred to as the CVID or Common Variable Immunodeficiency. The last type is the early-onset non-Bruton agammaglobuliemia with absent or just low serum immunoglobulin (or Ig). Most of the cases are representative of a very heterogenous group which includes Ig deficiency with an increase in immunoglobulin M or hyper-IgM syndrome. There are also some infants who have an initial reading of low Ig level which soon increases to the normal level. This is named as Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. Currently, the production of defective antibodies and the low circulation of a number of B cells were descriptive of some female infants and some males who do not have any Btk defects. These records imply the participation of other genes. [read more]

  • Agyria
    Agyria which actually means smooth brain is an unusual brain formation disorder distinguished by the absence of normal folds in the brain. Malfunctioning neuronal movement is the cause of Agyria where in the nerve cells travel from their original place to their stable location. It is a kind of cephalic disorder. Convolutions or gyri refer to the folds in the brain and this forms the surface of the normal brain. Young patients who have Agyria has have a lack of or partially formed convolutions which makes the exterior of the brain smooth. [read more]

  • Aicardi syndrome
    Aicardi syndrome is an unusual abnormality syndrome distinguished by the lack of a major structure in the brain referred to as corpus callosum, the existence of abnormalities in the retina adn seizures in the form of immature spasms. An X-linked dominant trait is inherited in Aicardi syndrome that is fatal in males. [read more]

  • Ainhum
    Ainhum is a disease characterized by painful constriction of the fifth toe. This generally leads to amputation after a few years. Ainhum is more common among black African descents. It is commonly found among the blacks in West Africa, India and South America. The first recorded incidence of the disease is in 1867 by J.F. da Silva Lima. He described the disease suffered by one of the tribes in Brazil, the Nagos, who gave the disease its name. It is very rare in Europe and only a few incidences have been reported. It is also more common among those in between 20 and 50 years of age, with the average in 38 years of age. The youngest patient in record to have Ainhum is seven years old. The cause of the disease is still being studied. At present though, scientists have found that it is not caused by fungi, virus, parasite, bacteria and injury. Although it linked with walking barefoot during childhood, the disease is also found among those who have not gone barefoot. Among all the predisposing factors, race has been found to be on top of the list and thus scientists believe that it has some genetic component. Scientists believe that the disease is caused by the abnormal blood supply on the foot. Angiography of the peripheral limb has shown that the tibial artery may have become attenuated at the ankle and that there is noticeable absence of the plantar arch and branches. There are four stages of ainhum: the Grade I, wherein there is the presence of the groove; Grade II, wherein the floor of the groove is ulcerated; Grade III, wherein the bone is involved; and Grade IV wherein autoamputation occurs. In about 78% of the cases there is the presence of pain. For those in the early stage the pain may be slight and may have been caused by the pressure on the nerves. For those in the advanced stage, the pain is quite severe which is caused by chronic sepsis or fracture of the phalanx. Ainhum is commonly confused with diabetic gangrene, scleroderma, leprosy, Vohwinkle syndrome and leprosy. The pain is the symptom of the ainhum and it is a progressive condition. For the treatment of the ainhum, for the Grade I and II excision of the groove and z-plasty has been proven to relieve pain and prevent autoamputation. For the Grade III disarticulating the metatarsophanlangeal joint has been proven to be as effective. [read more]

  • Akinetic Mutism
    Akinetic mutism is the term used to describe persons who neither move nor speak. [read more]

  • Albers-Schonberg Disease
    The Albers-Schonberg disease is one of the most common types of osteopetrosis. It has been found that it is caused by the mutation in the CICN7 chloride channel gene. Those who have Albers-Schonberg disease, have bone cells, osteoclats, not functioning normally. These osteoclats are responsible for the breaking down of old bone tissues so that new ones will grow. In case of the disease, the osteoclats do not break the old bone tissues which then results in overgrow of the bones in the body. These overgrown then become very brittle and break easily. In the United States, it is estimated that around 1,250 persons have osteopetrosis. There are different forms of osteopetrosis and the most severe type is very rare that in the United States, there are only about 8 to 40 cases reported each year. The malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a severe form of the disease. It affects the child even when she is still in the womb. When the baby is delivered, the bones of the shoulder usually break. The baby with malignant infantile osteopetrosis has low calcium, has pressure on the optic nerve in the brain and experiences frequent bone fractures. About 75% of those affected with this disease will develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. If not treated, the child is not expected to live beyond the age of 10. Children have the disease when the parents have the abnormal genes even though they may not have the symptoms. The transient infantile osteopetrosis is the same as the infantile osteopetrosis except that in this case the patient heals on her own without treatment. The adult benign osteopetrosis is what is originally called the Albers-Schonberg disease. The disease is named after the man who first recorded or described the disease. The disease is generally mild and is more common among those in between the age of 20 and 40. One of the most common manifestations of the disease is frequent bone fractures and difficulty healing them. In some cases bone infections, degenerative arthritis, headache and pain may also be experience by those with the disease. The disease may be inherited from the parent with the defective gene and children of parents with the Albers-Schonberg disease have about 50% chance of having the same defective gene. The intermediate osteopetrosis is more common among children below the age of 10. The symptoms is almost the same as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis although less severe. It is believed that it is inherited the same way as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis. [read more]

  • Albinism
    Albinism is the term used to describe a heterogeneous group that display genetically determined disorders that are generally characterized by hypopigmentation that largely affects the eyes. This group of disorders will result to little or no melanin production; hence patients don't have melanin on their skin, eyes and hair. Albinos are quite sensitive to sun exposure and at significantly more at risk of developing skin cancer. [read more]

  • Albinism immunodeficiency
    Albinism immunodeficiency is an unusual persistent disorder that involves multiple systems of the body and occurs from an alteration in the lysosomal trafficking regulator gene, LYST. Because of the destruction of lysosome degranulation with phagosomes phagocytosed bacteria are not damaged by the lysosome's enzymes. Additionally, emission of lytic secretory granules in the cytotoxic T cells is also distressed. Not only doe sit happen to humans but also to cattle, blue Persian cats, white tigers and orcas. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    In 1937, Donovan James McCune and Fuller Albright explained Albright's syndrome as an inherited condition distinguished by abnormalities in the skin pigmentation, bone ailments and endocrine complications. The diseases in the bone may result to the weakness of the bone and abnormalities in the legs, arms and skull. Diseases in the endocrine may the reason for early puberty and elevated growth rate. Patients are affected by several distinctiveness of the ailment to various degrees several individuals may have the condition and have no evident complications. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    Albright's syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by some irregularities on the skin known as caf?-au-lait spots, endocrine problems and bone diseases, by which the bones become weak and the development of deformities in the skull, legs and arms. The endocrine diseases may cause an abnormally rapid increase of growth rate and early puberty. Patients are affected in varying degrees and display different characteristics largely depending on the severity of the case. [read more]

  • Alcohol fetopathy
    Alcohol fetopathy is characterized by a series of congenital defects that affect the facial, cranial, cardiac and nueral abnormalities. This medical condition also involves mental and physical retardation that occur on infants arising from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Alcoholism
    Alcoholism is drinking alcoholic beverages at a level that obstruct with physical health, mental health, and social, family, or job responsibilities. It is a progressive medical condition that encourages alcohol dependency. You may be fascinated with alcohol and unable to control how much you drink. [read more]

  • Aldosteronism, Primary
    Primary aldosteronism is a medical condition, where the adrenal glands of the body produce too much of the aldosterone hormone, which causes the body lose potassium and retain sodium. In general, sodium and potassium work together to aid in maintaining the right balance of fluids in the human body, help in transmitting nerve impulses, as well as contract and relax the muscles. However, the excess in aldosterone results to sodium retention, retaining excess water and the increase of blood pressure and blood volume. [read more]

  • Alopecia areata
    Alopecia areata is a medical condition that affects humans, characterized by excessive loss of hair in certain areas of the body, typically the scalp. This disease is often referred to as spot baldness since the initial stage causes the formation of bald spots that gradually spread through all areas of the scalp. [read more]

  • Alopecia Totalis
    Alopecia totalis means “loss of all hair in the head” that affects men, women and children. While the causes of alopecia totalis is still unclear, research has confirmed that this condition is an autoimmune disorder, wherein an organism fails to recognize its own parts as “self” and results in a negative response against its own tissues and cells. [read more]

  • Alopecia universalis
    Alopecia Universalis, also known as “Alopecia areata universalis” is a condition that involves rapid loss of all hair, including eyelashes and eyebrows. Alopecia universalis is the most serious type of alopecia areata, affecting only 1 person in 100,000. [read more]

  • Alopecia, Female Pattern
    The medical term for hair loss is called alopecia. Female alopecia is often characterized as being distressing and common. Caused by hormones, genes and aging, female pattern baldness involves a typical patter of loss of hair in women. [read more]

  • Alpha-mannosidosis
    Alpha-mannosidosis is an “autosomal recessive metabolic disorder” that leads to physical and mental deterioration. When the a-mannosidase enzyme becomes defective, it causes impaired cell function and sugar buildup. Since this enzyme normally helps in breaking down complex sugars, absence of this functional enzyme may lead to death on children caused by deterioration of the central nervous system. [read more]

  • Altophobia
    Altophobia, or acrophobia, is a person's fear of heights. This fear can be very dangerous especially to those who are exploring high elevations; they may suddenly experience panic attack while going higher above the ground causing their heart to palpitate and lead to serious complications. [read more]

  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma
    Alveolar soft part sarcoma or “ASPS”, which was first identified in 1952, is an extremely rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, a slow-growing tumor that occurs mainly in children and young adults. ASPS is a highly angiogenic disease, which involves an intensive production of new blood vessels connecting the tumor to the blood and enabling dissemination of tumor cells into the bloodstream. Because of this, tumor cells can easily transfer into various parts of the body, usually affecting the brain and lungs. ASPS is a sarcoma that affects soft tissues that connects and supports organs and structures of the body. It usually develops in the deep soft tissues and muscles of the leg or thighs, but could also appear in hands, head and neck. However, it could also spread and develop inside bones. [read more]

  • Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an inflammation of the alveoli found in the lung. This condition is caused by hypersensitivity to various types of inhaled organic dusts. People with this disease are usually exposed to dust from their hobbies or occupations. Several types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis exist based on the provoking antigen. These include Bird-Breeder's Lung (avian proteins), Farmer's Lung (molds), Bagassosis (moldy bagasse or sugarcane), Malt Worker's Lung (moldy barley), Humidifier Lung (by mist of standing water). Mushroom Worker's Lung (mushroom compost), Compost Lung (compost), Peat Moss Worker's Lung (peat moss), Suberosis (moldy cork dust), Japanese Summer-Type HP (damp wood and mats) and Cheese-Washer's Lung (cheese casings). Other types of EAA include Hot Tub Lung, Mollusc Shell HP, Metalworking Fluids HP, Isocyanate HP, TMA HP, Beryllium and Wine-grower's Lung. The most common of all EAA are Bird-Breeder's Lung and Farmer's Lung, affecting 8 to 850 people in 100,000 persons each year for farmers alone and 6,000 to 21,000 people in 100,000 persons for pigeon breeders yearly. [read more]

  • Ambiguous Genitalia
    Ambiguous genitalia is a very rare medical condition in which the external genitals of the newborn do not clearly appear if it's a male or female usually because it is not properly formed. This may cause serious social stigma and question to the baby's gender. In most cases, it is important to wait to determine to true gender of the child. [read more]

  • Ambras syndrome
    Ambras syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by excessive hair throughout the body. It is also known as “hypertrichosis lanuginosa”, congenital hypertrichosis universalis and congenital hypertrichosis lanuginose. Ambras syndrome affects only one person in 1 billion people. Less than 40 cases of Ambras syndrome have been documented worldwide. This condition is said to have genetic component with family histories of Ambras syndrome being reported in relation to affected patients. In the 19th century, people suffering from Ambras syndrome perform in sideshow acts or circuses. People described as “wolfmen” or “werewolves” due to their excessive hair growth are most likely sufferers of Ambras syndrome. [read more]

  • Amelogenesis imperfecta
    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of a person's tooth development, which causes teeth to become discolored, grooved, pitted, prone to breakage, become unusually small and develop other dental abnormalities. This condition produces varying effects and can affect both baby teeth and permanent teeth. Fourteen types of amelogenesis imperfecta exist. Each type is distinguished by specific dental abnormalities present. All types of amelogenesis imperfecta can affect any number of teeth. People with amelogenesis imperfecta develop teeth with abnormal color, such as grey, brown or yellow. Their teeth have greater risk of developing cavities and become hypersensitive to changes in the temperature. It is estimated that 1 in 14,000 people in the U.S. and 1 in 700 people in Sweden suffer from amelogenesis imperfecta. However, the exact incidence of this condition remains uncertain. [read more]

  • Amoebic Dysentery
    Amoebic dysenery is an intestinal illness due to a microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Anyone can be infected with Entamoeba histolytica. It is common to people living in tropical or subtropical areas and men fun of having sex with men. [read more]

  • Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan
    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital erythroid aplasia, which is commonly present in infants. Patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have anemia (or low red blood cell counts). However, the remaining blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, have normal counts. Various congenital abnormalities may also occur with Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients. [read more]

  • Angiolipoma
    It is important to discuss lipoma to understand the nature of angiolipoma. Lipoma is a benign tumor composed of fatty tissues. These tumors are usually movable, soft to touch and painless. They could grow extremely slow and can sometimes be cancerous. Most types of lipomas are small, but can increase its size up to six centimeters. Lipoma usually occurs in adults aged 40 to 60, but could also appear in children. An estimated 1% of the global population suffers from lipoma. Lipomas are also seen in animals. They are found usually on older dogs, but lipomas can also occur in puppies. They appear in single or multiple. While these lipomas grow, they are usually benign. Malignant forms of lipoma in animals are extremely rare. [read more]

  • Angioma
    Angioma is a benign tumor, which is made up of small blood vessels. Angioma normally appears near or at the surface of the skin in any part of the body. However, Angiomas are usually not considered dangerous (depending on location). Some Angiomas are present as symptoms for other serious diseases, such as cirrhosis. When an angioma is removed, it is usually for cosmetic reasons. [read more]

  • Angiosarcoma
    Angiosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that develops from the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. Such tumors could occur in any part of the body, but they mostly appear in the neck, head, legs and arms. [read more]

  • Ankylostomiasis
    Ankylostomiasis, derived from the Greek words “anclo” (crooked or bent) and “stoma” (mouth), is the disease caused by hookworms. It is also known as tunnel disease, Egyptian chlorosis, Miner's anemia, helminthiasis and Brickmaker's anaemia. Ankylostomiasis is a condition caused by large numbers of hookworms present that produce iron deficiency anemia by aggressively sucking blood from its host's intestinal walls. Hookworm is the leasing cause of child and maternal morbidity in areas of the tropics and subtropics. In children, Ankylostomiasis could cause growth retardation, prematurity, intellection and cognitive retardation, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight for newborns with infected mothers. Ankylostomiasis is rarely fatal, but severe anemia could be present with patients heavily infected with the disease. [read more]

  • Anodontia
    Anodontia, also known as anodontia vera in dentistry, is a very rare genetic disorder. This disease is characterized by congenital absence of all permanent and primary teeth. Anodontia is associated with a group of nerve and skin syndromes known as “ectodermal dysplasias”. Anodontia is commonly part of different syndromes, which rarely occur as an isolated disorder. Partial anodontia, wherein the patient suffers from congenital absence of two or more teeth, could also occur. This is also known as “oligodontia” and “hypodontia”. Some patients may also suffer from congenital absence of all third molars and all wisdrom teeth. [read more]

  • Anonychia microcephaly
    Anonychia Microcephaly is a neurological disorder characterized by a small head circumference, widely spaced teeth, clinodactyly of 5th finger and the absence of nails. This condition may be congenital. However, some cases develop during the first years of life. Anonychia Microcephaly may be caused by various conditions that result in chromosomal abnormalities or an abnormal growth of the brain. Infants with Anonychia Microcephaly are born with a reduced head size. As the child grows, his or her head size fails to grow while their faces continue to develop normally, resulting in a small head with receding forehead and loose scalp. When the child grows older, the size of the skull becomes more obvious even if the entire body became dwarfed or underweight. [read more]

  • Anorexia nervosa
    Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder that describes an eating disorder, which is characterized by body image distortion and low body weight due to an obsessive fear of becoming fat or gaining weight. People with anorexia nervosa usually control their body weight by voluntary vomiting, purging, starving, extreme exercise and other weight control measures, such as taking diuretic drugs and diet pills. It usually affects adolescent females and only 10% of anorexia nervosa patients are male. Anorexia nervosa is an extremely complex disorder, involving neurobiological, sociological and psychological components. [read more]

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries are extreme stretching and tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which can either be complete or partial. [read more]

  • Anterior horn disease
    Anterior horn disease is a condition that affects the anterior horn cells, which are responsible for voluntary muscle activities, such as breathing, walking, swallowing and speaking. Anterior horn disease is characterized by the death of more neurons, which result in a prolonged and progressive motor weakness. Some patients with anterior horn disease are affected permanently. [read more]

  • Aortic aneurysm
    Aortic aneurysm is a general term referring to the swelling of the aorta, usually caused by an underlying weakness in the aorta's wall. Although stretched vessels may only cause discomfort, aortic aneurysm may result in rupture, which causes massive internal hemorrhage, severe pain and a quick death if not treated promptly. [read more]

  • Apert syndrome
    Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder commonly known as “acrocephalosyndactyly”. This disorder is classified as a “branchial arch syndrome”, which affects the first branchial arch, responsible for the maxilla and mandible. Apert syndrome causes lasting and widespread effects to individuals because branchial arches are important in the fetus development. [read more]

  • Aphthous Ulcers
    Aphthous ulcers are more commonly known as canker sores. These are characterized by the development of small and shallow lesions on the soft tissues in your mouth, under the tongue, or insides of the cheeks or lips, as well as at the base of the gums. Often , it will usually go away naturally after a few weeks or so. [read more]

  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a potentially fatal genetic disorder and autosomal recessive cause of hypokalaemia, prenatal and postnatal growth failure, undetectable levels of aldosterone and renin and hypertension, which responds to treatments using glucocorticoid. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is an extremely rare disorder, accounting to only 60 patients recorded for the past 20 years. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a result of mutations of the HSD11B2 gene, which is responsible for encoding the kidney isozyme “11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase”. This isozyme inactivates the circulating cortisol to the less-active metabolite cortisone, which leads to an elevated amount of cortisol in the kidney. Note that high concentrations of cortisol could activate the “mineralocorticoid receptor”, which leads to an aldosterone-like effect in the patient's kidneys. This occurrence causes hypernatremia, hypokalemia and hypertension. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can also be caused by licorice ingestion, which blocks 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and increase cortisol activity. Early and aggressive treatment of Apparent mineralocorticoid excess can prevent and improve the mortality and morbidity of end-organ damage rates. Diagnosis is made by DNA and hormonal analysis. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly
    This disease is also known as "spider fingers" or archromachia. It is referred to as "spider fingers" due to the fact that the fingers are slim and long comparing it to the palm like a spider's legs. This disease can occur after birth or later in life. This disease can happen without any medical conditions but sometimes it is related with some medical condition for instance Marfan Syndrome. Other term for this disease is Dolichostenomelia. [read more]

  • Arakawa's syndrome II
    An error of metabolism that is inherent is known as Arakawa's syndrome II. A hereditary disorder caused by the absence of the enzyme tetrahydrofolate-methyltransferase. People who has this disease cannot properly digest methylcobalamin a kind of Vitamin B12. Other terms for this disease are Methionine synthase deficiency, N5-methylhomocysteine transferase deficiency and Tetrahydrofolate-methyltransferase deficiency syndrome. [read more]

  • Arginase deficiency (Arginemia)
    A hereditary disorder, that causes high level of arginine in the blood. Death is the result for total deficiency while partial deficiency causes hyperammonemia, metabolic alkalosis, convulsions, hepatomegaly, mental retardation and failure to grow. [read more]

  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
    This disorder is an unusual heart ailment that involves primarily right ventricle. It causes the muscle tissue of right ventricle to be changed by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the capability of the heart to pump blood. It is distinguished by hypokinetic parts relating the free wall of the right ventricle, with fibro-fatty substitute of the right ventricular myocardium, together with related arrhythmias starting in the right ventricle. It is also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC. [read more]

  • Arterial tortuosity
    Arterial tortuosity is an unusual hereditary connective tissue disorder distinguished by elongated and widespread tortuosity of the main arteries involving the aorta. The autosomal recessive acquired and location of the gene responsible is in the chromosome 20q13. [read more]

  • Arteriovenous malformation
    Arteriovenous malformation or commonly known as AVM is an inborn disorder distinguished with a multifaceted, twisted web of arteries and veins. The hereditary spreading guide of AVM (if any) are unidentified, and AVM is not usually considered to be an inborn disorder--unless in the framework of a particular genetic disease. AVM may be evident at birth it may appear as a blemish that resembles a hemangioma. Comparing to other areas of the skin the skin of the AVM is warmer to the touch. The blemish is dark red. Throbbing in the mass can be noticed from the fast moving among arteries and veins. [read more]

  • Arthritis
    Arthritis is a condition that usually involves damage on the joints of the body. For people older than fifty-five years, it is the leading cause of disability. Arthritis is a medicinal term, which mean any kind of joint swelling but the term is usually used to refer to age-related osteoarthritis that is the most usual kind. Though, there are other kinds of arthritis involving rheumatoid arthritis (second-most usual, involving younger adults and juveniles), and different kinds of minor arthritis which are caused by a primary condition: immediate arthritis caused by an infection, psoriatic arthritis from psoriasis, gonococcal arthritis from gonorrhea, and the like. Several probable circumstances with arthritis-like signs involve ankylosing spondylitis and gout. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Septic
    Arthritis, septic (septic arthritis) is an inflammation of a joint that results from a bacterial infection, or, in rare cases, from a viral or fungal infection. Also sometimes called infectious arthritis or bacterial arthritis, this disease is commonly acute but has the potential to become chronic. [read more]

  • Arthrogryposis
    Arthrogryposis also referred to as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, an unusual hereditary disorder that results to multiple joint contractures and is distinguished by weakness of the muscle and fibrosis. It is a not a progressive disease. The ailment obtains its name from Greek, exactly meaning “bent or curved joints'. There are several identified subgroups of AMC, with varying signs, symptoms, causes and the like. In several cases, a small number of joints might be affected and the variety of movement might be just about normal. In the majority type of arthrogryposis, hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, feet and knees are affected. In the majority rigorous types, almost each joint is involved, as well as the jaw and back. Normally, the contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness that adds limitation to movement. AMC is normally balanced and entails each four extremities with a number of dissimilarity seen. [read more]

  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency
    Arylsulfatase A deficiency also referred to as Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the very ordinary type of a family of hereditary ailments identified as the leukodystrophies, ailments that involves the enlargement and/or growth of myelin, the fatty layer which works as an insulator around nerve fibers all through the inner and marginal nervous systems. Arylsulfatase A results to a damaging swelling of fatty material in the body. [read more]

  • Asbestosis
    Asbestosis is a persistent seditious medical condition upsetting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It happens following a long-term, serious contact to asbestos like in mining, and is consequently viewed as a work-related lung ailment. Sufferers have rigorous dyspnea or shortness of breath and are at an augmented danger concerning numerous diverse kinds of lung cancer. As apparent details are not at all times stressed in non-technical writing, care must be taken to differentiate among several types of related ailments. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these can be defined as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma or usually a very unusual type of cancer, but growing in occurrence as people exposed to asbestos age. [read more]

  • Ascariasis
    Ascariasis is a human infection caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Maybe one quarter of the world's inhabitants is infected and ascariasis is mainly common in humid regions and in regions of poor hygiene. Additional types of the species Ascaris are parasitic and can cause infections in domestic animals. Disease happens during eating of food contaminated with feces having Ascaris eggs. The larvae hatch hideaway all the way through the intestine, arrive at the lungs, and lastly travel up the respiratory tract. Starting there they are then re-swallowed and grow up in the intestine, growing up to 30 cm (12 in.) in length and securing itself to the intestinal wall. Diseases are typically asymptomatic especially if the quantity of worms is little. They may nevertheless be associated with swelling, fever, and diarrhea, and serious harms may extend if the worms travel to other portions of the body. [read more]

  • ASD
    ASD (or atrial septal defect) is a congenital condition characterized by a hole in the wall between the left and right atria (the two upper chambers of the heart). [read more]

  • Aseptic meningitis
    Aseptic meningitis symptoms happens the same as meningitis without the location contributing organism. The disease causes the lining of the brain or meninges to swell and a pyogenic bacterial source is not present. History of distinguishing symptoms and certain examination findings is the basis to diagnose meningitis. Using lumbar puncture it should show an increase in the amount of leukocytes visible in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several cases of aseptic meningitis embody infection with viruses or mycobacteria that cannot be noticed with custom techniques. Although the start of polymerase chain effect has augmented the capability of clinicians to identify viruses for instance cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, and herpes virus in the CSF, several viruses can still escape detection. [read more]

  • Asherman's syndrome
    Asherman's syndrome also referred to as uterine synechiae presents a situation distinguished by the occurrence of marks inside the uterine opening. [read more]

  • Aspartylglycosaminuria
    An unusual genetic disorder resulted from a deficit of an enzyme glycoprotein (aspartylglucosaminidase). It is associated to a Finnish ailment heritage wherein a set of ailments results from a transformation in a single gene distinguished with elevated occurrence in Finland comparing to the rest of the world. [read more]

  • Asthma, Childhood
    Asthma, childhood (childhood asthma), the most chronic illness affecting children, is characterized by continuous inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs. [read more]

  • Ataxia telangiectasia
    Ataxia telangiectasia is a main immunodeficiency disorder that happens in an anticipated occurrence of 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 300,000 births. Other term for this disorder is Louis-Bar syndrome or Boder-Sedgwick syndrome. It is a congenital progressive multi-system ailment. Initially it starts as progressive cerebellar ataxia the followed by conjunctive and cutaneous telangiectasias, immune deficiencies, and recurrent sinopulmonary infections in later stages. There is also a related 100-fold augmented mortality danger. Cerebellar atrophy is most outstanding in the part of vermis as well as augmented neighboring cerebrospinal spaces and prominent folia using MRI. [read more]

  • Atelosteogenesis, type II
    Atelosteogenesis, type II is a rigorous disorder of the bone and cartilage growth. It is very unusual and baby with this disorder are usually stillborn, though some infant survive they die after caused by respiratory failure. [read more]

  • Athetosis
    Athetosis is a nonstop flow of sinuous, slow, writhing movements, usually of the hands and feet. Movements that are cause by athetosis are mainly referred to as athetoid movements. It was said that due to the damage to the corpus striatum of the brain and a cut to the motor thalamus that is why Athetosis happens. [read more]

  • Athlete's foot
    Athlete's foot or Tinea pedis which is its other term is a parasitical fungal contamination of the epidermis of the human foot. It is usually caused by a mold that develops in the surface of the skin and then into the skin's living tissue. For severe cases it appears as a widespread “moccasin” pattern seen on the sides and bottom of the foot but usually it appears between the toes. This infection commonly affects male. After acne, athlete's foot is considered as the most common skin disease in the US. [read more]

  • Atresia
    Atresia a state where in an opening or passage in the body is unusually closed or missing. Examples of Atresia: Biliary atresia - destruction of a part of the bile ducts because of arrested fetal growth, resulting to persistent jaundice and liver injury ranging from biliary stasis to biliary cirrhosis, through splenomegaly as portal hypertension develops. Ovarian follicle atresia - points to the deterioration and consequent resorption of more than one undeveloped ovarian follicles. Vaginal atresia - hereditary occlusion of the vagina or subsequence sticking together of the walls of the vagina. Esophageal atresia - involves the alimentary area resulting to the esophagus to end prior to linking normally to the stomach. Choanal atresia - obstruction of the back of the nasal opening, typically by irregular bony or soft tissue. Anorectal atresia - deformity of the opening among the rectum and anus. Pulmonary atresia - deformity of the pulmonary valve where in the valve orifice stops to grow. Aural atresia - a hereditary deformity of the outer ear or pinna. Intestinal atresia - deformity of the intestine Coping skills Always provide support to family members or friends who have this disorder. Write down or keep records of the individual's medical history, this will help doctors to keep track and know about the condition of the individual affected. Always communicate with the affected individual because he might want to know where he is at and what has he achieved and as well as the progress he made. Even though each situation varies, take note that a lot of children with hereditary heart abnormalities grow up productive and healthy. [read more]

  • Atrial septal defect
    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormality or a hereditary heart defect in the interatrial septum of the heart because of the embryonic foramen to stop from closing normally. [read more]

  • Atrioventricular Canal Defect
    Atrioventricular canal defect is a condition that pertains to a number of congenital heart abnormalities, including the presence of a hole between the heart's chambers as well as valve anomalies involving blood flow regulation. [read more]

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity is it classified as a neuro-behavioural developmental disorder which affects 5% of the world's population. It is usually acquired during childhood, and is distinguished by a constant pattern of distraction or hyperactivity and forgetfulness, poor inclination control or impulsivity, and being distracted and over the years it has been increasingly seen on adults. Children around 60% who have this disorder carries it as they grow. [read more]

  • Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy
    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is a term for the nerves of the secondary nervous system being damaged that can result from either diseases of the nerve or from the systemic illness side-effects. Secondary neuropathies differ in their presentation and origin and can affect the neuromuscular or nerve junction. [read more]

  • Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I is a very unusual autoimmune disorder distinguished by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (APE), candidiasis (C) and ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Theh disorder is also called as candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism-Addison's disease-syndrome following its major features: * Mild immune deficiency that leads to mucosal and cutaneous infections alog with candida yeasts. The function of the spleen is also reduced or referred to as asplenism. * Parathyroid gland's autoimmune dysfunction that leads to hypocalcemia and the adrenal gland. Other ailments that are related: hypothyroidism hypogonadism and infertility vitiligo (depigmentation of the skin) alopecia (baldness) malabsorption pernicious anemia chronic active (autoimmune) hepatitis In contrast to type 2, this type takes over an autosomal recesive style and it is because of a defect in AIRE or autoimmune regulator a gene that is seen on the 21st chromosomes. A transcription factor, normal function AIRE exhibits to display immune lenience for antigens from endocrine organs. [read more]

  • Avascular Necrosis
    Avascular Necrosis otherwise known as the Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis and ischemic necrosis, is a disease which results to a temporary pr permanent loss of blood supply to the bones leading to bone death and collapse. [read more]

  • Avoidant personality Disorder
    Avoidant personality Disorder is a condition marked by extreme shyness, inadequate feelings, sensitivity of being rejected. Individuals with this disorder often feel inferior with others. They tend to avoid situations having potential for conflicts. They are often observed to be clingy, antisocial, dramatic or obsessive. [read more]

  • B-Cell Lymphoma
    B-cell lymphoma, also known as Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying patterns of behavior and responses to treatment. NHL usually originates in the lymphoid tissues and can spread to other internal organs. However, unlike Hodgkin's disease, NHL is less predictable and has a greater predilection to extranodal sites. [read more]

  • Bacterial Vaginosis
    Bacterial Vaginosis Is a type of vaginitis resulting to overgrowth of organisms present in the vagina, which upsets the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginitis can be present in many pregnant women without even knowing that they have it. Sometimes bacterial vaginitis in early stages is often asymptomatic. [read more]

  • BAER
    BAER is an acronym for Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response and it is test measures of ear and brain wave activity that happens in reaction to clicks or certain pitch. There are 3 waves (1, 3 and 5) set for the ear, BAER uses a computer that averages over time to determine background noise to produce an averaged reaction of the auditory gateway to an auditory stimuli. [read more]

  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome
    Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a hereditary immunodeficiency disorder distinguished by T- and B-cell dysfunction and these cells are important in aiding to fight the infection. The group of genes is referred as major histocompatibility compound class II or MHC class II is not articulated. The absence of treatment can cause death in infants because of infection. [read more]

  • Barium Enema
    A barium enema is another name for colon examination. This procedure is done to examine the small and large intestines to diagnose if there are any perforations, thickening or other abnormalities in the colon area. This procedure is done by inserting a well-lubricated enema tube with a barium medium into the colon to detect growths, inflammations and other problems.The diagnosis shows up in an X-ray fluoroscope screen. Barium enema helps a lot in detecting colon as well as colorectal cancers. It is one of the imaging procedures used by doctors to view the development of cancers in this part of the body. [read more]

  • Barrett's Esophagus
    Barrett's Esophagus is a condition marked by the changes in color and composition of the cells lining the lower esophagus due to repeated stomach acid exposure often due to long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [read more]

  • Barth syndrome
    Barth syndrome also recognized as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II and Cardiomyopathy-neutropenia syndrome it is an unusual hereditary disorder categorized by a lot of signs and symptoms and also includes motor skills being delayed, metabolism distortion, stamina deficiency, chronic fatigue, cardiomyopathy, delayed growth, and compromised immune system. The research or study of Dr. Peter Barth in the Netherlands and discovery in 1983 was the reason why the syndrome was named after him. He designed a pedigree chart where in it shows that the disease is an inborn behavior. [read more]

  • Bartholin Cyst
    Bartholin cyst pertains to a swelling or bulging of Bartholin's glands, usually as a result of obstruction or infection of the vaginal opening. [read more]

  • Bartonella infections
    Bartonella infections previously known as Rochalimaea it is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Bartonella species may contaminate healthy people though are considered particularly essential as opportunistic pathogens. Bartonella is spread by insect vectors like fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. It is known that eight Bartonella species or subspecies are recognized to infect humans. Bartonella rochalimae was the sixth species discovered in June 2007 that is recognized to infect humans and also the ninth species and subspecies generally recognized to infect humans. [read more]

  • Bartter syndrome, classic form
    Bartter syndrome, classic form is an unusual hereditary abnormality in the thick ascending limb of the ring of Henle. It is distinguished by decreased potassium levels, low acidity of blood (alkalosis), and regular to decreased blood pressure. 2 types of Barter syndrome: Neonatal Bartter syndrome Classic Bartter syndrome It is closely related to Gitelman syndrome which is milder comparing it to both Bartter syndrome subtypes. [read more]

  • Basal Cell Cancer
    Basal cell cancer is a frequently occurring type of skin cancer. However, it is also the most easy to treat and has the least likelihood of spreading. In general, basal cell cancer is seldom fatal; however, if untreated, it can cause widespread damage to surrounding bones and tissues. [read more]

  • Basal cell carcinoma
    Basal cell carcinoma most usual form of skin cancer and it can be damaging and disfiguring. The danger of growing BCC is elevated for persons with a family history of the illness and with an elevated increasing contact to UV light by means of sunlight or were uncovered to carcinogenic chemicals, particularly arsenic in the past. [read more]

  • Basal ganglia diseases
    Basal ganglia diseases or also known as basal nuclei are a collection of nuclei in the brain interrelated with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. [read more]

  • Batten disease
    Batten disease is an unusual, deadly, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which starts in early days of a person. The disease is also referred to as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease it is the most usual type of a group of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (or NCLs). History The disease is named after the British pediatrician Frederick Batten who initially explained about the Batten disease in 1903. It is the most usual form of a collection of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Though Batten disease is commonly observed as the juvenile type of NCL several physicians refer to Batten disease to all types of NCL or ceroid lipofuscinosis. [read more]

  • BDD
    BDD or body dysmorphic disorder is a condition wherein the affected individual is excessively fixated or preoccupied with real or imagined defects in his/her physical appearance. [read more]

  • Beau's Lines
    Grooves across the fingernails or transverse lines are called Beau's lines. These nail abnormalities refer to shape, texture, abnormal color or thickness of the toenails or fingernails. With normal nail growth, the lines progress distally and eventually disappear at the free edge. [read more]

  • Becker's Nevus
    Becker's nevus is a skin disorder that predominantly affects males. The nevus mostly first appears as an irregular pigmentation (hyperpigmentation) on the torso or upper arm (though other areas of the body can be affected), and gradually enlarges in an irregular shape, becoming thickened and often developing abnormal hair growth (hypertrichosis). It is also known as Becker's pigmented hairy nevus, Becker nevus, Becker pigmented hairy nevus, Becker melanosis and pigmented hairy epidermal nevus. [read more]

  • Beckwith Wiedmann Syndrome
    Beckwith-Wiedmann syndrome (BWS) is an inherited disorder that affects a person's normal growth development. [read more]

  • Bed-Wetting
    Bed-wetting is a developmental phase wherein an infant or child is unable to retain bladder control at nighttime. It is also sometimes called nocturnal enuresis or nighttime incontinence. [read more]

  • Bedbug Bites
    Bedbug Bites are little red bumps on the skin caused by bites of a bedbug. A bedbug is a small, flat, reddish bug that can be found in every home. [read more]

  • Behcet's Syndrome
    Beh?et's (pronounced ‘BAY-sets') disease is a disease that causes symptoms in various parts of the body. It produces a group of symptoms that affect different body systems, including gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and the central nervous system. These symptoms include mouth or genital ulcers, skin lesions, and inflammation of the uvea which is an area around the pupil of the eye. Common symptoms include sores found in the mouth and on the genitals. More serious symptoms can include inflammation (combined with swelling, heat, redness, and pain) in the eyes and other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Benign Astrocytoma
    Benign astrocytoma (or astrocytoma Grade I, astrocytoma Grade II, intracranial neoplasm, intracranial tumor) is categorized into two types: Diffuse (Adults, cerebral hermisphere and brainstem) and circumscribed (Children, characteristic location/morphology). They are benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity of the astrocytoma depends on its location and size. [read more]

  • Benign Congenital Hypotonia
    Benign congenital hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone, which is the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle, and it often involves reduced muscle strength. It is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect the motor nerve control of the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing benign congenital hypotonia, even in early infancy, is relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the cause underlying it can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's growth and development, and later on in life, depend primarily on how severe the muscle weakness is and the nature of the cause. Other names of this condition are Hypotonia , Congenital Hypotonia, Congenital Muscle Hypotonia , Congenital Muscle Weakness, and Amyotonia Congenita. [read more]

  • Benign Fasciculation Syndrome
    Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is a disorder affecting the neurological system and characterized by fasciculation (or twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body. The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most commonly found in the eyelids, arms, legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected by BFS. The twitching may be occasional or may go on almost continuously. Any intentional movement of the affected muscle causes the fasciculation to cease immediately, but may return once the muscle is at rest again. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), also known as benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV), is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. [read more]

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is the non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland; the male organ that produces semen. Enlargement of the prostate can put pressure to the urethra causing difficulty in urination. [read more]

  • Berlin Breakage Syndrome
    Berlin breakage syndrome, also known as Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and Seemanova syndrome, is a rare syndrome that is characterized by chromosomal instability, maybe as a result of a defect in the Double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism. It is a very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, lowered immunity and heightened risk of cancer. The features of this condition are basically indistinguishable from the Nigmegen Breakage syndrome. The name comes from the Dutch city Nijmegen where the condition was first discovered. Most people with NBS originate from West Slavic regions. The largest number of them is Polish. [read more]

  • Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann Disease
    Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, also known as sarcoidosis, is a disease which can affect different organs inside the body. It causes the development of microscopic granulomas on the organs. These are masses resembling little tumors or look like grains of sugar or sand. They are made up of groups of cells from the immune system. These tiny granulomas can increase in size and number and clump together, making many large and small groups of lumps. If numerous granulomas form in an organ, they can affect how the organ functions. This can cause symptoms of Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease. [read more]

  • Beta Thalassemia
    Beta thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. [read more]

  • Bhaskar Jagannathan Syndrome ~
    Bhaskar Jagannathan syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the clustering of features like aminoaciduria, arachnodactyly, cerebellar ataxia, congenital cataracts, and delayed developmental milestones. It is a very rare syndrome characterized primarily by long, thin fingers, cataracts that form during infancy, amino acids in the urine, incoordination and delayed development. When the affected person was first reported, the author raised the question if it could be a new cerebro-oculo-renal syndrome. [read more]

  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve
    A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart valve possessing two cusps that are situated between the left ventrical and the aorta. A congenitally bicuspid aortic valve has 2 working leaflets. Most people have 2 complete commissures. An approximated half of cases have a low raphe. Excluded are stenotic or partially fused valves caused by inflammatory processes, such as rheumatic fever. [read more]

  • Biliary Atresia
    Biliary atresia is a rare condition found in newborn infants in which the common bile duct between the liver and the small intestine is blocked or missing. If it goes unrecognized, the condition leads to liver failure but not to kernicterus. This is due to the liver still able to conjugate bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The only effective treatments for biliary atresia are certain surgeries, or liver transplantation. [read more]

  • Biotinidase Deficiency
    Biotinidase Deficiency (BIOT) is the result of the lack of an enzyme called biotinidase. Without treatment, this disorder can cause seizures, developmental delay, eczema, and hearing loss. [read more]

  • Bipolar Disorder
    Bipolar disorder is not just a single disorder, but a group of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. People who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or combined episodes which present with features of both mania and depression. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate with eachother, known as rapid cycling. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia and is based on the type and severity of mood episodes experienced. [read more]

  • Bird Flu
    Bird flu is a disease commonly affecting wild and domestic birds that, when transmitted to humans, can be potentially fatal. [read more]

  • Birt-Hogg-Dub Syndrome
    Birt-Hogg-Dub syndrome is a rare disorder that affects the skin and lungs and heightens the risk of certain types of tumors. The condition is characterized by multiple noncancerous (or benign) skin tumors, particularly on the face, neck, and upper chest of the person. These growths typically first appear during a person's twenties or thirties and become larger in size and more numerous over time. Affected individuals also have a higher chance of developing cysts in their lungs and an abnormal accumulation of air in the chest cavity (pneumothorax) that may lead to the collapse of a lung. Additionally, people with Birt-Hogg-Dub? syndrome have a greater risk of developing cancerous or noncancerous kidney tumors and possibly tumors in other organs and tissues. [read more]

  • Birthmarks
    Areas of discolored skin that can be raised or flat usually present at birth or shortly after birth. Few types of birthmarks fade as the child grow while most types are permanent. Most birthmarks are harmless and may fade in time but there are also some that are associated with certain health conditions. [read more]

  • Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer is a type of cancer occurring in the bladder, which is the organ in the pelvic region responsible for storing urine. Bladder cancer usually starts in the cells lining the inside of the bladder. [read more]

  • Bladder Neoplasm
    Bladder neoplasm (or bladder cancer) is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply and grow in number without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine and is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer starts in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called urothelial cell or transitional cell carcinoma (UCC or TCC). [read more]

  • Bladder Papilloma
    Bladder Papilloma is a medical condition where there is a benign tumor that grows in the person's bladder which stores urine produced by the kidneys. [read more]

  • Blastoma
    A blastoma is a type of cancer that is brough about by malignancies in precursor cells, often called blasts. It is a tumor thought to result from embryonic tissue. The term "blastoma" is generally used as part of the name for a tumor as, for examples, in glioblastoma and medulloblastoma (types of brain tumors), hepatoblastoma (a liver tumor), nephroblastoma ( Wilms tumor of the kidney), neuroblastoma (a childhood tumor of neural origin), osteoblastoma (a bone tumor) and retinoblastoma (a tumor of the retina). A blastoma is a neoplasm composed of immature and undifferentiated cells derived from the blastema of an organ or tissue. [read more]

  • Blastomycosis
    Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis organism. Blastomycosis causes clinical symptoms that have similarites to histoplasmosis. The organism causing blastomycosis is endemic to portions of North America. [read more]

  • Blind Loop Syndrome
    Blind loop syndrome pertains to a condition wherein part of the small intestine is cut off or bypassed from the normal flow of food and digestive fluids. It is also alternatively known as stagnant loop syndrome or stasis syndrome. [read more]

  • Blood Platelet Disorders
    A blood platelet disorder refers to an abnormally low number of platelets, the particles in blood that help with clotting. As a result, blood does not clot normally for the patient with a low platelet count. [read more]

  • Bloom Syndrome
    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectases and photosensitivity, deficiency in growth of prenatal onset, variable degrees of immunodeficiency, and increased susceptibility to neoplasms of many sites and types. The dermatologist David Bloom first described the syndrome in 1954. [read more]

  • Blount's Disease
    Blount's disease is a growth disorder involving the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg. [read more]

  • Blue Cone Monochromatism
    Blue cone monochromatism, also known as S-cone monochromacy, is a recessive disorder that is linked to the X-chromosome. The affected person's green and red cones are missing while the blue cone mechanism is dominant and functioning properly. Cases like these have been called incomplete achromatopsia, wherein color vision is only impaired and not wholly absent. [read more]

  • Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome
    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a syndrome characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with internal venous lesions, most commonly affecting the bowel. BRBNS is an important syndrome because of it has the potential to result in serious or fatal bleeding. [read more]

  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder that involves a distorted body image. It is generally diagnosed in those who are extremely critical of their self-image, despite the fact that there may be no noticeable disfigurement or defect on their physique. It is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with a real or imagined defect in one's physical appearance. People with this disorder have a distorted or exaggerated view of their physical appearance and are obsessed with actual external characteristics or perceived flaws, such as certain facial features or imperfections of their skin. They often think of themselves as disfigured or ugly. People with body dysmorphic disorder often have difficulties controlling negative thoughts concerning their appearance, even when others reassure them that they look fine and that the small or perceived flaws aren't excessive or obvious. [read more]

  • Boil
    Boil (or furuncle) is a skin disease brought about by the inflammation of hair follicles, resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissue. Individual boils can group together and form an interconnected network of boils called carbuncles. In severe cases, boils may develop to form in what is known as abscesses. [read more]

  • Boils
    Painful, pus-filled bumps that form under your skin when bacteria infect and inflame one or more of your follicles are called boils and carbuncles. They usually start as red, tender lumps that quickly fill with pus, growing larder and more painful until they rupture and drain, which mostly take about two weeks to heal although some boils disappear in a few days after they occur. They may appear anywhere on your skin, but appear mainly on your neck, face, armpits, thighs or buttocks where these hair-bearing areas are most likely to sweat or experience friction. [read more]

  • Bone Cancer
    Bone Cancer is cancer originating in the bone and believed to be one of the rare types of cancer due to few reported incidence. There are different forms of bone cancer namely: osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma. Chondrosarcoma arise in the cartilage. Osteosarcoma occurs in growing bone tissue and Ewing's sarcoma starts in immature tissue of the bone marrow; occurring mostly in children and young individuals. [read more]

  • Bone Neoplasm
    Bone neoplasm, or bone cancer, is when new abnormal bone tissue grows due to excessive cellular division and proliferation. The bone tissue develops more rapidly than normal and continues to grow even after the stimuli that initiated it stops. This includes tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific bones. [read more]

  • Bone Spurs
    Bone spurs pertain to bony protrusions or projections around the edges of the bones. Also called osteophytes, bone spurs are not necessarily painful on their own but may rub against surrounding nerves and bones, thus causing pain. [read more]

  • Bordetella Pertussis
    Bordetella pertussis belongs to the genus Bordetella. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus which the main agent that causes whooping cough. [read more]

  • Bourneville's Disease
    Bourneville's disease (also known as Tuberous sclerosis) is characterized by facial lesions with tuberous sclerosis, first reported as adenoma sebaceum, but now recognised as angiofibromas. It produces tuberous sclerosis occurring in association with adenoma sebaceum. It is syndrome of epilepsy, severe mental retardation associated with adenoma sebaceum (overgrowth of the sebaceous glands) of the face, hamartomatous tumours of the heart and kidney, and cerebral cortical tubers (hence the name "tuberous sclerosis"). It is heredofamilial and usually shows itself early in life. Females are more often affected by this disease than males. Incomplete forms of the syndrome can manifest. Bourneville's disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity. [read more]

  • Brachydactyly
    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to shortening of the fingers or toes that results from the underdevelopment of the bones in the hands or feet. Brachydactyly is a medical term is literally meaning "shortness of the fingers and toes". The shortness is relative to the length of the individual's other long bones and other parts of the body. Brachydactyly is an inherited trait, usually dominat.. It most frequently occurs as an isolated dysmelia, but can also occur with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes. Brachydactyly is a general term that refers to disproportionately shortened fingers and toes. It can arise as an isolated finding, or be associated with a pattern of medical findings, called a syndrome. To date, many different forms of brachydactyly have been categorized. As a group, they always include extremely shortened tubular bones in the hands and feet. Some forms also lead to short stature, while others do not. The majority of types of isolated brachydactyly are passed on as autosomal dominant conditions. Radiographic studies (X-rays) can aid physicians differentiate between the different types of brachydactyly. [read more]

  • Brain Neoplasms
    Brain neoplasms are tumors of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are further divided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are categorized into benign and malignant forms. Generally, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain. [read more]

  • Brain Tumor
    Brain Tumor is an abnormal growth of harmful cells in the brain; classified as either primary or secondary. Primary brain tumors originate in the brain can be benign or malignant. Secondary brain tumor originated in any are of the body and spread to the brain. [read more]

  • Branchial Cyst
    A branchial cyst is an oval cystic mass that grows between the pharynx and the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck. This kind of cyst is asymptomatic and is caused by the accumulation of embryonic remnants after one's development. It can also result from the failure of the second branchial cleft to obliterate. Treatment for the cyst is done by surgery. [read more]

  • Brazilian Trypanosomiasis
    Brazilain tryponosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, is an infectious disease that has spread in tropical countries. It usually affects children. [read more]

  • Brittle Bone Disease
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, or sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. People with this disease are born without the proper protein (collagen), or the ability to make it, usually because of a deficiency of Type-I collagen. People with OI either have lesser collagen than normal or the quality is poorer than normal. As collagen is an important protein in bone structure, this impairment can result to those with the condition to have weak or fragile bones. As a genetic disorder, brittle bone disease is an autosomal dominant defect. Most people with OI inherit it from a parent but it can also be an individual (as in de novo or "sporadic") mutation. [read more]

  • Broken Hip
    A broken hip pertains to fractures in the hip bones usually occurring in older adults aged 65 and above. A broken hip is a potentially serious injury with life-threatening complications. [read more]

  • Bronchiectasis
    Bronchiectasis is a disease that results to localized, irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, leading to airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually arises from necrotizing bacterial infections, such as infections caused by the Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species or Bordetella pertussis. [read more]

  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (or BOOP) is the inflammation of the bronchioles and surrounding tissue in the lungs. BOOP is often the result of a pre-existing chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis. BOOP can also be a side effect of certain medicinal drugs, such as amiodarone. In cases where no cause is detected, the disease is called cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The clinical characteristics and radiological imaging resemble infectious pneumonia. However, diagnosis is suspected after there is no response to multiple antibiotics, and blood and sputum cultures are found to be negative for organisms. [read more]

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia involves the abnormal development of lung tissue. It is marked by inflammation and scarring in the lungs. It occurs most often in premature babies, who are born with underdeveloped lungs. "Broncho" is the name of the airways (the bronchial tubes) through which the oxygen we breathe travels into the lungs. "Pulmonary" refers to the lungs' tiny air sacs (alveoli), where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. "Dysplasia" means abnormal changes in the organization or structure of a group of cells. The cell changes in BPD occur in the smaller airways and lung alveoli, making breathing difficult and causing problems with lung function. [read more]

  • Brown-Squard Syndrome
    Brown-S?quard syndrome, also known as Brown-S?quard's hemiplegia and Brown-S?quard's paralysis, is a loss of motricity (paralysis and ataxia) and sensation as a result of the lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. Other names for the syndrome are crossed hemiplegia, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis and spinal hemiparaplegia. It is an incomplete spinal cord lesion characterized by a clinical picture reflecting hemisection of the spinal cord, often in the cervical cord region. It was initially described in the 1840s after Dr. Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard sectioned one half of the spinal cord. It is a rare syndrome, made up of ipsilateral hemiplegia with contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits because of the crossing of the fibers of the spinothalamic tract. [read more]

  • Bruton Agammaglobulinemia
    Bruton agammaglobulinemia was the first immunodeficiency disease to be described. Colonel Ogden Bruton noted in 1952 the absence of immunoglobulins in a young male with a history of pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections. Bruton was also the first physician to furnish specific immunotherapy for this X-linked disorder by administering intramuscular injections of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The patient improved but died of chronic pulmonary disease in his fourth decade of life. This disorder is now formally known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and the gene defect has been mapped to the gene that codes for Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) at band Xq21.3. The BTK gene is big and consists of 19 exons that encode the 659 amino acids that form the Btk cytosolic tyrosine kinase. Mutations can happen in any area of the gene. Btk is needed for the proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes. In the absence of working Btk, mature B cells that express surface immunoglobulin and the marker CD19 are few to absent. The lack of CD19 is readily detected with fluorocytometric assays, and this finding usually easily confirms the diagnosis of XLA in a male. As Bruton originally described, XLA shows itself as pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections in 80% of cases. Such infections that start in male infants as maternal IgG antibodies, acquired transplacentally, are lost. Thus, XLA is most often diagnosed when unusually severe or recurrent sinopulmonary infections occur in a male infant younger than 1 year. [read more]

  • Bubonic Plague
    The bubonic plague, also known as bubonic fever, is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). The epidemiological use of the term “plague” is currently applied to bacterial infections that cause buboes, although historically the medical use this term has been applied to pandemic infections in general. [read more]

  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome
    In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture resulted from occlusion of the hepatic vein or inferior vena cava. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly. Some examples of occlusion include thrombosis of hepatic veins and membranous webs in the inferior vena cava. The syndrome can be acute, fulminant, chronic, or asymptomatic. It takes place in 1 out of 100,000 individuals and is more common in females. Some 10-20% also have a sort of obstruction of the portal vein. [read more]

  • Buerger's Disease
    Buerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a rare disease of the arteries and veins in the arms and legs. Buerger's disease is marked by a combination of inflammation and clots in the blood vessels, which impairs blood flow. This eventually causes damage or destroys tissues and may lead to infection and gangrene. Buerger's disease typically begins in the hands and feet and may progress to affect larger areas of the limbs. Buerger's disease is uncommon in the United States, but is more common in the Middle East and Far East. Buerger's disease most commonly affects males between ages 20 and 40, though it's becoming more common in women. Basically everyone diagnosed with Buerger's disease smokes cigarettes or uses other forms of tobacco. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger's disease from developing. For those who don't quit, amputation of all or part of a limb may ultimately be required. [read more]

  • Bulimia Nervosa
    Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia or "mia", is an eating disorder in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation. The sufferer will then take part in compensatory behaviors to make up for the excessive eating, which are referred to as "purging". Purging can take the form of fasting, vomiting, using of laxatives, enemas, diuretics or other medications, or overexercising. [read more]

  • Bunions
    Bunions pertain to abnormal bony bumps that grow on the joint at the base of the big toe, causing the latter to enlarge. [read more]

  • Burkitt's lymphoma
    Burkitt's lymphoma is categorized as a highly uncommon type of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). This medical condition commonly affects children than in adults and is known to be a very aggressive kind of B-cell lymphoma that typically involves body parts other than the lymph nodes. However, in spite of its rapid-growing nature, Burkitt's lymphoma is usually very curable with the availability of modern intensive therapies. [read more]

  • C. Difficile
    C. difficile (Clostridium difficile) is a type of bacterium that causes a widespread and serious illness. This bacterium can be found almost anywhere and can easily infect people. [read more]

  • Cafe au lait spots
    Cafe au lait spots are generally birthmarks that are characterized by some brown cutaneous macules which are usually evident at birth and may strongly suggest possibility of Albright's syndrome or neurofibromatosis. The color of the birthmark may vary from dark to light brown with some irregular or smooth borders. Sizes of the spot can also vary and may possibly enlarge as the child grows. [read more]

  • Calcinosis cutis
    A term used to describe a group of disorders in which calcium deposits from in the skin, Calcinosis cutis or cutaneous calcification may result from a variety of factors. Occurring in soft tissues as a response to injury, dystrophic calcification is the most common source of this disease. Classified into 4 major types namely dystrophic, metastatic, iatrogenic and idiopathic, there are also rare types of Calcinosis cutis that have been variably classified as dystrophic or idiopathic. Such include calcinosis cutis circumscripta, calcinosis cutis universalis, tumoral calcinosis, and transplant-associated calcinosis cutis. [read more]

  • Calciphylaxis
    Calciphylaxis is a highly morbid syndrome of vascular calcification and skin necrosis that is poorly understood. Mostly seen exclusively in patients with end stage renal disease, Caciphylaxis results in chronic non-healing wounds and requires parathyroidectomy and hyperbaric therapy. Considered as a rare but serious disease, calciphylaxis is a type of extraskeletal calcification that is similar to those observed among patients with hypercalcaemic states such as those with milk alkali syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and hypervitamino sis D. [read more]

  • Calculi
    Calculi are stones that form in an organ or duct of the body. Stones are concretions of materials, usually mineral salts that can cause various important medical conditions. [read more]

  • Canavan leukodystrophy
    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that is the most common cerebral degenerative disease of infancy. The disease causes progressive damage to the brain's nerve cells. It is also a gene-linked, neurological birth disorder, wherein the white matter of the brain disintegrate into spongy tissue puzzled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. The disease belongs to a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies, which are characterized by the degeneration of myelin. Myelin is an electrically insulating dielectric covering the phospholipids layer of neuron insulating the axon. Canavan disease hinders the body's normal production of myelin. Called the central nervous system's “white matter,” this fatty membrane ensures that nerve impulses are properly transmitted. [read more]

  • Cancer
    Cancer is a group of diseases in which cells are hostile, invasive, and sometimes metastatic. These three are considered malignant properties of cancers that differentiate them from benign tumors. Although some benign tumor types are capable of being malignant, they are usually self-limited in their growth and don't invade or metastasize. People from all ages, even fetuses, may be affected with cancer but age is a factor that can raise the risks for more common varieties. About 13% of all deaths are caused by cancer and according to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in 2007 across the world. Even plants and animals may be affected by cancer. Abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells practically cause all cancers. Carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, radiation or infectious agents may have caused said abnormalities. Some however, may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication or inherited. DNA methylation and microRNAs are new aspect of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis that are gaining importance. The tissues from which the cancerous cells originate are used as bases in classifying cancer. There are also two general classes of genes affected by cancer anmely the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. [read more]

  • Cancer In Children
    Cancer in children is a group of cancers that usually occur in children below 5 years of age. These cancers can be extremely fatal when not treated, just like the cancers that develop in adults. The most common cancers that affect children are blood-related, but other kinds include the brain and kidneys. These cancers are not caused by genetic disorders but rather of enzymatic or environmental reasons. [read more]

  • Candidiasis
    Commonly called yeast infection or thrush, candidiasis is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species. The most common Candida specie is Candida albicans. Candidiasis includes infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. The latter belongs to a category called candidemia are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons. These include persons with cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients. [read more]

  • Carcinoid Tumors
    Carcinoid tumors pertain to rare growths of potentially cancerous masses in several areas of the body. They most commonly occur in the lungs and in the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and colon. [read more]

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by mental retardation and marked with heart defects, ectodermal abnormalities as well as growth failure. This medical condition was first discovered in 1986, and to date, there are less than 300 recorded cases of this congenital disorder all over the world, and known to affect both sexes across all ethnic background. [read more]

  • Carpenter Syndrome
    Carpenter syndrome is classified as a very rare or uncommon genetic disorder, distinguished through premature closure of skull bones, growth retardation, heart defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and other health disorders. It is usually manifests at/or shortly following birth. [read more]

  • Castleman's Disease
    Castleman's disease is considered an uncommon illness affecting the lymph nodes and the body's immune-cell structures. The disease is categorized as lymphoproliferative disorder; meaning it involves overgrowth or proliferation of the lymphatic cells. While it's similar to lymphatic system cancers in many ways, Castleman's disease is non-cancerous. It has two types: Unicentric that involves one site of tissue growths, and Multicentric involving multiple sites of growths. [read more]

  • Catel Manzke Syndrome
    Catel Manzke syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder combining glossoptosis, cleft palate, and micrognathia with an abnormality of the index fingers. Apart from the major features, there are also several related malformations described, particularly growth retardation and cardiac defect. [read more]

  • Causalgia
    Causalgia is defined as a chronic pain disease that typically affects the leg or arm. It is characterized by reduced motion range of the hand and shoulder of an affected arm. In rare cases, it can involve other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Celiac Disease
    Celiac disease pertains to a digestive disorder set off by consumption of gluten, a type of protein that can be found in pasta, bread, pizza crust, cookies, and other food products that contain barley, wheat or rye. [read more]

  • Celiac sprue
    Genetics plays a significant role when it comes to the diseases we get or do not get in our lifetime. Among those that are determined by genetics, is celiac sprue, which affects the autoimmunity of the small bowel. Research has shown that an estimated 1% of patients come from Indo-European origins, although the disease still remains to be largely underdiagnosed. [read more]

  • Cellulite
    Cellulite is unsightly fat visible on the skin. Cellulite is dimpled in appearance and can be typically seen on the hips, thighs, and buttocks of women. [read more]

  • Central diabetes insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is one of the two types of diabetes. The disease causes those afflicted to have extremely diluted urine, a result of a hormone deficiency vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. The condition disables the function of the kidneys to produce concentrated urine. Because of the excessive excretion of urine, people with central diabetes insipidus also show symptoms of extreme thirst for cold water. Dehydration is also a common symptom, since the body is unable to store water. The urine of patients also do not contain any glucose. In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus also causes blurred vision. Adults should be able to drink enough water to make up for the loss during extreme urination in order to keep healthy and live with the disease. Children who suffer from central diabetes insipidus show more drastic symptoms, such as diarrhea, fever, and vomiting. The disease also affects the child's growth, appetite, and eating functions. The disease may also occur gestationally, when women get pregnant but it disappears after labor. For one to be diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus, a number of tests are done concerning the blood glucose, calcium, and bicarbonate levels are conducted. Urinalysis is also conducted to determine the levels of electrolytes and urine osmolality, in which a person positive with central diabetes insipidus would have low results for both. An important tool in determining the cause of central diabetes insipidus is the fluid deprivation test. The disease can be caused by one of three factors: excessive liquid consumption, a disability in the production of the antidiuretic hormone, or if the cause lies in the kidney's reaction to the antidiuretic hormone. The test also makes use of a desmopressin stimulation to help in determining the main cause for the patient's condition. Should the patient be suspected of having central diabetes insipidus, further hormone testing of the pituitary is done. A magnetic resonance imagine, or MRI, is also conducted to determine what process is influencing the functions of the pituitary. Patients, including those with gestational cases, who are tested positive of central diabetes insipidus are treated with desmopressin. Those who develop gestational diabetes may also acquire the disease in their other pregnancies. For those who are diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the desmopressin treatment will not be effective. [read more]

  • Central Diabetes Insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is the body's deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, causing too much production of extremely dilute urine. It is uncommon, and involves intense thirst and over urination. The condition indicates the kidney's inability to balance urine concentration. [read more]

  • Centronuclear myopathy
    Centronuclear myopathy belongs to a group of rare diseases called congenital myopathies. Congenital myopathies are conditions wherein the cell's nuclei is located within the skeletal muscle cells, an abnormal condition. Normally, the nuclei would be positioned in the periphery of the cell, but with centronuclear myopathy the nuclei is in the center, hence the name. [read more]

  • Ceramidase deficiency
    Ceramidase deficiency, also known as Farber's Disease, is a group of genetically predisposed metabolic diseases named lipid storage diseases. The diseases characterize a condition wherein excessive amounts of lipids, such as fatty acids, oils, and other related substances, accumulate to harmful levels in the central nervous system, tissues, and joints. This may also affect the liver, heart, and kidneys. Ceramidase deficiency occurs in children when both parents have the protein-regulating gene sphingomyelin. Their children have a 25% chance of acquiring the disease, and a 50% chance of bearing the gene. [read more]

  • Cerebellar Vermis Agenesis
    Cerebral vermis agenesis refers to the partial or complete malfunction of the brain's cerebellum due to the agenesis of the vermis. It is a congenital disorder. [read more]

  • Cerebral Abscesses
    Cerebral or brain abscess is a mass of materials such as pus or immune cells that grow inside the brain due to fungal or bacterial infections. [read more]

  • Cerebral aneurism
    A cerebral aneurism occurs when the cerebral artery's wall weakens, causing the blood vessel to balloon abnormally and be filled with blood. This aneurism may put pressure on the tissue surrounding the brain, or the nearby nerves; it can also result in a rupture, called a brain hemorrhage. These can occur anywhere in the brain, but usually in the under part of the brain by the skull's base known as the Circle of Willis. When cerebral aneurisms are very small, they can go on without causing any problems. [read more]

  • Cerebral cavernous malformation
    Cerebral cavernous malformation, sometimes known as cavernous angioma, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease may occur sporadically or may be inherited. When one has the disease, there are groups of abnormal blood vessels located in the brain and spinal cord, although in rare cases they are also located in other parts of the body. A cerebral cavernous malformation resembles a raspberry, although it varies in size. The small bubbles are filled with blood, and a special layer of cells called endothelium lines the bubbles. [read more]

  • Cerebral gigantism
    Cerebral gigantism, also known as Sotos syndrome, is a rare hereditary disease characterized by excessive abnormal growth during birth, and extreme physical growth during early childhood years. The growth is purely physical, as there is no increased serum growth hormone levels. Sometimes, the condition may be accompanied by various levels of mental retardation, hypotonia, hindered motor, social, and cognitive development, and speech problems. Children born with cerebral gigantism are larger than normal during birth, and also possess a condition called macrocrania, where their heads are larger than normal. The disease may occur sporadically, or it can also occur in familial cases. [read more]

  • Cerebral palsy
    Cerebral palsy is a group of diseases that are non-progressive and non-contagious. The word cerebral refers to the cerebrum, and palsy means disorder of movement. Cerebral palsy is characterized by damaged motor control centers in the brains of young children. The brain damage that occurs does not worsen over time, although orthopedic difficulties may accompany the condition. There are 4 common classifications of cerebral palsy according to the damaged area of the brain. These are spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, ataxic, and mixed. Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type, and this type of cerebral palsy affects the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, or pyramidal tract, which leads to neuromuscular conditions. Patients with this type of CP also are hypertonic. Athetoid or dyskinetic type of CP have mixed muscle tone, and have either hypertonia or hypotonia. Ataxia, the least most common type of cerebral palsy, is characterized by tremors, hypotonia, and possibly some difficulties with motor skills. [read more]

  • Cervical Osteoarthritis
    Cervical osteoarthritis also known as cervical spondylosis is the deterioration of the bones and cartilage of the backbone and neck. The condition sometimes leads to the formation of bone spurs or irregular bony outgrowths. [read more]

  • Cervicitis
    It is an inflammation of the cervix. [read more]

  • Chalazion
    A chalazion is a cyst that grows in the eyelid caused by the inflammation of the meibomian gland. These cysts vary in styes and are usually painless until they start to swell. They eventually heal and disappear on their own after a few days or weeks, but oftentimes it needs treatment in order to heal faster. [read more]

  • Chancroid
    Chancroid is a kind of sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. This STD is common in hot, tropical countries, and is characterized by open, painful sores in the genital area. When left untreated chancroid may give way to ulcers that may persist in the affected area for up to several months. [read more]

  • CHARGE Syndrome
    CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder which consists of a set of congenital defects on newborn babies. It was first discovered in 1979 and the acronym was coined in 1981. The acronym CHARGE stands for Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the nasal choanae, Retardation of growth, Genital abnormalities and Ear problems. [read more]

  • Chemodectoma
    A chemodectoma is a benign, non-chromaffin tumor that dwells in the carotid artery. Sometimes called as the non-chromaffin paraganglioma, chemodoctoma is usually found in the head and neck area. [read more]

  • Cherry Hemangioma
    A small non-cancerous, red-purple bump on the skin that is typically seen in older adults is called a cherry hemangioma, which is formed from an overgrowth of small veins. [read more]

  • Cherubism
    Cherubism is a genetic defect which consists of the protruding bone tissue at the lower part of the face, particularly at the jaws. At the beginning of one's childhood, his upper and lower jaw grow at an abnormal rate and will soon be replaced by cyst-like bones. Because of this sudden enlargement of the jaws, the person's cheeks become swollen and rounded just like that of a cherubim, and will soon face problems with tooth growth. The condition varies among people; some cases of cherubism are quite mild and in fact unnoticeable, but in others the defect is so severe they even encounter difficulties in chewing, talking and seeing. However, these growths become replaced by normal bones as the children enter adulthood, and they will soon have a normal appearance as they reach maturity. [read more]

  • Childhood disintegrative disorder
    Childhood disintegrative disorder or CDD is a condition that consists of a child's delayed development in social function, motor skills and language. It is also known as disintegrative psychosis or Heller's syndrome. It is similar to autism, but normal development is first seen before a sudden regression occurs. It is not easy to detect CDD on children during its early stages; the disorder would only be obvious when the child starts to lose his language skills. Some children seem to react to seizures and hallucinations, much to the surprise of their parents. This is often described as a devastating condition, since it affects the family's future. Child disintegrative disorder was first described by Thomas Heller in 1908. [read more]

  • Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome
    Childhood nephrotic syndrome is an illness characterized by the kidney's loss of protein in the urine. The condition then causes the blood protein to decrease allowing water movement into the tissues of the body resulting to edema or swelling usually around the eyes, belly, and legs. Children doen't go to the bathroom and gain weight because of the swelling. [read more]

  • Chimerism
    Chimerism is a rare disorder wherein chromosomes mix in a single organism. Because of this, a person with chimerism would have two DNA sets, as well as organs that do not match the person's DNA. Chimerism can be exhibited in hermaphrodites, in which the affected organism has both male and female sex organs. This disorder develops during the earliest stages of embryonic growth. Once chimerism forms two non-identical twin embryos merge as one rather than growing separately. [read more]

  • Chinese Restaurant Syndrome
    The Chinese restaurant syndrome is a collection of ailments experienced by a person due to the lack of Vitamin B6. Some of these ailments include flushing, sweating, headache and pressure on the face or mouth. Most people believe that this syndrome is caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG), but scientific research has found no link between the two. [read more]

  • Chondroblastoma
    Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare but benign bone tumor which grows slowly in the affected part of a person's body. It comes from chondroblasts or cartilage cells and usually leads to the deterioration of muscles, extreme pain in the bones and immobility of the joint. When not treated, chondrolastoma may affect other organs particularly at the lungs. [read more]

  • Chondrodystrophy
    Chondrodystrophy is a skeletal disorder caused by several genetic mutations that affect cartilage formation. It is characterized by a normal-sized body trunk but with shortened extremeties and limbs. People in this condition are often referred to as dwarves, and almost 1 out of 25,000 children is born with this disorder. In a normal cartilage development, hyaline cartilage covers the long bones as well as the spinal cord, and the limbs grow at the end of the long bones. The cartilage then develops into bone joints, but for a person with chondrodystrophy, this process would not happen and would lead to skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Chondroectodermal dysplasia
    Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a kind of skeletal dysplasia caused by a genetic disorder. [read more]

  • Chondroma
    A chondroma is a benign tumor with a lobular growth pattern. It is made up of tumor cells that produce the cartilaginous matrix, of amorphous, basophilic material. A chondroma has vascular axes within it, and is made up of cartilaginous cells. This tumor is commonly found on small bones in the hand or feet, as well as in tubular bones like the ribs, humerus and femur. [read more]

  • Chorea
    Chorea refers to an involuntary movement abnormality, a neurological disorder under the group dyskinesias. It is characterized by the sudden movements of the hands or feet without being controlled. [read more]

  • Choriocarcinoma
    Choriocarcinoma is a kind of malignant cancer under the group of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). This cancer targets the placenta, and commonly attacks women, rather than men. [read more]

  • Chromosome 15q partial deletion
    Chromosome 15q partial deletion is a rare genetic condition produced by a chromosomal aberration wherein the long arm (q) of one copy of the some chromosome 15 is either partially or completely deleted. Angelman syndrome is formed when the mother's copy of the chromosome arm is deleted, while Prader-Willi syndrome is produced. Aside from the deletions, the uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 leads to the same genetic disorders. [read more]

  • Chromosome 15q trisomy
    Chromosome 15q trisomy is genetic disorder wherein the end of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q) appears thrice instead of only twice in the body cells. This results to growth delays either before or after birth as well as mental retardation and malformations in the head and face. Other abnormalities are a short neck, disfigured fingers or toes, scoliosis and other skeletal malformations. Males with this condition suffer from genital problems, and cardiac illnesses. In most cases, Chromosome 15q trisomy is a result of a translocation of chromosome balance in one of the parents. [read more]

  • Chromosome 22 microdeletion 22q11
    Chromosome 22, microdeletion q11 syndrome, also known as Di George Syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome and Strong syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small part in chromosome 22 and occurs near the midsection of the chromosome located at q11.2. [read more]

  • Chronic granulomatous disease
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of hereditary illnesses wherein some cells in the immune system have a difficulty producing reactive oxygen compounds the body uses to kill ingested pathogens. This dyfunction leads to the presence of granulomata in the different organs of the body. [read more]

  • Chronic Spasmodic Dysphonia
    Chronic spasmodic dysphonia is a long-term voice disorder wherein there is an involuntary or excessive laryngeal muscle contraction when talking. The vocal cords' movement is strained and forced resulting in quivery, jerky, tight, groaning, or horse voice. [read more]

  • Cicatricial pemphigoid
    Cicatricial pemphigoid is a comparatively rare blistering disease involving the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, throat, nose, and genitals. The disease is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system generates antibodies that attack certain proteins that attach the epidermal cells to each other. The disrupted connection causes the cell to separate from the skin's lower layers, thus blisters form. [read more]

  • CMV Antenatal Infection
    CMV antenatal infection is an uncommon disorder wherein a fetus is infected with cytomegalovirus through its mother. Cytomegalovirus or CMV originates from a virus of the same name, belonging to herpes family. This infection can be passed on through human contact. [read more]

  • Coats Disease
    Coats disease is an uncommon eye condition that causes partial or full blindness. It is distinguished by an abnormal growth of blood vessels at the back of the retina, causing retinal detachment. [read more]

  • Cockayne's Syndrome
    Cockayne's syndrome is defined as an uncommon genetic disorder involving ‘progressive multisystem degeneration'. The DNA or genetic material inside body cells is harmed by ultraviolet radiation. Generally, the body is able to repair the damaged DNA, but individuals with the syndrome are deficient of this ability. [read more]

  • Colon polyps
    Colon polyps are small clusters of cells that form on the colon lining. Even though this condition is not harmful it can also develop as cancer over a period of time. [read more]

  • Colon Polyps
    Colon polyps is a clump of cells on the colon lining. [read more]

  • Compartment syndrome
    Compartment syndrome is categorized as an acute medical disorder that usually develops after surgery and injury, where the increase in pressure that is usually caused by inflammation within the body's fascial compartment. Without prompt treatment, this condition can lead to muscle death and nerve damage. [read more]

  • Complex regional pain syndrome
    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is categorized as a highly uncommon and chronic condition that typically affects the patient's leg or arm. Seldom, the disease may spread and affect other areas of the body. The very nature of this medical condition is this not clearly understood up this day. [read more]

  • Compulsive Gambling
    Compulsive gambling is an impulse-control disorder in which an individual cannot resist the temptation to perform a harmful act to oneself or another individual. [read more]

  • Compulsive Sexual Behavior
    Compulsive sexual behavior is an individual's preoccupation and overwhelming urge for sex. It is also called hypersexuality, nymphomania, or erotomania. [read more]

  • Compulsive Stealing
    Compulsive stealing or kleptomania is a serious mental disorder in which an individual cannot resist the urge to steal items often with little value. [read more]

  • Condyloma
    Condyloma is more popularly known as genetal wart, categorized as a sexually transmitted disease that has external manifestations most particularly in the genitalia and anal area. Internal warts grow on the cervix and the upper vagina as well as in the male urethra. The lesions usually appear raised and pinkish in color but do not usually produce any other symptom. [read more]

  • Condyloma acuminatum
    Condyloma acuminatum is more popularly known as genital warts and is largely categorized as a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus. The estimated incubation period of this disease is approximately three months and is known to be highly contagious. The warts usually grow on the perianal and vulva areas, the cervix and vagina walls as well as the penis shaft for males. Lesions appear to be wart like and can be easily recognizable upon application of acetic acid or vinegar during examination. [read more]

  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is characterized by a number of genetic conditions that directly affects the adrenal glands. This medical condition can significantly interfere with normal development and growth among children. This includes the normal development of the patient's genitals, both affecting men and women. [read more]

  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
    The congenital erythropoietic porphyria is categorized as an extremely rare case of autosomal recessive condition, and is more popularly known as Gunther's disease. This serious medical condition is a cause of various gene mutations in which the symptoms are known to development as early as the infancy stage. Congenital erythropoietic porphyries is often marked a cause of the patient's anemia among fetus even before birth. [read more]

  • Congenital heart disease
    Congenital heart disoder is a kind of heart ailment diagnosed in newborns, and usually includes some structural defects that often lead to arrhythmia as well as the possible malfunctioning of the heart muscles. This disease normally appears when the heart of the fetus is not able to function properly because of incomplete development or some irregular structure of the valves. [read more]

  • Congenital hypothyroidism
    Congenital hypothyroidism is also medically referred to as endemic cretinism which is characterized by the inadequate production of thyroid hormone among newborn infants. This typically occurs due to an anatomic defect in the infant's gland, which is categorized as an inborn defect of iodine deficiency or thyroid metabolism. [read more]

  • Congenital Megacolon
    Congenital megacolon is more popularly known as the Hirschsprung's disease, which is characterized by a congenital deficiency of nerves in a certain part of the colon. This is usually detected in neonates during the very first 24-hours of the infant's life. This disorder generally causes constipation and difficulty in bowel movements, which can possible develop to stool blockage in the intestine. [read more]

  • Congenital rubella
    Congenital rubella usually affects the developing fetus during pregnancy when the mother is exposed to the rubella virus, especially the first trimester, as this is known to be highly crucial stage. [read more]

  • Constitutional Growth Delay
    Constitutional growth delay or CGD is used to define the temporary delay in growth of the skeletal system, resulting to pubertal delay and short stature. Children with CGD have normal birth length and weight, but at one point of their growing years, there is a slow down in development. Some teens have normal growth rate as younger kids, but lag behind and do not begin pubertal development and growth spurt like most teens. Individuals with CGD are often referred to as “late bloomers”. [read more]

  • Cooley's Anemia
    Cooley's anemia, also called Thassalemia, is a hereditary blood disorder distinguished by less number of red blood cells and less hemoglobin in the body. Due to the decreased amount of red blood cells, the condition leads to anemia. [read more]

  • Copper Transport Disease
    Copper transport disease is a hereditary disorder involving copper metabolism, passed on as X-linked trait. Copper builds up at unusually low levels in the brain and liver, but higher level than normal in the intestinal lining and kidney. [read more]

  • Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a very uncommon disorder that involves delayed physical growth, as well as a variety of malformations of the face, limbs, and head. The traits of this condition vary expansively among affected people, and differ from fairly mild to serious. [read more]

  • Corns
    Corns are primarily characterized by the small and often very rough mounds of dead skin that usually forms between and on the toes. These are usually hard, firm and have a waxy core that bores down into the skin of the toes and pressing into the underlying nerves and tissues, causing extreme pain. [read more]

  • Cortical dysplasia
    Cortical dysplasia is a congenital disorder characterized by the failure of neurons usually found near the brain's celebral cortex to migrate in the proper formation in utero, causing the neurons to grow larger than normal. This is found to result to disorganization of the normal structure of the cerebral cortex, causing seizures and developmental delays. [read more]

  • Costello Syndrome
    An extremely rare disease with only 200 to 300 cases reported worldwide, Costello Syndrome is a genetic abnormality that slows down development and causes mental retardation. Patients share the same facial features, with loose skin and flexible joints, and are more prone to develop certain diseases like heart abnormalities, non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, and cell carcinoma. Individuals affected by this condition are relatively short and may possess lesser levels of growth hormones. [read more]

  • Cote Adamopoulos Pantelakis syndrome
    Cote Adampoulos Pantelakis syndrome is a disease that develops before birth causing multiple joint contractures and characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis. It is a rare disorder affecting the jaw, spine, shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, hips, knees, ankles, feet and toes. These contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness, limiting movements further. [read more]

  • Cowden's disease
    The genetic disorder Cowden's disease causes the tumor-like growths called hamartomas to develop on one's skin or mucous membranes. Noncancerous and small, this may also grow in various areas of the body including the intestinal tract. Patients with Cowden syndrome are much more likely to contact uterus cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer. [read more]

  • Craniostenosis
    Craniostenosis is the disorder wherein an infant's or child's skull sutures close prematurely thereby interrupting normal skull growth and brain development. [read more]

  • Craniosynostosis
    Craniosynostosis is a condition that arises when one or more sutures that join the skull of an infant or child close(s) prematurely, resulting to complications in normal growth of the skull and brain. It can cause craniostenosis, a skull deformity, and increased intracranial pressure. It affects one in 1,800 to 2,200 infants. [read more]

  • Cretinism
    When not remedied, congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones causes cretinism, a disorder characterized by extremely stunted physical and mental growth. [read more]

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    The fatal and rare denerative brain disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by proteins called prions that multiply exponentially by refolding native proteins to infected state. Disrupting cell function, CJD results to cell death, rapid and progressive dementia, loss of memory, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Death can occur in as little as four months after the onset of the first symptoms. [read more]

  • Cri du chat
    Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic abnormality caused by the partial deletion of the chromosome number 5. Its name is French for cry or call of the cat in reference to the meowing sound the infant makes when crying, a manifestation of the infant's larynx and nervous system problems. [read more]

  • Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever
    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever It is the viral haemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group though it is mainly a zoonosis, erratic cases and outbreaks of CCHF can also affect humans. [read more]

  • Cronkhite-Canada disease
    The rare syndrome Cronkhite-Canada is a disorder prevalent among individuals 50 to 60 years old and characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in our digestive tract. The polyps affect the large intestine, stomach, small intestine and esophagus, causing gastrointestinal disturbances, malnutrition, malabsorption and even colorectal cancer. The polyps are hamartomas, growths which are often non-cancerous. [read more]

  • Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome
    Crouzondermoskeletal syndrome is a rare disorder not unlike Crouzon syndrome because it is caused by specific bones in our skull that join prematurely. It is distinguished from Crouzon syndrome by other disorders that also afflict patients with Crouzondermoskeletal, such as skin condition acanthosis nigricans, which is characterized by dark and thick skin in our body folds, changes in the vertebrae on x-rays, and the probable development of noncancerous cementomas during adulthood.. [read more]

  • Crow-Fukase Syndrome
    The rare medical condition called Crow-Fukase syndrome is also called POEMS syndrome after the clinical features that distinguish it from other diseases – Polyneuropathy (peripheral nerve damage), Organomegaly (abnormal enlargement of organs), Endocrinopathy (damage to hormone-producing glands)/Edema, M-protein (an abnormal antibody) and Skin abnormalities (including hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis). [read more]

  • Cryptorchidism
    Cryptorchidism, also referred to as undescended testicle, is a condition in which the testes did not completely descend into the scrotum. [read more]

  • Cushing's Syndrome
    Cushing's Syndrome is also known by other medical terms such as hyperadrenocorticism and hypercortisolism, which is characterized as an endocrine disorder that is primarily caused by the high levels of cortisol in the patient's blood. There are a number of underlying causes and medical conditions that triggers Cushing's Syndrome such as ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenal hyperplasia, and iatrogenic or use of steroid. This disease is also quite common among dogs and horses, often characterized as the deposition of fat in the body. [read more]

  • Cutaneous anthrax
    Cutaneous anthrax was once known as a rather obscure disease is now a household name, largely owing to the media hype since it was used bioterrorism agents in the past. There are three different types of anthrax: gastronintestinal, inhalational and cutaneous. Anthrax is actually categorized as a zoonotic disease, which means, it mainly affects animals and not humans. This disease can be contracted through handling contaminated excrement from the infected animals. [read more]

  • Cutaneous Horn
    A cutaneous horn, is also medically known as cornu cutaneum, which primarily refers to a partcular appearance of skin lesions that is manifested by a cone-shaped protuberance that arises on the skin. This is usually caused by an overgrowth of the superficial layer of skin or the epidermis. Although it may appear as a lesion, a cutaneous horn is actually the reaction to the pattern of the skin and may overlie skin cancer. [read more]

  • Cutaneous larva migrans
    Cutaneous larva migrans or CLM,is a type of skin disorder that occurs among humans. Sometimes termed as ground itch pr creeping eruption, this disease is also known as sandworms in reference to the "fondness" of larvae for sandy soil. [read more]

  • Cutis verticis gyrata
    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is considered as the medical descriptive term for a scalp condition that is characterized with furrows and convoluted folds that form from a thickened area of the scalp that resembles the cerebriform pattern. [read more]

  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a chronic vomiting disorder having no identified cause. It is most common in children ages 3-7 years which they will outgrow in teenage years. But since it is recurring, it can occasionally happen in adults as well. [read more]

  • Cyclothymic Disorder
    Cyclothymic disorder also called as cyclothymia, is a mild form of bipolar disorder; a chronic mood disorder causing emotional ups and downs. The condition is usually characterized by short episodes of emotional highs when feeling on top of the world followed by extremely low feeling that can possibly lead to hopelessness or suicide, if left uncontrolled. [read more]

  • Cystic Fibrosis
    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease common in Caucassians which directly affects the digestive system and the lungs and is considered life-threatening. Because of a defective gene called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the mucus, digestive juices, sweat and saliva become thick and sticky, obstructing the passageways especially in the lungs and pancreas. [read more]

  • Cystic hygroma
    Cystic Hygroma is a fluid filled sac that came about from an obstruction in the lymphatic system. It can either be single or multiple cysts found in the neck area. Cystic Hygroma can be congenital or it could develop at any time in a person's life. [read more]

  • Cystitis
    Cystitis is a medical term used to characterize the inflammation of the bladder. Majority of the time, this inflammation is typically caused by some form of a bacterial infection, which may be commonly referred to as a urinary tract infection (UTI). This bladder infection often causes pain and discomfort and can even lead to serious health complications if infection reaches the kidneys. [read more]

  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
    Cytomegalic inclusion disease is an infection or condition resulting from a form of herpes virus called ‘cytomegalovirus'. This virus leads to cell enlargement of a number of organs, as well as the growth of ‘inclusion bodies' in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells. A trademark of this infection is the episodic recurrence of symptoms all through life, due to its virus cycles of latency periods and active virus. [read more]

  • Cytomegalovirus
    Cytomegalovirus is a disease infecting cells and causing them to be enlarged. Individuals are typically infected when they're two years old or through teenage years. A lot of people become infected with CMV and do not even realize they have it. The disease doesn't cause chronic problems, but they do cause troubles in newborns if their mothers become infected during pregnancy. [read more]

  • De Lange Syndrome
    De lange syndrome, or Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), is a rare congenital disorder that affects a person's physical features and developmental processes. [read more]

  • De Sanctis-Cacchione Syndrome
    De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome is a very uncommon disorder distinguished by eye and skin manifestations of XP or xeroderma pigmentosum, occurring in involvement with mental retardation, neurological abnormalities, underdeveloped ovaries or testes, and abnormally short stature or dwarfism. [read more]

  • Deep Skin Infection
    Deep skin infection, or cellulites, is the inflammation of the connective tissues underneath the skin. It is a bacterial infection brought about by exogenous bacteria due to previous wounds, bites, sores or lacerations. This infection, when not treated, may lead to necrotizing fasciitis, wherein the bacteria eats away the affected tissue resulting to amputation. [read more]

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
    Deep vein thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by blood clot formation in any deep veins of the body; usually occurring on the leg. The condition is considered as a serious condition because there is a possibility that it may lead to pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot that had travelled and reached the lung. [read more]

  • Deerfly Fever
    Deerfly fever is otherwise known as Tularemia which is characterized by a rare and infectious disease that primarily attacks the eyes, skin and lungs. There are less than 200 reported cases of this disease annually, and is known to affect mostly the south-central and western states. Deerfly fever spreads through humans though a number of routes, including direct exposure and insect bites from an infected animal. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Nummular
    Nummular dermatitis is categorized as a particular form of eczema, or what is known as a type of atopic dermatitis, which is characterized by seemingly coin-shaped and raised bumps on the surface of the skin. These growths are often scaly. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Perioral
    Perioral dermatitis is characterized as a type of facial rash that usually tends to occur just around the mouth region. Most skin condition manifests as red and often slightly bumpy or scaly in texture. It can gradually spread up around the nose area, and even move up to the eyes. [read more]

  • Dermatomyositis
    Dermatomyosis is a disease of the connective tissues associated with muscles and skin inflammation. Juvenile dermatomyositis affects young children often associated with pink patches in the knuckles, abnormal and painful erection of the penis that can last for a long period of time, and groton's papules. It is one type of autoimmune disease of the connective tissue which is related to polymyositis characterized by many inflammations of the muscles, and the related disease that attacks the arm and leg muscles called Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis. [read more]

  • Dermatophytids
    Dermatophytids are skin lesions and erruptions that is occurs as an allergic reaction to the ringworm infections. These lesions, however are free of fungal forms and are generally vesicular, and papular in some cases. Dermatophytes often occur in the feet and hands. It also resembles erythema nodosum [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis is a skin disorder caused by a parasitic fungus called Dermatphyte. Dermatophyte feeds on keratin that usually found in the ectoderm or the outer layer of the skin, nails and hair. [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis, similarly known as athlete's foot is a common fungal infection among many people. It usually affects spaces in between your toes but it can spread to your soles, toenails and the sides of your feet. [read more]

  • Desmoid tumor
    Desmoid tumor is a tendon-like benign fibrous neoplasms. It originates from the musculoaponeurotic structures found in the entire body. It appears as firm overgrowths of tissues, usually fibrous, locally aggressive, well differentiated and infiltrative. Other terms used for this disorder are deep fibromatosis, nonmentastasizing fibrosarcoma or aggressive fibromatosis. It mostly grows from the abdomen and rectus muscle after giving birth or in scars from cuts during abdominal surgery. These tumors may also grow in bone muscles. [read more]

  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor
    Also known as DSRCT, it is a very aggressive tumor that occurs rarely, a type of cancer that always grows in the abdomen and spreads locally to the lymph nodes. It can also spread to other parts of the body like the lungs, bones, and liver, chest walls, spinal cord, large and small intestine, skull, bladder, brain, ovaries, pelvis and testicles. This is most common in males especially in the young adolescent stage. This is a life threatening disease. This tumor is also called desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor, desmoplastic cancer, intraabdominal desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor or desmoplastic sarcoma. [read more]

  • Dextrocardia
    Dextrocardia or Dextrocadia Situs Inversus is a medical term use to describe the location of the heart which is in the right chest instead being normally at the left side. Patients with this condition may grow and develop normally and live an equally normal life if there are no complications brought about by the heart's position. Limitations only come from other defects of the heart, lungs or chest. If there are no defects in the heart, this condition doesn't require surgery or any medication. [read more]

  • Diabetic Dermopathy
    Diabetic dermopathy is also commonly known as shin spots or the pigmented pretibial patches. This is a skin condition that is usually found to develop on the lower legs of people who have diabetes. This medical condition is often the result of changes in the small blood vessel, which are primarily responsible in supplying the skin blood products. [read more]

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    A complication resulting from damage to the blood vessels of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina) is called diabetic retinopathy, which at first my cause only mild vision problems or no symptoms at all. [read more]

  • Dibasic aminoaciduria type 2
    Dibasic aminoaciduria type 2 also called lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) or familial protein intolerance is an amino acid transport disorder. The excretion of cationic amino acid (composed of ornithine, arginine, and lysine) in the kidney is increase. Cationic amino acid is a kind of amino acid does not absorb well in the intestine. Deficiency of arginine and ornithine stops the urea cycle which will cause hyperammonemia after protein rich intake [read more]

  • Diffuse Astrocytomas
    Diffuse astrocytomas are adult brain tumors that develop on the brain tissues. They grow slowly and are diagnosed only when the cysts are already in the advanced stages. Young adults are prone to this kind of tumor. It can be diagnosed by CT scan and MRI, and can be removed by surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. [read more]

  • Disorganized Schizophrenia
    A chronic illness that causes altered perceptions of the world is called schizophrenia and disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of such disorder. People who have disorganized schizophrenia display grossly disorganized behavior, disorganized thinking and an absent or inappropriate emotional expression. [read more]

  • Dominant Ichthyosis vulgaris
    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a disorder tha occurs in the skin causing it to be dry, with scaly appearance. It is considered to be the most common form of skin disorder (ichthyosis) that affects one in every 250 people. Because of this, it is also called common ichthyosis. Some refer to it as fish skin disease because of its scaly characteristics. Usually, it is an autosomal inherited disease and often dominant. Often times, it is also associated with filaggrin. Although there is another version of this disease which is non-heritable but does not occur often. It is called acquired ichthyosis vulgaris. [read more]

  • Downs syndrome
    Down syndrome otherwise known as trisomy 21 is a disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. This disorder was termed as chromosome 21 trisomy in 1959 by J?r?me Lejeune. It is characterized by major and minor structural differences. Down syndrome is always associated with impairments of the cognitive ability and the physical growth. Facial appearance also is different. This disorder can be known even during pregnancy or right at birth. [read more]

  • Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy
    Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy is a condition that occurs as a reaction of the Doxorubicin. In this case, it targets the heart. [read more]

  • Dubowitz syndrome
    Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder. It is often characterized by microcephaly, slow to very retarded growth and a rather unusual facial appearance like having small or round or even triangular shaped with a pointed chin with either a broad or wide-tipped nose, and eyes which are usually wide-set and drooping eyelids. It was first described by English physician Victor Dubowitz in 1965. Majority of cases are from the Russia, United States, and Germany. It also appears to have an equal affect to different ethnicities and even genders. [read more]

  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterized by the abnormal multiplication of cells and the gradual formation of a growth within a milk duct of the breast. This medical condition may be difficult to detect. However, this is normally not a fatal condition since it is not a form of cancer but would still require a form of treatment. [read more]

  • Dumping Syndrome
    Dumping syndrome is characterized by a group of symptoms that are known to likely develop following a surgery that removes a certain part of the stomach. This is also known as the rapid emptying of the undigested contents in the stomach. [read more]

  • Dwarfism
    Dwarfism is a medical condition that refers to a condition of extremely small stature of an effected animal or even plant. Any known type of the marked human smallness is typically regarded as dwarfism in the much older, popular as well as the medical usage. The term as actually related to human beings that are often used to refer specifically to such forms of extreme shortness that is characterized by disproportionate body parts, which is believed to be typically due to a genetic disorder of the bone or cartilage development. [read more]

  • Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica
    Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica is not an ordinary ailment and is characterized by a severe genetic disorder that primarily affects the kidney along with some related cystic dysplasia, that causes the malfunctioning of the central nervous system and can eventaully create several hepatic developmental defects. [read more]

  • Dyshidrosis
    Dyshidrosis, is also known by another medical term called dyshidrotic eczema or pompholyx. This is characterized by a skin condition where there is a development of small, fluid-filled blisters that usually occur on the palms of the hands or the soles the feet, or even both. [read more]

  • Dyskinesia, drug induced
    Dyskinesia, drug induced generally refers to the symptom that is caused by the high-dose or long term usage of the drug calleddopamine antagonists, which are usually used as antipsychotics medications and antiemetic metoclopramide. Such neuroleptic drugs are generally used to be prescribed to treat a number of different types of psychiatric disorders. Other forms of dopamine antagonists that are known to cause tardive dyskinesia are drugs used for the treat cases of gastrointestinal disorders along with some neurological disorders. Majority of the drugs that are not actually intended to affect the dopamine, such as the antidepressants, may be also the main cause of tardive dyskinesia. While there are newer atypical antipsychotics available in the market today such as olanzapine and risperidone that may initially appear to have lesser dystonic ill-effects, only clozapine has been proven to have a signioficantly lower risk of complications such as tardive dyskinesia in comparison to the older antipsychotics. [read more]

  • Dyslexia Dysgraphia Dyscalculia
    Dyslexia-dysgraphia-dyscalculia is a group of learning disorders that occur during a child's stages of development. Dyslexia pertains to the slow ability to understand a word or idea, dysgraphia is the difficulty to write, and dyscalculia meanwhile deals with the child's slow learning of mathematics and logical reasoning. [read more]

  • Dysmetabolic Syndrome
    Dysmetabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic disorders in the blood serum that increases one's risk of heart disease. It is characterized by abnormal uric acid levels, factor imbalance and vascular problems. [read more]

  • Dysostosis
    Dysostosis is the disorder that has something to do with the bone's development. In definition, it is defective formation of the bone, whether individual bones or collective ones. [read more]

  • Dysplastic Nevi
    Dysplastic nevi also called Clark's nevi and atypical moles are moles that are regarded as precancerous moles and have the tendency to turn into melanoma instead of regular moles. They are generally larger, irregular and have differences in color that may range from pink to dark brown; flat with some areas elevated above the surface of the skin. [read more]

  • dysplastic nevus syndrome
    A dysplastic nevus syndrome is characterized as an atypical mole that usually stands out from the ordinary moles, with some indistinct borders and larger than any common mole. The color of these moles also varies from dark brown to pink, and are usually flat. Dysplastic nevus grows in any surface of the skin but has been found to more common on men's trunk and women's calves. [read more]

  • Dyspraxia
    Dyspraxia is a condition characterized by the brain's inability to process information resulting in messages not being properly addressed or transmitted ; can greatly affect planning what to do and how to do it. The condition is also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), Motor Learning Difficulties, and Perceptuo-Motor Dysfunction. It was formerly termed as Clumsy Child Syndrome and Minimal Brain Damage. [read more]

  • Dysrhythmias
    Dysrhythmias are also known as tuberous sclerosis, which is categorized as a very rare form of genetic disease that causes growth of benign tumors in several parts of the body. The most common areas of growth include the brain, skin and kidneys. [read more]

  • Early Puberty
    Early puberty is characterized by the rapid growth of the muscles and bones as well as premature changes in the size and shape of the body. This condition is often more prevalent among girls than boys. [read more]

  • Earwax Blockage
    Earwax blockage is the obstruction of the ear canal with cerumen. Cerumen or popularly known as earwax is part of the body's natural defenses that protects the ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria. [read more]

  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever
    Ebola hemorrhagic fever has been identified to be among the most deadliest group of diseases that is categorized under viral hemorrhagic fevers. The severity of this condition range from some mild illnesses that can possibly development into something that is potentially fatal, causing complications in the kidney function, sever bleeding, chock and respiratory problems. [read more]

  • ectopic pregnancy
    An ectopic pregnancy is characterized by a serious complication during pregnancy in which case the fertilized ovum develops in a tissue than is not on the uterine wall. Majority of the ectopic pregnancy cases occur in the Fallopian tube, but it may also occur in the ovaries, cervix and abdomen. [read more]

  • Eczema Dyshidrotic
    Dyshidrotic eczema or dyshidrosis or pompholyx, is a condition in which the skin, especially the hands and feet, develop small and itchy blisters. Said blisters last up to three weeks and cause intense itching. Cracks and grooves result when the blisters dry, which can be painful. [read more]

  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is categorized as some various group of genetic disorders that primarily affects the connective tissue, and is characterised by joint hyper mobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This medical condition is classified according to the symptoms involved. [read more]

  • Elephantiasis
    Elephantiasis is a medical condition characterized by some gross enlargement of a certain area of the body, mostly affecting the limbs as well as the external genitalia. Elephantiasis is primarily caused by an obstruction of the patient's lymphatic system, which often results in the buildup of fluid known as lymph in the particular affected areas. As part of the immune system, the lymphatic system is designed to effectively protect the body against diseases and infections. This system consists of an intricate network of vessels, hence the obstruction of the tubular channels would naturally cause swelling and enlargement. [read more]

  • Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a type of an inherited disorder that primarily affects the bone growth that would eventually result in short stature or more popularly known as as dwarfism. People with medical condition typically have particularly short lower legs, forearms and short ribs. It is also associated malformations of the teeth and extra digits in hand and feet. [read more]

  • emetophobia
    Emetophobia is the irrational fear of vomiting & being near with those are vomiting. People who suffer with the said phobia tend to constantly avoid eating out as well as socializing and going out to parties. Emetophobics will go to extraordinary mile to avoid becoming violently sick. [read more]

  • encephalocele
    Encephalocele, is a neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull. [read more]

  • Encephalocele Anencephaly
    Encephalocele anencephaly is among the most severe kinds of NTD or Neural Tube Defect. These types of defects occur during pregnancy, and affects the ‘tissue' that develops into a fetus' brain and spinal cord. Anencephaly happens early in fetal development, and results when the neural tube's upper part doesn't close properly. [read more]

  • encephalomyelitis
    Encephalomyelitis is a general term for inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, describing a number of disorders like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis , encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis; equine encephalomyelitis and myalgic encephalomyelitis [read more]

  • Endocardial Cushion Defect
    Endocardial cushion defect or also known as atrioventricular canal defect is a combination of several abnormalities in the heart that is congenital. In this condition, a hole between the chambers of the heart is present. There are also problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart. The condition is also called atriventicular septal defect. There are two common types of atrioventricular canal defect. The fist one is partial, which means that only the two upper chambers of the heart are involved. The other one is called the complete form, which allows the blood to travel freely among all chambers but also lets extra blood circulate to the lungs, causing the heart to enlarge. [read more]

  • Endocarditis, infective
    Endocarditis occurs when bacteria settles in the heart. Because the valves of the heart don't have any blood supply of their own, mechanisms for defense such as the white blood cells cannot enter into the heart. In such case, if an organism like bacteria hold on the valves, which normally the body will not be able to get rid of. [read more]

  • Endocrinopathy
    Endocrinopathy is a disorder associated with an endocrine gland. It is also often known as a hormone imbalance. It is a collective term for diseases in the endocrine glands associated with hormones [read more]

  • Endometrial Cancer
    Endometrial cancer is cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus called the endometrium. It is one of the most common cancers in American women. About 40,000 American women receive a diagnosis of endometrial cancer each year, which makes it the fourth most common cancer found in women. [read more]

  • Endometrial Polyps
    An endometrial polyp or uterine polyp is a polyp or lesion in the lining of the uterus or the endometirum, which takes up space within the uterine cavity. Ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in size, polyps are attached to the uterine wall by a large base or a thin stalk. [read more]

  • Endometriosis
    Endometriosis is a very common condition of women characterized by a growth outside the uterus of the endometrium which is the tissue that lines the uterus. This disorder is known to have affected women who are around 30 to 40 years old and who have not experienced being pregnant. These women are of reproductive age all around the world. This disorder, however, can occur just rarely in women at their postmenopausal age. In Endometriosis, the endometrium, which is misplaced, is unable to get out of the body. Although the tissues will still detach from the wall and bleed, but the result is internal bleeding, the surrounding areas swell, pain, shedding of blood and tissue, and scar tissue formation. [read more]

  • Enlarged Prostate
    Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as the age. When the prostate gland grows bigger, it can press on the urethra and cause urination and bladder problems. Prostate gland enlargement is also known for the medical term benign prostate hyperplasia. [read more]

  • Enlarged Spleen
    Also known as splenomegaly, enlargement of the spleen, as the name suggests, is the growing of the spleen beyond its normal size. [read more]

  • Enlarged Thyroid
    Goiter, or the enlargement of the thyroid gland, is a condition more common in women and older adults. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland weighing less than an ounce, located just below the Adam's apple. [read more]

  • Enuresis
    Also known as bed-wetting, nocturnal enuresis of nighttime incontinence is a developmental stage and is not a sign of toilet training gone bad. Primary enuresis is the term for children who have never been dry at night. Those who begin to wet the bed after at least six months of dry nights are considered to have secondary enuresis. [read more]

  • Epicondylitis
    Epicondylitis (lateral) otherwise known as tennis elbow, is a very common problem encountered by physicians in the orthopedic practice. It is an injury due to the overuse of the part which involves the extensor or the supinator muscles originating on the lateral part of the epicondylar region of the distal humerus. It has been noted to occur in at least 50% of tennis athletes. But this condition is not only limited to the tennis players, it also has been reported to occur due to any overuse of the specific parts to many activities. Lateral epicondylitis is also very common in today's very active society. [read more]

  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is also termed as Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia or Lutz-Lewandowsky epidermodysplasia verruciformis. This is a very rare skin disease which is characterized by growth of scaly macules and rashes or papules, especially on the patient's feet and hands. Epidermodysplasia usually begins in childhood stage without any known cure. In some cases though, high doses of vitamin A may help ameliorate the condition. [read more]

  • Epidermoid carcinoma
    Epidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma is a form of carcinoma type cancer which may occur in different numerous organs which includes the urinary bladder, skin, mouth, lips, esophagus, prostate, lungs, vagina, and also the cervix. It is often a malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium or the epithelium that presents squamous cell differentiation. [read more]

  • Epidermoid Cysts
    Often painless and slow-growing small bumps that develop just beneath the skin on the neck, face, trunk and sometimes in the genital area are called epidermoid cysts. These cysts don't usually cause problems or need treatment unless they become a cosmetic concern, or become infected or they rupture where they can just be removed surgically. [read more]

  • Epididymitis
    Epididymitis is a condition wherin the epididymis swell or becomes inflamed. This medical condition may entail mild to extremely pain. Adminsitration of antibiotics may also be needed to control infection. Epididymis is structure located along the posterior area of the testis. It is coiled and tubular in appearance. It is the structure that allows for the transport, storage, and maturation of the sperm cells and also connecting the efferent ducts to the vas deferens. Swelling of the epididymis can either be acute or chronic and is commonly caused by infection. [read more]

  • Epilepsy
    Epilepsy is a very common chronic neurological condition characterized by a recurrent seizure which is usally.The unprovoked seizures are transient signs or symptoms brought about by synchronous, abnormal, or excessive activities of the neurons in the patient's brain.There are about 50 million people around the world who suffer epilepsy at an any given time. Not all of epilepsy syndrome cases occur in a lifetime. Some forms of this disorder are only confined to some certain stages of childhood. Epilepsy, however, should not be considered or interpreted as a single disorder, rather occur as a group of syndromes with widely divergent symptoms which are all involving an episodic, abnormal electrical activity in the brain. [read more]

  • Ergophobia
    Ergophobia is an abnormal and usually persistent fear of work. People suffering ergophobia often experience unreasonable stress or fatigue about work of the workplace environment even if they themselves realize that their fear is rather irrational. Their fear of work may also actually be a combined fears like the fear of not meeting his employers' expectation or failing at a tasked assigned to him, fear of talking or speaking in front of groups at the workplace, or fear of interacting or socializing with other co-employees. The word "Ergophobia" is taken from the Greek word "ergon" which means work and "phobos" which means fear. [read more]

  • Erythema
    Erythema, or Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL), is the medical name of the dreaded skin disease, leprosy. It is characterized by a rapid development of sores in the different parts of the skin. When not treated, it can lead to blindness, tuberculosis, and irreversible disfigurement of one's physical appearance. [read more]

  • Erythema Infectiosum
    Commonly called as the fifth of a group of once-common childhood diseases with small rashes where the other four are measles, rubella, scarlet fever and Dukes' disease, erythema infectiosum is what doctors refer today as parvovirus infection. It is still a common but mild infection in children because it generally requires little treatment. Some people often call it a slapped-cheek disease because of the face rash that develops resembling slap marks, but for some pregnant women, it can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. [read more]

  • Erythrasma
    A common skin condition affecting the skin folds and is called erythrasma. An infection by the bacterium Corynebacterium minutissimum is a result of the slowly enlarging patches of pink to brown dry skin. People affected by this condition are mostly overweight or have diabetes which are common in warm climates. [read more]

  • Erythroplakia
    Erythroplakia is a red patch which is usually flat or a swelling in the mouth area that cannot be associated to other pathology. There are many various conditions which appear similar. This conditions must be ruled out and distinguished from erythroplakia before a certained diagnosis of the condition can be made. There are times that a diagnosis is up to be delayed for long periods up to two weeks so that or to see if the swell or the lesion is spontaneously regressing or if there is another cause that can be found. Erythroplakia usually is associated to dysplasia. [read more]

  • Escherichia Coli Infection
    Escherichia coli infection is infection brought about by the Escherichia group of bacteria including numerous strains, causing severe stomach cramps and diarrhea and is more common during the summer months. [read more]

  • Esophageal disorders
    Esophageal disorders refers to any disorder or abnormal conditions associated to the esophagus. It may include Achalas, Chagas disease, Caustic injury to the esophagus, Esophageal atresia and Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal web, Esophagitis, GERD, Hiatus hernia, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Neurogenic dysphagia, Schatzki's ring, Zenker's Diverticulum, and Boerhaave syndrome. [read more]

  • Esophageal neoplasm
    Esophageal neoplasm or esophageal cancer is a malignant condition of the esophagus. It refers to various other subtypes. Often, esophageal tumors usually lead to dysphagia or a patient's difficulty in swallowing, pain associated with other symptoms. These are often diagnosed via biopsy. [read more]

  • Ethylmalonic aciduria
    Ethylmalonic aciduria also called as Organic academia and organic aciduria, this disease is a metabolic disorders. That affects the amino acid breakdown. The alteration of amino acids metabolism can affect not just one organ but the whole organs of the body. There are four types of ethylmalonic aciduris, these are the methylmalonic acidemia, propionic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, and maple syrup urine disease.[1] [read more]

  • Exostoses, multiple
    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is also called Multiple exostosis it is a disorder in which multiple bone growth in the bony area. [read more]

  • exostosis
    exostosis is a bone disorder of the formation of new bone is altered. There is overgrowth of the bone of an individual. [read more]

  • External Otitis
    Swimmer's ear or external otitis is an infection of the outer ear and ear canal. This happens when the ear is exposed to excess moisture and water is trapped in the ear canal. The acidity that normally prevents infection is diluted because the skin becomes soggy. Cuts along the lining of the ear can also cause bacteria to penetrate the skin. [read more]

  • Eye Cancers
    Eye cancers are malignant growths in the eyes. They are commonly associated with other cancers such as breast and lung cancers. They begin to grow as benign cysts or malignant rhabdomyosarcoma. When not treated, these cancers can caused permanent blindness or even death. [read more]

  • Eye Floaters
    Floaters are bits of cellular debris that come and go without treatment. They are often seen as floating specks in front of the eyes but they are not really on the surface but inside. Floater among other people may look like spots and to some they may look like tiny threads. [read more]

  • Eye Melanoma
    Melanoma that originates in your eye is termed a primary eye cancer. Eye melanoma is the most common type of primary eye cancer in adults, but it's rare. If the melanoma begins elsewhere and then spreads to your eye, it's called a secondary eye cancer; this also is rare. [read more]

  • Eyelid Cysts
    Eyelid cysts, or chalazia, are growths inside the eyelid caused by the swelling of the meibomian gland. These cysts are usually painless but they sometimes grow big enough to obstruct one's vision. [read more]

  • Eyelid Inflammation
    Eye inflammation or also known as Blepharitis is a condition affecting the skin of the eyelids and usually involves the part of the eyelid where the eyelashes grow. [read more]

  • Facet Degeneration
    Facet degeneration syndrome is a severe kind of back pain that affects the facet joint. It is associated with another back illness, degenerative disc disease. [read more]

  • Faciocutaneoskeletal Syndrome
    Faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that takes place on the different organs of the body, causing multisystem disorder. [read more]

  • Factor VII Deficiency
    Factor VII deficiency is an uncommon disorder that's hereditary in which there is a lack of sufficient plasma protein Factor VII. The deficiency leads to coagulation or abnormal clotting of the blood. Clinical bleeding may vary widely and doesn't always associate with Factor VII coagulant activity level. FVII is among the Vitamin K group that's synthesized inside the liver. [read more]

  • Fallen Arches
    Fallen arches or also known as Pes planovalgus, is a condition where the arch or instep of the foot collapses and comes in contact with the ground. This arch never develops in some individuals. [read more]

  • Fallot Tetralogy
    Fallot tetralogy is a rare condition that involves defects inside the structures of the heart of young children and infants. Jointly, these defects lead to poor oxygen in blood flowing from the heart into the body. As a result, children and infants with this condition typically show blue-tinged skin. [read more]

  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a common genetic disorder that can lead to cancer of the colon if it is left undetected. Affected individuals develop countless ‘adenomatous colorectal polyps' in the rectum or colon, particularly during their teenage years and twenties. The polyps aren't cancerous, but due to their numerous quantities, there's greater chance that a number will go through mutation and trigger cancer development. [read more]

  • Fanconi's anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (FA) is an inherited ailment that involves children and adults belonging to all ethnic backgrounds. FA is distinguished by skeletal abnormalities, short figure, elevated occurrence of solid tumors and leukemias, failure in bone marrow and cellular sensitivity destroying agents like mitomycin C. [read more]

  • Farber's disease
    Farber's disease is also referred to as Farber's lipogranulomatosis or ceramidase deficiency it illustrates a group of unusual autosomal recessive disorders that results from the build up of lipids in the joints, central nervous system and tissues. [read more]

  • Fetal alcohol Syndrome
    A mother that drinks alcohol during her pregnancy may expose her fetus and may place her baby to a condition of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).Negative effects vary from one child to another; severe effects can include serious physical, mental and behavioral problems. [read more]

  • Fetal Face Syndrome
    Fetal face syndrome, also known as Robinow dwarfism, is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the infant's short stature due to postnatal growth retardation/ [read more]

  • Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
    Fetal hydantoin syndrome is an uncommon disorder that's caused by fetal exposure to an anticonvulsant medicine known as phenytoin or Dilantin. Dilantin is a drug commonly administered for treating epilepsy, and approximately one-third of the offspring of mothers who took the drug while pregnant developed minor limb and face defects. Some showed developmental delay, mental retardation, and growth problems. [read more]

  • Fetal thalidomide syndrome
    Fetal thalidomide syndrome primarily results from the utero exposure to thalidomide. This medical condition is typically characterized the anomalies in the mental function and fetal growth, as well as other abnormalities that may include facial, cardiac, limb, kidney, anal, spinal and CNS. Preganant women who are exposed to thalidomide during the first trimester of pregnancy has 10-15% of risk of embryopathy. [read more]

  • Fever Blister
    Fever blisters or cold sores are the small and usually painful bumps or lesions on the skin of the lips, mouth, gum, or the lip area. These blisters occur when a person has Herpes labialis, an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. [read more]

  • Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare as well as severely disabling type of autosomal dominant disease that is largely characterized by a series of recurrent painful episodes that involves soft tissue swelling along with the growth of tumors in muscle tissue and subcutis. These lesions would often lead to heterotopic ossification, which is true bone tissue development in the ligaments, axial musculature the fascia, the tendons, the aponeurosis, and the joint capsules [read more]

  • Fibromatosis
    The term fibromatosis specifically refers to the certain group of benign soft tissue tumors that presents particular characteristics that includes the absence of clinical malignant and cytologic features. The histology of fibromatosis is consistent with the proliferation of some well-differentiated fibroblasts, with filtrative growth patterns and rather aggressive clinical behavior. The mass usually be characterized by dense fibrocellular tissues that contain some mature fibrocytes and collagen that may be in various stages of maturation. These mass have atypical features and may have abnormal mitotic activity. [read more]

  • Fibromyomas
    Fibromyomas or uterine fibroids are non-cancerous tumors?that develop within or attach to the wall of the female reproductive organ called the uterus. [read more]

  • Fibrosarcoma
    Fibrosarcoma is characterized as a tumor of the mesenchymal cell origin that is primarily composed of several malignant fibroblasts in collagen background. It typically occurs as a soft-tissue mass or a bone tumor. There are generally two main types of fibroscarcoma: primary and seconday. The former involves a fibroplastic malignancy producing varying amounts of collagen. Secondary fibrosarcoma results from a preexisting lesion. [read more]

  • Filariasis
    Filariasis (Philariasis) is a type of an infectious and parasitic disease that is generallycaused by 3 thread-like parasitic filarial worms known as nematode worms, Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori, all of which can be transmitted by mosquitoes [read more]

  • Filovirus
    Filovirus is a group of viruses that generate hemorrhagic fever. Among the popular kinds of filovirus is the Ebola Marburg disease. It first had an outbreak in Zaire and Sudan in 1984. [read more]

  • Fish Tank Granuloma
    Fish tank granuloma is an infectious skin disease caused by the Mycobacterium marinum. In this disease, lesions grow on the skin and result to infections as well as tearing of the skin. The bacteria are commonly found in waters, particularly in swimming pools, and people exposed to salt or fresh water are more susceptible to the disease. Fish tank granuloma can be treated with antibiotics such as doxycyclin, and rifampin. [read more]

  • Fissured tongue
    Fissured tongue characterized as a benign medical condition that often referred to as plicated or scrotal tongue. It is distinguished as a tongue with deep or shallow furrows or grooves causing a rather wrinkled appearance of the tongue. This condition may be congenital and may gradually increase with age. [read more]

  • Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome
    Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome is considered as an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by a considerably slow progressive spastic paraplegia, along with skeletal anomalies of the feet and hand with brachydactyly type E. This also comes with cone-shaped epiphyses, sternal anomaly, abnormal metaphyseal–phalangeal pattern profile, mild intellectual deficit and dysarthria. To date, there are only three reported cases of this disease, two of which suffered from severe mental retardation. [read more]

  • Flatfeet
    Flatfeet or also known as Pes planovalgus, is a condition where the arch or instep of the foot collapses and comes in contact with the ground. This arch never develops in some individuals. [read more]

  • Flesh eating bacteria
    Flesh eating bacteria is a very rare but very serious bacterial infection medically known as necrotizing fasciitis. This type of infection typically starts in the body tissues that are just below the skin and gradually spreads along the different layers of body tissues such as fat and muscle. This is considered as a highly dangerous infection and is usually found on the legs, arms and abdominal wall, making it a very fatal medical condition. [read more]

  • Flu
    Influenza or flu is a viral infection that attacks the respiratory system including the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs. Though it is commonly called flu, influenza is not the same virus that causes diarrhea and vomiting. [read more]

  • Folate Deficiency Anemia
    Folate-deficiency anemia, classified under vitamin deficiency anemia, is the decrease in red blood cells caused by folate deficiency. [read more]

  • Follicular lymphoma
    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a certain type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) which is most common among the group (about one in four reported cases). It is a lymphoma (or cancer) of the B-lymphocytes. Average age of patients are in their sixty's but it can occur at anytime in one's adult life. It is both commonly equal in women and men. [read more]

  • Foot Drop
    Sometimes called drop foot, foot drop is a general term used to describe the difficulty in lifting the front part of the foot and cases of dragging the front of the foot on the ground when walking. Foot drop is a sign of an underlying cause such as neurological, muscular, or anatomical problem and is not a disease. [read more]

  • Fordyce Spots
    Normal large, superficial sebaceous (oil-producing) glands seen on the moist tissue that lines some organs and body cavities (mucosal surfaces) are called Fordyce spots. Most commonly found at the border of the lips, the inner foreskin and on the head of the penis, the spots are asymptomatic. The lesions are also asymptomatic, but irritation or itching may happen if people treat the bumps inappropriately. [read more]

  • Fracture, Growth Plate
    Growth plates are the softer parts of a child's bones located at each end of the bone, where growth occurs. Growth plates are the weakest sections of the skeleton and since they are very fragile, an injury that would result in a joint sprain for an adult can cause a fracture in a child. [read more]

  • Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome
    Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome is also known as the Hallermann-Streiff syndrome and the Oculomandibulofacial Syndrome. This is a disorder which greatly affects one's body stature, the head structure, and also hair growth. Patients who suffer from this kind of condition are often shorter than average people. They may be unable to develop facial hair and hair in other places such as the legs and the pubic areas. Many others have persisting problems with teeth development with some only developing one set in a lifetime. [read more]

  • Froelich's Syndrome
    Froelich's syndrome is an acquired medical condition involving endocrine abnormalities especially in the hypothalamus. Often associated with tumors in the hypothalamus, this syndrome commonly affects males only. It usually manifests during childhood, especially during puberty with occasional reports during the postadolescent period. Froelich's syndrome is also known by other synonyms such as Adiposogenital Dystrophy, Babinski-Froelich Syndrome, Dystrophia Adiposogenitalis, Frolich's Syndrome, Hypothalamic Infantilism-Obesity, Launois-Cleret Syndrome, and Sexual Infantilism. [read more]

  • Frontotemporal Dementia
    Frontotemporal dementia is a general umbrella medical term to a diverse group of rare disorders that primarily affects the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain. These are the areas that are generally associated with individual personality and behavior. It usually affects the younger people and are known to undergo very rapid changes in the personality and usually become socially inappropriate. [read more]

  • Fructosuria
    This disorder is also known as essential fructosuria and hereditary fructosuria often seen in children. It is caused by a hepatic fructokinase deficiency which leads to excretion of fructose in urine. Fructosuria is a benign condition, since fructose is not broken down to glucose; it is simply excreted out of the system in urine. Fructosuria is unlike Fructosemia which means fructose in the blood. The latter is a more serious condition that can cause growth abnormalities and even coma in some severe cases. Unlike fructosuria, fructose in Fructosemia is converted to fructose-1-phosphate which uses up the body's ATP stores. This will prevent the proper release of glucose from glycogen, uses up the free phosphate available in the body, and causes uric acid levels to rise. [read more]

  • Fungal Infection, Nail
    An infection of nail fungus develops when fungi infect one or more of the nails. A nail fungal infection may begin as a white or yellow spot under the tip of the fingernail or toenail. As the nail fungus spreads deeper into the nail, it may result to nail discoloration, thickening and developing of crumbling edges — an unsightly and potentially painful problem. [read more]

  • Funnel Chest
    Funnel chest is a congenital deformity wherein several ribs grow in such a way that they produce a sunken appearance of the chest. This abnormal development usually begins during puberty. [read more]

  • Galactosemia
    Galactosemia is a rare congenital metabolic disorder which undermines the affected individual's ability to properly metabolize galactose, one of the sugars found in dairy products. The disorder was first described in 1917 by Goppert, and later fully identified in 1956 by a group led by Herman Kalckar. The incidence ratio of classic type galactosemia is 1 per 47,000 births. Glactosemia is often confused with lactose intolerance. However, galactosemia is a worse condition. Individuals with lactose intolerance have an inherited shortage of the enzyme lactase. These individuals experience abdominal pains after ingesting lactose products but don't have long term effects. In galactosemia, individuals who are afflicted with this disorder tend to have permanent damage to their bodies. [read more]

  • Ganglioglioma
    Ganglioglioma, otherwise known as Gangliocytoma, is a disease characterized by the presence of rare tumors. These tumors grow from ganglion cells in the area of the central nervous system, primarily composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Ganglion cells are another way of calling neurons that are found in the brain, some of them found in specific perceptive centers. Mature ganglion cells become clustered with neoplastic glial cells, forming these gangliogliomas. [read more]

  • Gardner Syndrome
    Gardner's syndrome is a disease characterized by the growth of polyps in the colon accompanied by tumors outside the colon. The tumors found in the areas which are away from the colon may range from thyroid cancer, fibromas, sebaceous cysts, osteomas in the skull, and epidermoid cysts. The polyps found within the colon are indicators of the likely progression of the condition to colon cancer. [read more]

  • Gastric Lymphoma
    Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare condition whereby a lymphoma originates from the stomach. This condition accounts for less than 15% of gastric conditions, and only 2% of all lymphomas. However, because of the fact that the stomach is an extremely usual site for lymphomas that originate in other organs that are in metastasis to the stomach, the stomach is one of the most likely sources of the growth of lymphomas in other areas in the gastrointestinal tract. With metastasis, the organ from where the lymphoma originates is not adjacent to the stomach, but nonetheless the disease is spread by travel in the bloodstream (lymphoma is a cancer originating from a type of white blood cells or lymphocytes). [read more]

  • Gastrointestinal Cancers
    These are rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract also known ‘GIST'. GIST is a form of joint tissue cancer or sarcoma. GISTs are therefore non-epithelial tumors, separate from common forms of bowel cancer. [read more]

  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare, benign growths in the gastrointestinal tract. [read more]

  • Geleophysic Dwarfism
    Geleophysic dwarfism is known by other names, the more popular one being Acromicric dysplasia. This disease that results in a combination of bodily deformities is an extremely rare disorder that is hereditary and inheritable in nature. [read more]

  • Genital System Cancer
    Genital system cancer is the collective term for cancers that affect the organs in the genital system. Included in this group are vaginal cancer, penis cancer and vulva cancer. [read more]

  • German Syndrome
    German Syndrome is a rare disorder affected by fetal exposure to trimethadione or the anticonvulsant drug which results in different kinds of physical and developmental abnormalities. It is found among infants who were born to epileptic mothers that are being treated with trimethadione for seizures during their pregnancy period. This is also known as Fetal Trimethadione Syndrome. [read more]

  • Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
    Gestational trophoblastic disease is a group of many other diseases that are all involved with the abnormal growth of cells in the uterus. It does not grow from the cells of the uterus. These are rare but treatable tumors that start in the tissues and they develop after the conception when the egg fertilizes the sperm. There are four types of gestational trophoblastic disease: Hydatidiform mole, persistent/invasive trophoblastic disease, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumors. [read more]

  • Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia
    Giant lymph node hyperplasia (also known as Castleman's disease or CD) is a rare, benign disease involving lymph nodes in different locations, predominantly in the mediastinum. This disorder is marked by non-cancerous growths (tumors) that may develop in the lymph node tissue at a single site or throughout the body. It involves hyperproliferation of certain B cells that typically produce cytokines. [read more]

  • Gigantism
    Gigantism is a condition wherein the human body grows excessively in height and weight during childhood, before the bone growth plates close, causing a person to live with overgrown bones. [read more]

  • Gingivitis
    Gingivitis, also known as inflammation of the gums, is a group of diseases that affect the gingival, or the gums. Its most common term, inflammation of the gums, is called so due to the occurrence when plaque or bacterial biofilms stick to the surfaces of the tooth. [read more]

  • Glaucoma
    Glaucoma is a group of diseases of the optic nerve involving loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy. Although intraocular pressure has a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma, there is no set threshold for intraocular pressure that causes glaucoma. [read more]

  • Glossophobia
    Glossophobia, also known as speech anxiety, is a condition wherein a person has a fear of public speaking. It may also be a form of stage fright. [read more]

  • Glucagonoma
    Glucagonoma is a tumor affecting the pancreas' alpha cells, causing extreme surplus production of the hormones insulin and glucagons. The malignant and fast-spreading nature of the disease affects these alpha cells, causing the overproduction of hormones. [read more]

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a hereditary recessive x-linked enzyme defect. The disease is presented by abnormally low levels of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The enzyme is metabolic and is particularly significant to red blood cell metabolism. It is also associated to favism, a disease resulting in a hemolytic reaction due to the ingestion of fava beans. [read more]

  • Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
    Glutaryl-Coa dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as Glutaric aciduria type 1 or Glutaric aciduria, is a hereditary disease characterized by the body's disability to completely metabolize lysine, tryptophan, and hydroxysiline, which are amino acids. This results in byproducts of the breakdown, including glutaryl-CoA, glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and glutaconic acid, and the accumulation of these can harm the brain. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease
    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) refers to a group of conditions caused by enzyme defects affecting glycogen synthesis and resulting in inborn errors of metabolism. It is also known by the names dextrinosis and glycogenosis. Nine diseases make up the classification of glycogen storage disease. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type VI
    Glycogen storage disease type VI, also known as Hers disease, is a glycogen storage disease (GSD) characterized by a liver glycogen phosphorylase deficiency. It is also one of the less severe forms of all GSDs. [read more]

  • Goldenhar syndrome
    Goldenhar syndrome, also known as Oculo-Ariculo-Vertebral syndrome, is a congenital disorder wherein the ear, lip, nose, mandible and soft palate are incompletely developed. The condition usually affects just one side of the face. [read more]

  • Gonadal dysgenesis
    Gonadal dysgenesis is a general term used to refer to conditions characterized by abnormal gonadal development. Most of these cases show “streak gonads” only. Gonadal dysgenesis causes infertility and inhibits normal sexual development. [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis Turner Type
    Turner type Gonodal Dysgenesis, otherwise known as Turner Syndrome or Ullrich syndrome, is a condition wherein the monosomy of X chromosome is the most ommon, making the female sexual characteristics though present are generally underdeveloped. It is said to occur in about one out of every 2500 female birth (National Institutes of Health (2004). Clinical Features of Turner syndrome). [read more]

  • Gorham's disease
    Gorham's disease, also known as Massive Osteolysis, is a rare congenital bone disorder characterized by the spread of vascular channels that are destructive to the bone matrix. Osteolysis, or vanishing of the bones, occurs as well as angiomatosis. [read more]

  • Granuloma Inguinale
    Granuloma inguinale, also known as donovanosis, a bacterial illness characterized by genital ulcers that can be mistaken for syphilis. They can grow to endemic proportions and eat up genital tissues causing blood and mucus leakage. [read more]

  • Granuloma, Pyogenic
    A condition which is characterized as a common, benign growth that often appears as a rapidly growing, bleeding bump on the skin or inside the mouth, composing of blood vessels and may occur at the site of minor injury is called pyogenic granuloma. It is sometimes called a ?pregnancy tumor? (granuloma gravidarum) when it occurs in a pregnant woman. They develop in up to 5% of pregnant women. [read more]

  • Great vessels transposition
    Great vessels transposition is a general term referring to a group of congenital heart defects wherein the arrangement of any primary blood vessels are abnormal. The primary blood vessels affected could be any of the following: aorta, pulmonary veins, inferior or superior vena cava. [read more]

  • Gronblad Strandberg Syndrome
    Gronblad-Strandberg syndrome, also known as Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, is a genetic disorder that affects certain connective tissues in the body. In this condition, calcium as well as other minerals are deposited in the connective tissues causing abnormalities in the eyes, skin, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system. [read more]

  • Gross Hematuria
    Gross hematuria is in contrast to microhematuria in which the blood is visible only under a microscope: there is so little blood that it is difficult to be seen without magnification. [read more]

  • Group B Streptococcus
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is common disease among pregnant women that can be passed on to their newborn babies. It is caused by the Gram-positive bacteria named Steptoccocus agalacticae. The bacteria is usually characterized by the prevalence of Group B Lancefield antigen, thus the name Group B Streptoccocus. [read more]

  • Grover's disease
    Grover's disease is a common skin disorder that is presented by itchy red spots on the trunk. It usually occurs in men over the age of forty. [read more]

  • Growing Pains
    Growing pains are the "pains" children complain of during their growth spurt years. [read more]

  • Growth delay, constitutional
    Constitutional growth delay is a condition wherein skeletal growth is delayed. It is the most common origin of pubertal delay and short stature. The condition affects children and teens, although they have no other physical abnormality except short stature. It occurs in both girls and boys although more frequently in boys. [read more]

  • Growth hormone deficiency
    Growth hormone deficiency is a disorder affecting the pituitary gland which is responsible for producing the growth hormone, among other hormones. The pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormones, resulting in slower growth than normal. Both children and adults are affected by the condition. [read more]

  • Growth Problems
    Growth problems, or the failure to thrive, are disorders some infants suffer from. These conditions must be given constant care and attention since they may lead to more severe conditions that may affect the infant's overall development. [read more]

  • Gum Cancer
    Gum cancer is any abnormal growth that develops in the gum tissues. It is also called gingival cancer. [read more]

  • Gum Disease
    Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gums") (gingiva) around the teeth is a general term for gingival diseases affecting the gingiva (gums). As usually used, the term gingivitis refers to gingival inflammation induced by bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) adherent to tooth surfaces. [read more]

  • Gymnophobia
    Gymnophobia is an abnormal, unfounded and persistent fear of nudity (Corsini, R., 2002, The Dictionary of Psychology, p. 722)` [read more]

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Type B
    Hib is an bacterium which is said to be responsible for some three million severe illnesses and an estimated 386,000 mortalities per year mainly through pneumonia and meningitis. Affected children range from five years old and below. In developing countries where a large majority of Hib deaths occur, pneumonia is accounted for bigger number of mortalities than meningitis. [read more]

  • Haemophilus Influenzae Type B
    Hib is an bacterium which is said to be responsible for some three million severe illnesses and an estimated 386,000 mortalities per year mainly through pneumonia and meningitis. Affected children range from five years old and below. In developing countries where a large majority of Hib deaths occur, pneumonia is accounted for bigger number of mortalities than meningitis. [read more]

  • Hailey Hailey Disease
    Hailey-hailey disease is a skin anomaly in which clusters of small vesicles that cause ruptures in the skin. These lesions cause pigmentation once they dry up and get eroded. They usually develop in the neck, groin and genital areas and spread towards the different skin-covered areas. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. [read more]

  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
    Hairy cell leukemia is a slow-growing cancer characterized by overproduction of B cells in the bone marrow. These B cells, called lymphocytes, are a kind of white blood cell needed to fight infection. The bone marrow is unable to produce other types of normal cells as well, including platelets that heal bleeding, and red blood cells that carry oxygen. Hairy cell leukemia is a rare disease, constituting only 2% of all leukemia cases. [read more]

  • Hairy Tongue
    Hairy tongue is a condition that affects both humans and animals, characterized by a darkening of the tongue, sometimes hair growth. A fungus causes the dark appearance on the tongue, although it is a harmless condition. Most common affected are the elderly, tobacco smokers, and users of antibiotics. [read more]

  • Hand Wringing Rett Syndrome
    Hand writing Rett syndrome, or more commonly known as Rett syndrome, is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder. [read more]

  • Hand-Schuller-Christian Disease
    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a condition which lipids accumulate in the body and manifest as histiocytic granuloma in bones, particularly in the skull, the skin and viscera and which is often accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. [read more]

  • Hartnup Disease
    Hartnup disease, also known as monkey disease or Hartnup's disorder, is an autosomal recessive disorder wherein the transport of neutral amino acids to the kidneys and small intestines is defective. Sufferers have a niacin deficiency as well as an inborn error of amino acid metabolism. [read more]

  • Head And Neck Cancer
    Head and neck cancer is a collective term used to describe cancers that form in the aerodigestive area, in organs such as the mouth, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx, pharynx and lip. These cancers can affect the lymph nodes when not treated early. [read more]

  • Head Cancer
    Head cancer is a group of cancers that occur on the head up to the organs found in the neck. Included in this group are facial cancers, oral cancers, nasopharynx and laryngeal cancers. [read more]

  • Head Lice
    Lice are tiny, wingless, parasitic insects that feed on the blood. Lice are easily spread — particularly by schoolchildren — through close personal contact and by sharing belongings. Head lice are those that develop on the scalp. They're easiest to see at the nape of the neck and over the ears. [read more]

  • Headache, Tension
    Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headaches. The pain can radiate from the neck, back, eyes, or the other muscle groups in the body. Tension-type headaches account for almost 90% of all headaches. [read more]

  • Headaches In Children
    Headaches in children are a common problem among children. But chronic headaches among children may be a sign of other underlying illness so this condition must be given immediate attention. [read more]

  • Hemangioendothelioma
    Hemangioendothelioma refers to a group of vascular neoplasms that may be either benign or malignant. Around 10% of cases are associated with other syndromes including lymphedema, early onset varicose veins, Mafucci's syndrome, and Klippel-Trenauay-Weber syndrome. There are 3 types of hemangioendotheliomas: retiform, epitheloid, and kaposiform. [read more]

  • Hematuria (Blood in Urine)
    Hematuria (blood in urine) is a condition characterized by the presence of blood in urine. It comes in two forms; gross hematuria (blood is visible to the naked eye) and microscopic hematuria (in which blood can only be detected in the laboratory). [read more]

  • Hemihypertrophy
    Hemihypertrophy, properly referred to as hemihyperplasia, is the enlargement of one side of the body. [read more]

  • Hemimegalencephaly
    Hemimegalencephaly otherwise known as unilateral megancephaly is a medical condition that is characterized by the enlargement or abnormal growth of one-half of the brain. [read more]

  • Hemmorhagic Fever
    Hemmorhagic fever belongs to a group of viral hemmorhagic fevers (VHFs), which are human and animal diseases caused by any four RNA families: Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. [read more]

  • Hemorrhage
    Hemorrhage is the medical term used to describe excessive bleeding due to rupture of the blood vessels. It is a complication of other diseases. Hemorrhage can be external or internal. [read more]

  • Hepatic Hemangioma
    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors that develop in the liver. They are not cancerous. [read more]

  • Hepatitis
    Hepatitis implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. The condition can be self limiting, healing on its own, or can progress to scarring of the liver tissue. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts not more than 6 months and chronic when it persists longer. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause the most cases of liver damage worldwide. [read more]

  • Hepatitis, Toxic
    Toxic hepatitis is liver inflammation that occurs when the liver is damaged by toxic chemicals, drugs or certain poisonous mushrooms. [read more]

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignancy of the liver. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either a viral hepatitide infection or cirrhosis. In countries where hepatitis is not endemic, most of the malignant cancers in the liver are not primary HCC but metastasis of cancer from elsewhere in the body, like the colon. Treatment options of HCC and prognosis depend on many factors but especially on tumor size and staging. [read more]

  • Hereditary amyloidosis
    In medicine, amyloidosis refers to a group of conditions in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues, causing disease. A protein is amyloid if, because of an alteration in its secondary structure, it takes on a particular insoluble form, called the beta-pleated sheet. [read more]

  • Hereditary ataxia
    The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders marked by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum arises. The hereditary ataxias are grouped by mode of inheritance and causative gene or chromosomal locus. [read more]

  • Hereditary ceroid lipofuscinosis
    Hereditary ceroid lipofuscinosis (also known as Batten Disease or NCL) is a fatal, inherited disorder of the nervous system that starts in childhood. In some cases, the early signs are subtle, taking the form of personality and behavior changes, clumsiness, slow learning, or stumbling. [read more]

  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disorder that leads to the development of multiple abnormalities in the blood vessels. [read more]

  • Hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia
    Hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia is a term used to describe a group of rare, genetically transmitted blood disorders marked by the premature destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes or RBCs). If the red blood cells cannot be replaced faster than they destroy themselves, anemia results. [read more]

  • Hereditary spastic paraplegia
    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as familial spastic paraparesis (FSP), refers to a group of inherited disorders that are marked by progressive weakness and stiffness of the legs [read more]

  • Hermaphroditism
    Hermaphroditism (or Intersex) is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). [read more]

  • Hernia, Inguinal
    Inguinal hernias are protrusions of abdominal cavity contents through the inguinal canal. [read more]

  • Herpes simplex disease
    Herpes simplex is commonly known as as cold sores. It is a viral infection of the skin that arises once or return again and again. This is because when the virus is cleared from the skin by the immune system it hides in the nerves and is never wholly removed from the body. Herpes infections are very prevalent. Unfortunately those who carry the herpes virus can spread the disease without even knowing it. [read more]

  • Herpes Simplex Virus, Orofacial
    Leading to the development of small and usually painful blisters on the skin of the mouth, lips, gums or lip area, herpes labialis is an infection caused by the herpes simples. The blisters are commonly called fever blisters or cold sores. [read more]

  • HHH syndrome
    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome is a very rare inborn error of metabolism; the age at presentation and long-term prognosis vary widely among affected individuals. Growth and developmental delays, periodic confusion and ataxia, and learning disabilities (especially speech delay), are typical presenting symptoms. In this syndrome, a defect in the transport of ornithine into the mitochondrial matrix significantly hinders the urea cycle, thereby impeding nitrogen disposal. [read more]

  • Hiccups
    A hiccup (hiccough) is a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm that typically repeats several times per minute. In medicine, it is referred to as synchronous diaphramatic flutter (SDF). [read more]

  • Hip dysplasia
    Hip dysplasia is a hereditary disease that, in its more severe form, can eventually lead to crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints. [read more]

  • Hip Labral Tear
    The socket of the human hip joint known as acetabulum is naturally lined by some cartilage called labrum, which provides proper stability as well as cushioning for the hip joint. In the case of thehip labral tear, known as a hip labral tear or otherwise known as the acetabular labral tear can often arise from injury or because if some repetitive movements that cause the wear-and-tear on the hip joint, such as osteoarthritis. [read more]

  • Hirschsprung's disease
    Hirschsprung's disease is a condition that affects the large intestine (colon or large bowel) and leads to problems with passing stool. It's present when a baby is born (congenital) and arises from missing nerve cells in the muscles of a portion of the baby's colon. [read more]

  • Hirsutism
    Hirsutism is described as excessive and increased hair growth in women in locations where the occurrence of terminal hair normally is minimal or absent. [read more]

  • Hodgkin's disease
    In Hodgkin's disease, cells in the lymphatic system develop abnormally and may spread beyond the lymphatic system. As Hodgkin's disease progresses, it compromises the body's ability to fight different infections. [read more]

  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to utilize the vitamin biotin effectively. This disorder is classified as a multiple carboxylase deficiency, a group of disorders marked by impaired activity of certain enzymes that depend on biotin. [read more]

  • Holt-Oram syndrome
    Holt-Oram syndrome is a disorder that affects bones in the arms and hands and may also cause heart problems in patients. [read more]

  • Hookworm
    The hookworm is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. There are two species of hookworms commonly infect humans, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. [read more]

  • Hot Tub Rash
    Hot tub rash, with other common names like barber's itch, folliculitis, or hot tub folliculitis may sound more like a bad joke than a skin disorder, but an infection of the hair follicles is not a laughing matter. Scarring and permanent hair loss might be the result in severe cases and even mild folliculitis can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. [read more]

  • HPV Infection
    HPV infection is a condition contracted from one of a group of more than 100 related human papillomaviruses (or HPVs). [read more]

  • HSV-2 infection
    HSV1 (HHV1) and HSV2 (HHV2) are neurotrophic alpha-herpesviruses that occur naturally only in humans. [read more]

  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis
    Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a rare infectious disease that is part of a group of diseases known as the Human Ehrlichioses. The Ehrlichioses are infectious diseases caused by bacteria in the "Ehrlichia" group. Several forms of Human Ehrlichial infection have been described including Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE), Sennetsu Fever, and Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME). Though caused by different strains of Ehrlichia bacteria, the disorders are all marked by similar symptoms. [read more]

  • Human Papillomavirus Infection
    HPV infection is a condition contracted from one of a group of more than 100 related human papillomaviruses (or HPVs). [read more]

  • Hunter syndrome
    Hunter syndrome is an inherited metabolic disorder that arises when an enzyme the body needs to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans, or mucopolysaccharides, is either missing or malfunctioning. [read more]

  • Hurler syndrome
    Hurler syndrome, also called mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), Hurler's disease and gargoylism, is a genetic disorder that results in the deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes. In the absence of this enzyme, a buildup of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate occurs in the body. Symptoms appear during childhood and early death can take place due to organ damage. [read more]

  • Hurthle cell Cancer
    Hurthle cell cancer (or HCC) is a relatively rare and extremely aggressive type of cancer that occurs in the thyroid gland, the gland responsible for secreting hormones that are essential in regulating the metabolism. [read more]

  • Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome
    Hutchingson-Gilford syndrome (also known as progeria) is a very rare disease of premature aging in young children, marked mainly by a birdlike, "wizened old man" facial appearance, premature bodily ageing (progeria) and dwarfism. The children have bird-like features, large skull, atrophy of muscles and skin, loss of subcutaneous fat, high serum lipid levels and early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels. [read more]

  • Hydatid Disease
    Medically known as Echinococcosis and other terms are hydatid cyst, unilocular hydatid disease or cystic echinococcosis which is a potentially deadly parasitic disease that can affect numerous animals. [read more]

  • Hydatidiform mole
    A hydatidiform mole (or hydatid mole, mola hytadidosa) is an anomalous growth containing a nonviable embryo which implants and proliferates within the uterus. [read more]

  • Hydatidosis
    Echinococcosis, also called hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, unilocular hydatid disease or cystic echinococcosis, is a potentially fatal parasitic disease that can affect many animals, including wildlife, commercial livestock and humans. [read more]

  • Hydranencephaly
    Hydranencephaly is a rare condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are missing and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid. [read more]

  • Hydrocele
    A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle that leads to swelling of the scrotum, the loose bag of skin underneath the penis. [read more]

  • Hydrocephalus
    Hydrocephalus is a term derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water, and "cephalus" meaning head, and this condition is sometimes known as "water in the brain". People with this condition have abnormal collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. [read more]

  • Hydrocephalus In Children
    Hydrocephalus is a serious increase of cerebrospinal fluid inside the ventricles of the brain. This is a common dreaded disease among infants that can lead to brain damage. [read more]

  • Hydrosyringomyelia
    Hydrosyringomyelia refers to a group of conditions a person experiences when the spinal cord is damaged by an abnormal formation of fluid-filled cavities within the cord. [read more]

  • Hymenolepiasis
    Hymenolepiasis is infestation by one of two species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta. [read more]

  • Hyper IgE Syndrome
    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a heterogeneous kind of disorders presented by recurring staphylococcal infections, eczema-like rashes, lung infections and high levels of the IgE antibody in the blood serum. It is sometimes known as Job-Buckley syndrome. [read more]

  • Hyperadrenalism
    Hyperadrenalism, more commonly known as Cushing's Syndrome, is an endocrine abnormality marked by the presence of high cortisol levels in the blood. Hyperadrenalism is also often called hypercortisolism or hyperadrenocorticism. Its more familiar moniker, “Cushing's Syndrome”, is attributed to Harvey Cushing, an American physician who is credited for its discovery and consequent study. According to the results of Cushing's studies, the disease is characterized by abnormal fat deposition. It also occurs commonly in dogs and domestic horses. In particular, Cushing's syndrome occurs when the adrenal cortex is invaded with a tumor and particularly deficient ACTH levels. [read more]

  • Hyperammonemia
    Hyperammonemia, also known as hyperammonaemia, is a type of metabolic defect marked by high levels of ammonia in the blood. Hyperammonemia can be a fatal condition which can easily lead to encephalopathy and eventual death. [read more]

  • Hypercalcaemia
    Hypercalcaemia (sometimes spelled Hypercalcemia) is a disorder characterized by elevated levels of calcium in the blood. Hypercalcaemia may be asymptomatic. It can, however, indicate the presence of other diseases; therefore, a diagnosis is needed if it persists. [read more]

  • Hypercortisolism
    Hypercortisolism is a condition that arises from an excess of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Sometimes called hypercortisolism, Cushing's syndrome can occur when the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys, make too much cortisol. It may also develop if the person is taking high doses of cortisol-like medications (corticosteroids) for a prolonged period. [read more]

  • Hyperexplexia
    Hyperexplexia is an uncommon inherited disorder in which infants show a heightened startle reflex or reaction. The onset of the disease is soon after birth, and is characterized by rigidity or stiffness and supposition of flexed fetal placement. This startle reflex is sometimes joined by ‘acute generalized hypertonia' that causes an individual to suddenly fall like a stiff log onto the ground. Other names for this disease include ‘startle disease', Kok disease, and stiff baby syndrome. [read more]

  • Hyperhidrosis
    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition in which there is an abnormally excessive and unpredictable sweating. People with this condition can sweat even when temperatures are cool or when they're resting. The sweating may occur in one's hands, armpits, or feet. [read more]

  • Hyperkalemic Renal Tubular Acidosis
    Hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis (HRTA) is a class of defects wherein hydrogen ion excretion is impaired, causing a chronic metabolic acidosis. Hyperchloremia is often present in this condition, and other electrolytes such as Ca and K are frequently deranged. [read more]

  • Hyperlexia
    Hyperlexia is a child spontaneously and precociously masters single-word reading. It can be viewed as a super ability, that is, word recognition ability far above expected levels. The most common definition also includes difficulties with comprehension of printed material beyond or even at the single-word level. Several hyperlexics also have trouble understanding speech. Probably all children with hyperlexia also lie on the autism spectrum. [read more]

  • Hyperparathyroidism
    Hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an over activity of the parathyroid glands, often caused by an overproduction of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH regulates and helps maintain the levels of calcium and phosphate in the body. When one or more of the parathyroid glands becomes over-active, calcium levels are elevated while phosphate levels drop. [read more]

  • Hyperprolinemia
    Hyperprolinemia is a disorder resulting from excessive protein-building block (known as proline) in the patient's blood. This inherited condition has two types, namely Type I and Type II. [read more]

  • Hyperthyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition that is caused by the ill effects of too much production of thyroid hormone on tissues of the human body. While there are several underlying causes of hyperthyroidism, patients would usually experience the same symptoms. [read more]

  • Hypertrichosis
    Hypertrichosis, or werewolf's disease, refers to an abnormally excessive hair growing on the body. This hair tends to cover the face, arms and other parts of the skin. [read more]

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a defect in the muscle of the heart known as myocardium. This disease is characterized by the thickening (or hypertrophy) of the myocardium without any evident cause. HCM is believed to be the leading cause of sudden, unexpected cardiac arrest in any age group. [read more]

  • Hyphema
    Hyphema is a condition wherein blood is accumulated inside the anterior chamber of the eye. [read more]

  • Hypochondrogenesis
    Hypochondrogenesis is a disease characterized by bone growth malformations. Though it is severe, Hypochondrogenesis is considered milder than achondrogenesis type 2 which is another skeletal disorder. [read more]

  • Hypochondroplasia
    Hypochondroplasia is a developmental disorder characterized by a stature that is short and disproportional and micromelia, the condition wherein the head appears large when compared to the other parts of the body. This condition tends to affect females more than males. [read more]

  • Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal development of structures such as skin, teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. It is among the 150 types of ectodermal dysplasia. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia in humans. It is estimated to affect at least 1 in 17,000 people worldwide [read more]

  • Hypolipoproteinemia
    Hypolipoproteinemia is a rare but serious condition characterized by a lack of fat in the blood. Fat is absorbed by blood, along with proteins and other chemicals, in the intestine and is transported to the liver for processing. [read more]

  • Hypopituitarism
    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by a deficiency in one or several hormones of the pituitary gland. Hormones are produced by the hypothalamus to regulate secretions from the pituitary gland. This is why a dysfunction in the hypothalamus often causes disorders in the pituitary gland. [read more]

  • Hypothalamic Dysfunction
    Hypothalamic dysfunction is a condition that involves the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that helps control the pituitary glands especially in responding to stress. The hypothalamus gland helps in the regulation if appetite and weight, balance of salt and water in the body, body temperature as well as emotions. Childbirth, growth, sleep and milk production are also regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid, ovaries, adrenal glands and testes are all controlled in turn by the pituitary gland. [read more]

  • Hypothalamic hamartoblastoma syndrome
    Hypothalamic hamartoblastoma syndrome, also known as Pallister-Hall syndrome syndrome, is a disease characterized by an abnormal growth in the brain known as hypothalamic hamartoma. Hypothalamic hamartoblastoma syndrome affects many parts of the body but does not pose serious complications most of the time. While the growths often do not cause any health problems they sometime lead to seizures and other life-threatening conditions. Some individuals with this disease have an obstruction in their anal opening, malformation of their airways and even kidney abnormalities. [read more]

  • Hypotropia
    Hypotropia is a condition misalignment of eyes characterized by having the visual axis lower than the fellow fixating eye. A similar but opposite condition is called hypertrophy. [read more]

  • ICF Syndrome
    ICF Syndrome is a condition characterized by a weak immune system and anomalies in the face. ICF Syndrome is an inherited condition. The main feature of ICF Syndrome is variable immunodeficiency combined with centrometric instability of chromosome 1, 9, 16 and even 2. ICF syndrome is a rare condition that affects less than 200,000 people in the United States. [read more]

  • Ichthyosis Vulgaris
    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a skin condition characterized by dry and scaly skin. It is the most common form of a general skin condition known as ichthyosis as it affects 1 in 250 people. This is why it is also sometimes called common ichthyosis. [read more]

  • Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome
    Iliotibial Band Syndrome is one of the primary causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a superficial thickening of tissue on the outside of the thigh, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting in the lower part of the knee. The band is crucial in stabilizing the knee during running, moving from behind the femur to the front during the gait cycle. [read more]

  • Illum syndrome
    Illum syndrome, also known as arthrogryposis multiplex congenita whistling face, is a kind of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, a rare congenital disorder that causes multiple joint contractures and is characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis. [read more]

  • Impossible syndrome
    Impossible Syndrome, also known as Chondrodysplasia situs inversus imperforate anus polydactyly, is a complex combination of human congenital malformations (birth defects). The malformations include chondrodysplasia (improper growth of bone and cartilage), situs inversus totalis (chest and abdominal organs all a mirror image of normal), hexadactyly (six digits) on hands and feet, cleft epiglottis and larynx, diaphragmatic hernia, pancreatic abnormalities, kidney abnormal on one side and absent on the other side, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia, and imperforate anus. [read more]

  • Impotence
    Impotence is an inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Medical professionals commonly use the term “erectile dysfunction” to describe this disorder and to differentiate it from other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation and orgasm. [read more]

  • Inclusion conjunctivitis
    Inclusion conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white part, or sclera, of the eyeball) by the chlamydia trachomatis. [read more]

  • Indigestion
    The condition is also referred to as an upset stomach where in an individual feels a discomfort in the upper abdomen. It is also a group of symptoms that usually includes nausea, heartburn, bloating and belching. [read more]

  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome
    Infant respiratory distress syndrome ("RDS", also known as "Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn", previously called hyaline membrane disease), is a syndrome caused in premature infants by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. It can also arise from a genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins. RDS affects around 1% of newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants. [read more]

  • Infantile spinal muscular atrophy
    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a term used to describe a number of different disorders, all having in common a genetic cause and the manifestation of weakness due to loss of the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem. [read more]

  • Infectious arthritis
    Infectious arthritis is a form of joint inflammation that is caused by a germ. The germ can be a virus, bacterium, or a fungus. Infection of the joints typically occurs after a previous infection elsewhere in the body. [read more]

  • Infertility
    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman keeps on having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Several couples have infertility problems. For the third of the time, infertility can be traced to the woman. In another third case, it is because of the man. While the rest of the time, it is because of either partners or no cause is found. [read more]

  • Influenza
    Influenza, more commonly known as "the flu," is an illness caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza infection often leads to a more severe illness with a mortality rate (death rate) of about 0.1% of people who are infected with the virus. [read more]

  • Ingrown Toenail
    An ingrown toenail is a common condition in which the corner or side of one of the toenails grows into the soft flesh of that toe. The result is pain, swelling, redness, and sometimes, an infection. An ingrown toenail usually affects the big toe. [read more]

  • Inguinal hernia
    Inguinal hernias occur when soft tissue — usually part of the intestine — protrudes through a weak point or tear in the lower abdominal wall. The resulting bulge of this common condition can be painful — especially when the person coughs, bends over or lifts a heavy object [read more]

  • Inguinal Hernia
    Inguinal hernias happen when the soft tissue sticks out through a fragile point or cut in the lower abdominal wall which can be painful when coughing, bending or lifting heavy objects. [read more]

  • Insulin Resistance
    Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. Insulin resistance in fat cells reduces the effects of insulin and results in elevated hydrolysis of stored triglycerides in the absence of measures which either increase insulin sensitivity or which has additional insulin. [read more]

  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
    Intermittent explosive disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by extreme expressions of anger, often to the point of uncontrollable rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand. It is usually categorized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as an impulse control disorder. IED belongs to the greater family of Axis I impulse control disorders listed in the DSM-IV-TR, along with kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling, and others. [read more]

  • INTERNAL BLEEDING
    Internal bleeding is a process where blood vessels are suddenly ruptured despite the absence of an open wound. This is more popularly known as internal hemorrhage. [read more]

  • Interstitial Lung Disease
    Interstitial Lung Disease refers to a cluster of lung disorders. It usually involves certain lung areas like the tissues of the alveoli, basement membrane (structures supporting overlying epithelial and endothelial cells), pulmonary capillary endothelium, perilymphatic and perivascular tissues. The term Interstitial Lung Disease is used to make a distinction of the disease classified as belonging to this group from obstructive airway ailments. Although the majority of diseases in this group include fibrosis in the later stage, the term pulmonary fibrosis is completely disregarded in identifying this disease. [read more]

  • Intertrigo
    An irritation of touching skin surfaces in body fold regions (armpits, under the breasts, buttocks, belly, groin and sometimes between toes or fingers) is called intertrigo. It can be worsened by any conditions causing increased heat, friction and wetness and may be complicated by superficial skin infection with yeast or bacteria. [read more]

  • Intraductal Carcinoma
    Intraductal carcinoma, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is when abnormal cells multiply and form a growth within a milk duct of your breast. [read more]

  • Intraocular Melanoma
    Intraocular melanoma, a rare cancer, is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the area of the eye called the uvea. [read more]

  • Intratuterine Growth Retardation
    Intratuterine growth retardation (IGR) refers to a condition wherein an infant is born smaller than the normal size. Babies in this condition are often described to be small for their gestational age. [read more]

  • Intrauterine Dwarfism
    Intrauterine dwarfism is a rare growth disorder also known as the Russel-Silver syndrome. It is one of the five types of primordial dwarfism. [read more]

  • Iodine Deficiency
    Iodine deficiency is the result of lack if iodine in the diet. Iodine deficiency induced disorders include goiter and cretinism, which is a medical and physical condition characterized by severely underdeveloped physical and mental growth. [read more]

  • Jackson-Weiss syndrome
    Jackson-Weiss Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by bone malformation including fusion of foot bones and premature joining together of some bones in the skull, which impedes the normal growth of the skull; thus create deformity to the face and head. [read more]

  • Jarcho-Levin Syndrome
    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare, genetic disorder characterized by abnormalities in the axial skeleton; usually referred to as spinal column abnormalities. Due to some thorax malformations, patients suffering from Jarcho-Levin syndrome are at a higher risk for life-threatening pulmonary complications. It is also described as short trunk dwarfism with abnormalities in the thorax causing thoracic insufficiency. The vertebrate are fused, preventing the rib cage from developing properly, consequently the chest cavity becomes too small to be big enough for the growing lungs. [read more]

  • Jock Itch
    Jock itch, also known as tinea cruris, is a fungal infection of the skin in the groin. The warm, moist environment is the best place for the fungus to grow. [read more]

  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
    JRA or Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is not just a single illness. It is, in fact, a group of illnesses of unidentified etiology. The manifestation is a chronic inflammation of the joint. Treatment advances in the last thirty years have altered the prognosis for the more acute types of this disease. The first treatment is limited with only the use of salicylates and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. The initial treatment resulted into numerous patients being bound to their wheelchairs. Some patients tried synovectomies to get rid of tissue excesses which result from uncontrolled arthritis. The second-line medicines that were added have improved the prognosis for those who suffered from JRA. It started with gold salt injection and gradually replaced by MTX or methotrexate which is a more effective solution. These drugs are administered with team approach background in centers of pediatric rheumatology. In there, occupational and physical therapies have allowed much improved physical functions. The introduction of etanercept (which is a biologic enemy of tumor necrosis factor or TNF) has introduced a new era in treatments. A few more biologic agents such as the anakinra (which is an IL-1 or interleukin-1 receptor opponent) could be used in some patients who are not responsive to second-line medication. The future holds an inhibition of IL-6 which could be effective in systemic sufferers with JRA with high levels. [read more]

  • Kabuki Syndrome
    Kabuki syndrome also called as Kabuki makeup syndrome (KMS) or Niikawa Kuroki syndrome in the past, is a rare pediatric inborn disease. This congenital disorder has no known cause and comes with numerous inborn anomalies and retardation of mental development. It was discovered by Niikawa and Kuroki who were Japanese scientists. It was named Kabuki syndrome because the individuals who are affected by this illness look like Kabuki dolls or Kabuki performers who are wearing white makeup. The name term Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome, obviously, relates to the two scientists who made the discovery of the illness. [read more]

  • Kaolin Pneumoconiosis
    Kaolin is processed by, first, removing it from seams that are underground in an area of mining. The process involves slicing, drying, and pulverizing to make a finished product. A study was done to know the concentration of kaolin dust in different areas of work. The study was also set up to be able to assess the occurrence of pulmonary and radiographic function defects among workers. There were 65 subjects from the Georgia kaolin mines. It was noted that the respirable concentrations of kaolin dust were at their peak in the areas where the product was being processed as compared to the mine or areas of maintenance. The study ran through 1977 until 1981. The kaolin dust level that is was respirable in the processing are in the year 1981 was at 1.74 milligrams/m3 and 0.14 milligrams/m3 in the area of mining. 5 of the workers from the processing area had evidences, confirmed by radiography, of kaolin pneumoconiosis. The FVC or the forced vital capacity and FEV1 mean values for the entire group were observed to be in the normal range. When the spirometric quantities were stated as a percentage or portion of the values that were predicted, the FEV1 and FVC were noticeably lower among workers with kaolinosis than among workers from within the processing area. Both the FEV1 and the FVC have declined considerably as the years progress and the worker remains working in the processing area. The FEV1/FVC%, on the other hand, was not changed significantly by either the kaolinosis presence or by the increase in work years. This indicates that the defect was confined and thus very likely to be a result of inhalation of the kaolin dust as compared to smoking. [read more]

  • Kaufman Oculocerebrofacial syndrome
    Kaufman Oculocerebrofacial syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder. This rare genetic medical condition is characterized by some abnormal looking facial features including small head, narrow face, eye anomalies, small mandible, upslanting palpebral fissure (the distance between the upper and lower eyelids), highly arched palates, and preauricular skin tags. Severely inflicted people show very obvious facial features of a mentally retarded person. [read more]

  • Keloids
    Keloids are type of scars characterized by significant marks of skin elevation; it is an overgrowth of tissue on the exact location of the healed skin injury. Keloids usually occur after an injury or surgery. Keloids are usually firm, fibrous lesions. Keloids are non-contagious and non-malignant at the same time. Not like scars, keloids do not sink in size. Keloids often form on the back, chest, earlobes, and shoulder. The face is not primarily at a risk of developing keloids. [read more]

  • Keratoacanthoma
    Keratoacanthoma is a fairly common, epithelial tumor. Formerly, it was regarded as variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma; a form of malignant cancer that occur in many different organs of the body including the skin, lips, esophagus, and mouth among other else. It is a disease common in the elderly. Keratoacanthoma usually disappears by itself within a period of time; it is non-contagious. [read more]

  • Keratosis
    Keratosis is the abnormal growth of keratin on the skin. It has three types, keratosis pilaris, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. [read more]

  • Keratosis,seborrheic
    Seborrheic Keratosis is a benign skin growth that can occur during puberty but are more common in older people starting at the age of 40. Seborrheic Keratosis is often illustrated as to having a “pasted-on” appearance because growth only involves the top layer of the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). It is also described as a thickening condition of the skin that increases with age.` [read more]

  • Kerion
    A scalp condition that occurs in severe cases of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis), appearing as an inflamed, thickened, pus-filled area, and it is sometimes accompanied by a fever is called kerion. Commonly seen in children, the underlying condition, scalp ringworm is a usually harmless fungal infection of the hair and scalp that occurs as scaly spots and patches of broken hair on the head. [read more]

  • Kidney Infection
    Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a specific type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels up into your kidneys. Kidney infection, or pyelonephritis, very often results when a bacterial infection moves from the lower urinary tract like bladder, urethra to the kidneys. [read more]

  • Kidney Stones
    Kidney stone also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. The terms nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis pertains to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively. [read more]

  • Klippel Trenaunay Weber Syndrome
    Klippel Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome is a medical condition wherein blood vessels and lymph vessels fail to form as it should be. It is characterized by benign skin growths comprised of blood vessels, numerous lymph tissues, and varicose veins. [read more]

  • Kniest Dysplasia
    Kniest Dysplasia is a rare genetic bone growth disorder; it is an uncommon kind of inherited disorder. It is a subtype of Type II and XI collagenopathies, which are described as group of disorders that affect the tissue supporting the body's joints and organs. This disorder is usually exemplified by dwarfism, skeletal anomalies, enlarged joints, as well as vision and hearing deficiencies. [read more]

  • Kocher-Debr-Semlaigne syndrome
    Kocher-Debr-Semlaigne syndrome is a rare disease. It is a disease of the bone muscles that are products of any nerve disorders. It is a myopathy of hypothyroidism (a medical condition marked by insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. The name of the syndrome is derived from the names of Emil Theodor Kocher, Robert Debr?, and Georges Sem?laigne. This syndrome are referred with other names including: Debr Semlaigne syndrome, myxoedema-myotonic dystrophy syndrome, myxoedema-muscular hypertrophy syndrome, myopathy-myxoedema syndrome, cretinism-muscular hypertrophy, hypothyroidism-large muscle syndrome, hypothyroid myopathy, infantile, myxoedema-muscular hypertrophy, hypothyreotic muscular hypertrophy in children, [read more]

  • Krabbe leukodystrophy
    Krabbe disease (also called globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis) is a rare, often fatal degenerative disorder that affects the myelin sheath of the nervous system. [read more]

  • Krause-Kivlin syndrome
    Krause-van Schooneveld-Kivlin syndrome (also known as Peters-plus sundrome) is a hereditary syndrome that primarily affects the eyes, growth and development of the individual. It is also called Krause-Kivlin syndrome or Peters-plus syndrome. [read more]

  • krukenberg Tumor
    A Krukenberg tumor is a secondary ovarian abnormality in which an ovarian tumor grows in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors are characterized by the presence of mucin-secreting signet-ring cells in the ovarian tissues. [read more]

  • Kuskokwim disease
    Kuskokwim disease is a rare syndrome where abnormal muscle attachment causes abnormalities such as muscle wasting or excessive growth and contractures. It is a type of Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, a rare congenital disorder that causes multiple joint contractures and is marked by muscle weakness and fibrosis. [read more]

  • Kwashiorkor
    Kwashiorkor is the type of malnutrition that is commonly believed to be associated with inadequate protein intake. The common sufferers of Kwashiorkor are children with ages from one to four; however, older children and adults can also be inflicted with this condition. This usually occurs when a weaned children receives a diet replacement that high on carbohydrates and starch but low in protein. [read more]

  • Lafora Disease
    Lafora disease is a deadly autosomal hereditary disease marked by the presence of inclusion bodies within the cells of neurons, heart, liver, skin, and muscles. These inclusion bodies are known as Lafora bodies. Lafora Disease is name after a Spanish neuropathologist, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora. [read more]

  • Lamellar Ichthyosis
    Lamellar Ichthyosis is a rare inherited skin disorder. An infant born with this disorder is covered with a translucent membrane; after the membrane is cast off, it will reveal different sizes of red scaly skin patches. [read more]

  • Landau-Kleffner syndrome
    Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome marked by the abrupt or slowly development of inability to understand or express language (aphasia) and an abnormal electroencephalogram or EEG. This is because the syndrome affects the part of the brain that is responsible for comprehension and speech control. Usually, this syndrome affects children aged 5 to 7 years old. This syndrome is also known as: infantile acquired aphasia, aphasia with convulsive disorder, and acquired epileptic aphasia. [read more]

  • Langer-Giedion syndrome
    Langer-Giedion syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that occurs when a chrosomal material is deleted. This syndrome is also known as trichorhinophalangeal syndrome or LGCR (for Langer-Giedion Chromosome Region). This medical condition is named after the two doctors dig into research about this condition during the 1960s. [read more]

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a medical condition characterized with the increased production of Langerhans cell. Langerhans cell are abnormal cells originating from the bone marrow and have the capability to drift from the skin to the lymph nodes. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was formerly referred to as histiocytosis X. The Histiocyte society renamed the disease in 1985. [read more]

  • Laron-type dwarfism
    Laron-type dwarfism also known as Laron syndrome, is a autosomal recessive disorder; where the body has adequate amounts of growth hormones but is deficient with receptors needed to develop the growth hormones resulting to excessively short stature or dwarfism. Laron-type dwarfism is named after the Israeli researcher Zvi Laron, who reported the medical condition in 1966 after a longstanding observation that started in 1958. [read more]

  • Larynx Cancer
    Larynx cancer, or laryngeal cancer, is a grave condition in which the larynx is ruined due to growths and infections. This can lead to loss of one's voice. [read more]

  • Lattice Dystrophy
    Lattice dystrophy is a medical condition wherein abnormal fibers build up in a specific part of the eye's anterior stroma. [read more]

  • Ledderhose disease
    Ledderhose disease, also known as plantar fibromatosis, is a non-malignant swelling and thickening of the fascia, or the feet's connective tissue. It is not painful, but the nodules growing along the foot's tendons stiffen the toes, which in turn disables the person's ability to walk properly. [read more]

  • Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome
    Legg-Calv?-Perthes syndrome is a bone disease affecting the hip joint. The disease causes a loss of bone mass which leads to the collapse of the whole joint, deforming the ball of the femur as well as the hip socket. It is also known to others as the Perthes disease. [read more]

  • Leiomyoma
    Leiomyoma is a benign muscle neoplasm which may develop in any body organ but occurs mostly in the esophagus, small bowel and the uterus. [read more]

  • Leprechaunism
    Leprechaunism is a rare medical disorder that exhibits elf-like features on an affected individual. Also called the Donohue syndrome, persons who suffer from Leprechaunism display distorted facial attributes such as protruberant ears, flaring nostrils and thick lips. Other physical features show enlarged reproductive organs and stunted growth. [read more]

  • leukodystrophy, Globoid cell
    Globoid cell leukodystrophy, or Krabbe disease, is a rare, fatal degenerative disease that destroys the myelin content of the nervous system. [read more]

  • LGCR
    LGCR, or the Langier-Giedion Chromosome Region, is a rare genetic defect caused by a deletion in a certain chromosome material. This problem occurs when a part of the chromosome 8's long arm has missing genes, causing poor growth and development. [read more]

  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
    The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. It develops a tumor that hinders normal cell growth. It can also take form in several types of cancers and attack persons at a very young age. [read more]

  • Lice
    Lice are tiny, wingless, parasitic insects that feed on the blood. Lice are easily spread — particularly by schoolchildren — through close personal contact and by sharing belongings. Head lice are those that develop on the scalp. They're easiest to see at the nape of the neck and over the ears. [read more]

  • Lichen Sclerosis
    Lichen sclerosis is a skin disorder that can affect men, women, or children, but is most common in women. It typically occurs on the vulva (the outer genitalia or sex organ) in women, but sometimes develops on the head of the penis in men. Occasionally, lichen sclerosus ican be seen on other parts of the body, especially the upper body, breasts, and upper arms. [read more]

  • Lichen spinulosus
    Lichen spinulosus is a skin disorder wherein follicular keratotic papules grow in patches. This disease is a rare variant of keratosis pilaris. [read more]

  • Liddle syndrome
    Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that causes problems with potassium deficiency and sodium resorption from the renal tubule. Hypertension tends to develop at infant stages because of this disease. [read more]

  • Lipoma
    A lipoma is a slow-growing, fatty tumor situated between the skin and the underlying muscle layer. [read more]

  • Lithiasis, Renal
    Kidney stones (also called renal lithiasis) are small, hard deposits of mineral and acid salts on the inner surfaces of the kidneys. [read more]

  • Liver Cancer
    Primary liver cancer begins in the cells of the liver itself. Although a lot of cancers are declining in the United States, new cases of primary liver cancer are increasing. [read more]

  • Liver neoplasms
    Liver neoplasms are non-endemic, malignant cancers in the liver that spread in the other body organs such as he colon. [read more]

  • Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder similar to the Marfan syndrome. It was first discovered by Harry Dietz and Bart Loeys. [read more]

  • Lower Back Pain
    Lower back pain is a common condition in which the lumbar vertebrae swells and causes pain. It has three types of classifications, acute, subacute and chronic. [read more]

  • Lumbago
    Lumbago is a general term pertaining to persistent pain affecting the small of the back, or more specifically, the lumbar region. [read more]

  • Lung Cancer
    Lung cancer is an affliction characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the tissues of the lung, which may ultimately lead to metastasis, invasion of adjacent tissues, and even infiltration in other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Lung Neoplasm
    Lung neoplasm is a condition in which the lung experiences excessive growth of new abnormal tissue. These tissues grow by cellular division and spread abnormally fast, continuing to grow long after the stimuli that initiated it has ceased. The growth may either be benign or malignant. [read more]

  • Lyme Disease
    Also called borreliosis, lyme disease is an infectious disease that results from an invasion of a bacteria from the genus Borrelia. The point of infection is usually the bite of a contaminated black-legged or deer tick. Other carriers, including other kinds of ticks, may also pass the affliction to humans. In the US, lyme disease is primarily caused by borrelia burgdorferi, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are the predominant causes in Europe. [read more]

  • Lymphadenopathy
    Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning "disease of the lymph nodes." Almost synonymously are used with "swollen/enlarged lymph nodes". When the infection of the lymph nodes themselves, it is called lymphadenitis, but when the infection is of the lymph channels, it is called lymphangitis. [read more]

  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, LMA for brevity, is a rare lung disorder in which abnormal smooth muscle cells grow rapidly in lung and lymph tissue [read more]

  • Lymphangiomas
    Lymphangiomas are a rare type of angioma or benign tumors that typically appear at birth or early in childhood. [read more]

  • Lymphatic Filariasis
    Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic and infectious tropical disease. It is endemic in tropical areas of the world, where it was said that up to 54% of the population have microfilariae in their blood (Aupali T, Ismid IS, Wibowo H, et al. (2006). "Estimation of the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis by a pool screen PCR assay using blood spots collected on filter paper". Tran R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 (8): 753–9). [read more]

  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum
    Lymphogranuloma venereum (or LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease primarily affecting the lymphatics and caused by certain invasive strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. This disease is also known by many other names, including: climatic bubo, tropical bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, lymphopathia venerea, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease, and lymphogranuloma inguinale. [read more]

  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), which is an uncommon sexually transmitted disease and is characterized by its spreading though having unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex is caused by certain types of the bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. This disease causes swollen and painful lymph nodes, which can then break into large ulcers. As it develops, lymphogranuloma venereum goes through 3 distinct stages where the first 2 stages may be minor and you might not even be aware of any symptoms until you reach stage 3, called genitoanorectal syndrome. [read more]

  • Lymphoma
    Lymphomas are part of the broad group of diseases called hematological neoplasms. It is a type of cancer that originates in a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system that is commonly known as the lymphocytes. [read more]

  • Lymphosarcoma
    Lymphosarcoma is a type of lymphoma that is also commonly known as Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (Neighbors,M. and Tannehill-Jones,R. 2000 Human Diseases, pp.115-115). It is a malignant lympohoma in which neoplastic cells diffusely infiltrate the entire lymph node without any pattern. [read more]

  • Lysinuric Protein Intolerance
    Lysinuric protein intolerance, also known as hyberdibasic aminoaciduria type 2 or familial protein intolerance, is a autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid transport. [read more]

  • Lysosomal Alpha-D-Mannosidase Deficiency
    Lysosomal alpha-D mannosidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that often causes mental and physical deterioration. [read more]

  • Lysosomal Disorder
    Lysosomal disorder is among the group of forty human genetic disorders that results from malfunction of the lysosomal (Winchester B, Vellodi A, Young E (2000). "The molecular basis of lysosomal storage diseases and their treatment". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28 (2): 150–4). [read more]

  • Malabsorption
    Malabsorption is a condition characterized by impaired absorption of nutrients from the GI tract, affecting the small intestine's ability to adequately absorb nutrients that are essential for the normal functioning of the body. [read more]

  • Male Breast Cancer
    Breast cancer is not just a woman's disease. Men also have breast tissue that could undergo cancerous changes. While women are about 100 times more likely to get breast cancer, any man can still develop breast cancer. Male breast cancer is common between the ages of 60 and 70. [read more]

  • Male Hypogonadism
    Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't give out enough of the sex hormone testosterone. [read more]

  • Malonic Aciduria
    Malonic aciduria is a rare genetic condition marked by a deficiency of the enzyme Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase bringing about impairment in the body's ability to convert fatty acids into energy, which can be used by muscles like muscles in the heart. Because of this occurrence, fatty acids tend to accumulate in the body since they are not metabolized. The deficiency in Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase interrupts the normal balance of fatty acid breakdown and formation. This condition is also known as Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. [read more]

  • Malveolar Echinococcosis
    Malveolar echinococcosis is a rare medical condition that exhibits a tumor-like growth on the liver and can induce potential serious health complications. Red foxes have been identified to be the primary hosts of this parasite that can be passed on to human beings. Up until today, there have no definitive study with regard to this condition as it is known to be a very rare occurrence. [read more]

  • Mantle Cell Lymphoma
    Mantle cell lymphoma is one of the rarer types of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The lymphoma can spread to other parts of the body including the liver, bone marrow or spleen. This occurrence is prevalent to males rather than females, with the ratio of 4:1. [read more]

  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
    Maple syrup urine disease also called branched-chain ketoaciduria, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids. This is one type of organic acidemia. Maple syrup urine disease is a metabolism disorder passed down through families in which the body cannot break down certain parts of proteins. [read more]

  • Marinesco-Sjogren Syndrome
    Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which causes the destruction of the exocrine glands that is responsible for tear and saliva production. [read more]

  • Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome
    Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is a rare disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism due to a deficiency of the enzyme aryl sulphatase B, the enzyme necessary to break down the complex sugar glycosaminoglycan (formerly referred to as mucopolysaccharide). This complex sugar needs to be recycled and replayed to carry out its normal function of providing structure to skin, bones, organs, and airways. It belongs to a group of uncommon inherited diseases categorized as lysosomal storage disorders. Other names for Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome are mucolopolysaccharidosis VI and MPS VI. [read more]

  • Marshall-Smith Syndrome
    Marshall-Smith syndrome is a rare genetic disorder involving specific facial features, remarkable accelerated skeletal maturation, failure to grow and thrive, and breathing problems that are severe in nature. [read more]

  • Masculinisation
    Masculinisation is a condition in which an affected female takes on a distinctly and progressively male appearance. [read more]

  • Mast Cell disease
    Mast cell disease or mastocytosis is a group of rare disorders marked by the presence of too many mast cells in various organs and tissues such as the skin, spleen, liver, bone, and the gastrointestinal tract. [read more]

  • Mastocytosis
    Mastocytosis is a disorder that results when too many mast cells, called mastocytes, and CD34+ mast cell precursors exist in the body. It has many types and may be experienced by children and adults. [read more]

  • Mastocytosis
    Mastocytosis is a group of unusual disorder of both children and adults caused by the presence of too many mast cells (mastocytes) and CD34+ mast cell precursors in a person's body. [read more]

  • McCune-Albright Syndrome
    McCune-Albright syndrome is also known as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. It is a genetic condition with disorder of the bones, pigmentation of skin, and premature puberty with hormonal problems. [read more]

  • Mediterranean Anemia
    Mediterranean anemia is a type of an inherited blood disorder that is characterized by reduced levels of hemoglobin and few red blood cells in the body. Genetic defects are largely the cause of this disease. Mild conditions do not usually require any form of treatment. Although the sever form would require regular blood transfusions. [read more]

  • Mediterranean fever
    By definition, Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that specifically afflicts a groups of patients who come from in and around the Mediterranean Sea- hence the name. The disorder is also very prominently present among Armenians, Sephardi Jews and people from Turkey and some Arab countries. [read more]

  • Medullary cystic disease
    By definition, medullary cystic disease is also known as nephronophthisis and is a genetic disorder of the kidneys which typically affects children. [read more]

  • Mega-epiphyseal dwarfism
    This is also known as Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) and is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects bone growth resulting in skeletal abnormalities and a host of other complications. severe hearing loss, and distinctive facial features. As the name suggests, the condition affects not only the skeletal structure, but also hearing. [read more]

  • Melanoma
    Melanoma is a form of skin cancer which develops in the cell producing melanin. [read more]

  • Melanoma, Malignant
    Melanomas are tumors of melanocytes that are malignant and found basically on the skin but can also appear elsewhere in the body. While it is rarer compared to other skin cancers, it however causes the majority of deaths related to cancer; more frequent among Caucasian males, the WHO reports that over 48,000 deaths from melanoma occur globally every year. [read more]

  • Melanotic Macule, Oral
    A non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the mouth is called oral melanotic macule. It also sometimes called a labial melanotic macule if found on the lip. [read more]

  • MEMORY LOSS
    Memory loss refers to the different processes to which one tends to forget his thoughts, whether uncontrollably or by intent. Among kinds of memory loss are amnesia, senility, and aphasia. [read more]

  • Meninges Cancer
    Meninges cancer pertains to a disorder characterized by a cancerous malignancy or carcinoma found in the brain's meninges, or that intricate system of membranes that envelops the central nervous system. If the tumor originates in the meninges, it is known as meningioma. [read more]

  • Menkes Disease
    Menkes disease is a disorder affecting the body's copper levels and characterized by sparse and coarse hair, growth and development problems, as well as deterioration of the nervous system. It is also alternatively known as Menkes kinky hair syndrome. [read more]

  • Mental retardation
    Mental retardation is a term for the pattern of slow learning in childhood that affects basic motor and language and which progresses into below-normal intellectual capacity when the child reaches adulthood. The term has been described as being politically-incorrect and clinicians prefer using the term developmental disabilities. [read more]

  • Meralgia Paresthetica (Burning Thigh Pain)
    Meralgia paresthetica (burning thigh pain) pertains to a condition defined by a tingling, numbing, and burning pain in the outer thigh. [read more]

  • Merasmus
    Merasmus is a disease characterized by progressive emaciation and general wasting as a consequence of a weakened disposition rather than any specific identifiable cause. It is generally considered to be a type of malnutrition. Merasmus may also be spelled Marasamus, Mirasmus or Marasumus. Sometimes, it is also referred to as Miasma. [read more]

  • Merkel Cell Cancer
    Merkel cell cancer is a rare form of cancer characterized by a bluish-red or flesh-colored nodule on the skin, particularly on the face, head, or neck of affected patients. It is also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, and typically occurs in the elderly. [read more]

  • Metabolic Syndrome
    Metabolic syndrome pertains to a group of conditions related to metabolism that commonly occur together, increasing the risk for stroke, diabetes, heart disease, and other health problems. [read more]

  • Metachondromatosis
    Metachondromatosis is a disease that affects bone growth, often tubular bones but may also involve the vertebrae. The disease can lead to multiple enchondromas and osteochondromas. [read more]

  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
    Metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD is the most common type of leukodystrophies, a family of genetic disorders that affect myelin growth and development. Myelin is the fatty covering that insulates nerve fibers throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Metachromatic leukodystrophy is also alternatively known as Arylsulfatase A deficiency. [read more]

  • Metatropic Dwarfism
    Metatropic dwarfism is an inherited skeletal dysplasia due to a defect in endochondral ossification. The abnormalities also show an association with defects in the longitudinal proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes as well as in the production of normal matrix. [read more]

  • Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome
    Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome is a congenital disorder in which an infant's forearms, lower legs, and neck have multiple, symmetric, circumferential skin creases, but disappear as the infant grows. The creases resemble Michelin's, the tire manufacturer, mascot. [read more]

  • Microcephaly
    Microcephaly is a neurological disorder which results in an individual with a much smaller head circumference for individual's age and sex compared with the average head sizes. [read more]

  • Microscopic Hematuria
    Microscopic Hematuria is a condition whereby there is blood in the urine of the person but the same is visible only through the use of microscope. Unlike gross hematuria, or that kind of hematuria where by the person may see the usual manifestation of the blood in their urine. [read more]

  • Miliaria Rubra
    Miliaria rubra, also known as heat rash or prickly heat is a rash of small red bumps caused by blockage of the sweat glands. It may be due to excessive sweating, high fever or being over-bundled, where it is seen in commonly humid or hot tropical climates, and it can sometimes cause itching, discomfort and stinging or ?prickly?-type pain. [read more]

  • milk Allergy
    Milk produced by cows is among the common allergy-causing dairy product, especially among children, However, majority of the cases of mild allergy, children outgrow this condition after a few years or so. Allergic reactions usually start after a few minutes of drinking milk, with symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to severe reactions that causes serious distress. [read more]

  • Miller-Dieker Syndrome
    Miller-Dieker syndrome is a disease, which is characterised by the brain's developmental defect. [read more]

  • Mitochondrial Disease
    Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders relating to the mitochondria, the organelles that are the "powerhouses" of the eukaryotic cells that comprise higher-order lifeforms (including humans). The mitochondrion changes the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions. [read more]

  • Moeschler Clarren syndrome
    Moeschler Clarren syndrome is also known as a congenital disorder affecting the development of the lower half of the face, most commonly the ears, the mouth and the mandible. The disease can either occur on one side of the face or both and sever cases can lead to difficulties in breathing, blocking the trachea. The condition may then require a tracheotomy. After clefts, Moeschler Clarren syndrome is the second most common facial birth defect with an incidence of 1 in 3500 to 4500. [read more]

  • Mole, Atypical
    Atypical moles (atypical nevi) or otherwise known as dysplastic moles (dysplastic nevi) are cause by collections of the color-producing (pigment-producing) cells of the skin (melanocytes) in which the cells grow in abnormal way. They may occur as new lesions or as a change in an existing mole and may be single or multiple. With the risk increasing with the number of atypical moles present, people with atypical moles may be at increased risk for developing skin cancer (melanoma). [read more]

  • Moles
    Moles otherwise known as Nevi, are clusters of pigmented cells that is usually small, and dark brown in color spots. It is usually not harmless but in some cases they are cancerous. [read more]

  • Monkeypox
    Monkeypox is a rare infectious disease caused by monkeypox virus. The disease is first identified in laboratory monkeys, giving it its name. The disease is more prevalent in Central and West Africa, but an outbreak occurred also in the United States in 2003. Monkeypox can be difficult to distinguish from mild smallpox and chickenpox. [read more]

  • Monomelic Amyotrophy
    Monomelic amyotrophy (or MMA) pertains to a rare disorder of the motor neurons, which are a group of nerves responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. [read more]

  • Morton's Neuroma
    Morton's Neuroma, also called the plantar neuoma or the intermetatarsak neuroma, is a noncancerous growth of the nerve tissue in the foot, usually between the third and the fourth toes. It is not necessarily considered as a tumor but a mere thickening of the tissue around the digital nerves leading to the toes. [read more]

  • Mother To Baby Infections
    Mother-to-baby infections are diseases that are transmitted when a mother's amniotic membranes rupture. In the stage where her ?water bag breaks?, microbes such as viruses and bacteria can enter the womb. Other harmful microbes can also enter the womb during labor, which can affect the baby's growth and overall health. Some diseases meanwhile can be passed from skin contact. The diseases that are considered mother-to-baby-infections are E. coli infection and staphylococcus aureus infections. There are also diseases that come from body fluids. There are some illnesses carried by a woman during pregnancy, and they can be passed on to the baby through body fluids. These diseases include gonorrhea, HIV, herpes virus infection, and hepatitis B and C. [read more]

  • Motor neurone disease
    MND or motor neurone diseases are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy the cells that control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. Those cells are called motor neurons. The disease has several forms including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and bulbar. Spinal muscular atrophy is sometimes considered a form of MND. [read more]

  • Mount reback syndrome
    Mount-Reback syndrome or Mount' syndrome was named after the doctors who classified it namely Lester Adrian Mount and S. Reback. The disease is a form of Huntington's Chorea, a rare hereditary disease affecting various muscular and nervous systems in the body. Mount's syndrome passes to roughly 50% of the offspring and shares many of the same symptoms of Chorea. Chorea however is more severe and the shared symptoms may be caused by different factors. Persons with the disease experience attacks lasting for a few minutes to several hours when they are awake. Said attacks are most severe at an early or young ages and the symptom tend to lessen as the person grows. The reason for this is unknown. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis
    A group of autosomal recessive metabolic disorders, Mucopolysaccharidosis is caused to the absence or malfunctioning of lyosomal enzymes. Said enzymes are needed to break down the molecules called glycosaminoglycans. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type 3
    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III or Sanfilippo syndrome can result from the deficiency of one of four enzymes that are necessary to degrade heparan sulfate. MPS III also has 3 subgroups namely A, B, C, and D. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type hurler-scheie
    Hurler-Scheie is a subtype of MPS I, along with the Hurler syndrome. It is a deficiency in the a-L-iduronidase enzyme and the lysosomal accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I
    Also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Hurler syndrome is a genetic disorder that results in the deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase. It is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharidosis in the lyosomes. A buildup of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate occurs in the bosy without said enzyme. Hurler syndrome is often classified as a lyosomal storage and is clinically related to Hunter's Syndrome. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Scheie syndrome
    Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I or Scheie syndrome is an inherited disease of metabolism in which the body cannot properly break down long chains of sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans. Belonging to the group of disease called mucopolysaccharidosis, it is specifically known as MPS I S. [read more]

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type II Hunter syndrome- mild form
    Hunter syndrome or mucopolysachharoidosis Type II is a lyososomal storage disease caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme idunorate-2-sulfatase (l2S). It is named after Scottish physician Charles A. Hunter who emigrated to Canada and practiced medicine there. [read more]

  • Mulibrey nanism syndrome
    Mulibrey nanism is a genetic disease and is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by profound growth delays and distinctive abnormalities of the muscles, liver, brain, and eyes. The disorder can lead to dwarfism, which is another term for nanism. Mulibrey is an acronym that stands for (Mu)scle, (Li)ver, (Br)ain, and (Ey)e. [read more]

  • Multi-Infarct Dementia
    Multi-Infarct Dementia is a common type of dementia occurring in elderly people aged 65 years old and above. The term usually pertains to a group of syndromes resulting from vascular lesions in the brain. [read more]

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a group of medical disorders linked with tumors that maybe benign or malignant, of the endocrine system. Generally occurring in endocrine organs such as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenals, tumor/s may also occur in endocrine tissues and not in a classical endocrine organ. MEN2 itself is a sub-type of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). [read more]

  • Multiple myeloma
    Multiple myeloma is a disease known to have several names; these include MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahler's disease after Otto Kahler. It a type of cancer of plasma cells that serve as immune system cells in the bone marrow that produce antibodies. [read more]

  • Multiple system atrophy
    A disorder in which multiple parts of he nervous system experience degeneration, multiple system astrophy (MSA) encompasses three syndromes namely Shy-Drager syndrome, striatonigral degeneration, and olivopontocerebellar atrophy. The three were previously thought to be unrelated but are now known to all be parts of the same disorder. [read more]

  • Muscular dystrophy
    Referring to a group of genetic and hereditary muscle disease that cause progressive muscle weakness, muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. There are nine diseases that are classified as muscular dystrophies namely Duchenne, Becker, limb girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and Emery-Dreifuss. [read more]

  • Mycobacterium Avium Complex
    Mycobacterium avium complex (or MAC) pertains to a group of genetically-related bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium which, in humans, can cause fatigue, fever, and weight loss. [read more]

  • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (shortened as M. pneumoniae) pertains to a tiny bacterium belonging to the class Mollicutes. In general, Mollicutes lack a peptidoglycan cell wall, and instead have a cell membrane that contains sterol compounds similar to eukaryotic cells. These sterols are obtained from the host sterum, allowing the organism to retain its simple structure. Because of the absence of a cell wall, these organisms are therefore resistant to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, which work by destroying the bacterial cell wall. [read more]

  • Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
    Mycoplasmal pneumonia is a bacterial infection caused by a very small bacterium, in the class Mollicutes. Characteristically, these organisms are resistant to penicillin as well as in other beta-lactam antibiotics. The bacteria closely associated with this condition spread via transmission of respiratory droplets. When the bacteria get attached to the mucosa of a host organism, it will extract nutrients to grow. Its reproduction is by binary fission. The sites where it can commonly get attached include the upper and lower respiratory tract which results to bronchitis, pharyngitis and pneumonia. Atypical Pneumonia refers to the infection caused by this very small bacterium primarily due to its protracted course. Moreover, it is characterized by lack of sputum production and by multiple extra-pulmonary symptoms. Chronic mycoplasma infections had also been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The severity of illnesses from mycoplasma is often defined as mild to moderate. [read more]

  • Myelodysplasia
    Myelodysplasia is characterized by a diverse group of hematological conditions. This particular disease is associated with ineffective blood cell production. It is presented with varying chances of transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia. In majority of cases, this condition is also associated with severe anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
    Myelodysplastic Syndromes or MDS was previously known as Preleukemia. It is characterized by a diverse group of hematological conditions. This hematological disease is associated with ineffective blood cell production. It is presented with varying chances of transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia. In majority of cases, this condition is also associated with severe anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Myelofibrosis
    Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia is also referred to as Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia, Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis, and Primary Myelofibrosis. This condition was initially described in 1879. At present, it is classified as myeloproliferative disease resulting from the growth and proliferation of an abnormal bone marrow stem cell. This is due to the bone marrow being replaced with fibrous connective tissue. Assmann's Disease or Heuck-Assmann Disease is an eponym for this condition. Mean survival for patients with this condition is 5 years. Usual causes of mortality are bleeding, infection, portal hypertension, organ failure and resulting leukemia. [read more]

  • Myeloma
    Myeloma is a kind of cancer of plasma cells which are immune system cells in bone marrow that produce antibodies. Myeloma is regarded as incurable, but remissions could be induced with steroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide and stem cell transplants. Myeloma is a part of the broad group of diseases called hematological malignancies. [read more]

  • Myiasis
    Myiasis is a disease affecting both animals and humans resulting from parasitic dipterous fly larvae which is feeding on the host's living or necrotic tissues. Other colloquial terms used for the disease Myiasis are fly-strike and fly blown. Fritz Zumpt, a German entomologist described this disease as "the infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae, which at least for a period, feed on the host's dead of living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food." [read more]

  • Myoclonus
    Myoclonus is a medical symptom marked by a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles, often caused by contractions of the muscle as a result of brief lapses in concentration. [read more]

  • Myomas
    Myomas other wise known as the uterine fibroids, fibromyomas and leiomyomas, is a condition where there is growth of fibroids in the uterus. [read more]

  • Myopathy-Centronuclear
    Centronuclear myopathies (or CNM) are a group of rare congenital myopathies that occur when cell nuclei are abnormally located in the center of the skeletal muscle cells (whereas, normally, they are located in the periphery). A myopathy implies a disease of the muscle tissue itself – myo is from the word muscle and pathos literally means disease. CNM is considered very rare, but its most commonly occurring form is Myotubular Myopathy (or MTM). [read more]

  • Myopia-Severe
    Severe myopia is a severe form of near- or short-sightedness that often result in retinal detachments and primary open-angle glaucoma. The most difficult form of this condition, severe myopia or high myopia, is classified with a degree or severity of -6.00 or more. This measurement is in diopters, which measure the strength of optical power of the corrective lens. [read more]

  • Myositis Ossificans Progressiva
    Myositis ossificans progressiva, also known as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, is one of two kinds of heterotopic ossification or calcification of the muscle. This is a rare genetic condition, with an autosomal dominant pattern, in which the ossification occurs even without injury and grows in an often predictable pattern. [read more]

  • Myotonic Dystrophy
    Myotonic dystrophy, also known as muscular dystrophy, is a progressive crippling illness presented by extreme muscle weakness until the affected person is confined to a wheelchair. [read more]

  • Myotubular Myopathy
    Myotubular Myopathy (MTM) is the most common form of a group of congenital myopathies called centronuclear myopathies (CNM). CNM is characterized by the abnormal positioning of the nuclei in the skeletal muscle cells. Normally, the nuclei are located at the periphery. But in CNM patients, they are located centrally, i.e. in the center of the cell. The term myotubular myopathy was first coined by a New York neurologist named Dr. Spiro. Dr. The presence of nuclei in the center of the cells reminded Dr. Spiro of the “myotubular” stage during embryonic development, thus the term. He suspected that the myopathy may be caused by growth detention during the myotubular phase. [read more]

  • Myxoid Cyst
    Also known as a digital mucous cyst or pseudocys, a myxoid cyst is a growth usually tissues and may be associated with osteoarthritis. [read more]

  • Myxozoa
    Myoxozoa is an exotic disease caused by a group of parasitic individuals called myxozoa. The term is from the Greek “myx”, meaning slime or mucus, and “zoa”, meaning animals. The myxozoa were originally believed to be protozoan, but were later distinguished to be metazoan through rDNA testing. [read more]

  • Nail Avulsion
    Nail avulsion is the removal of a part or the entirety of the nail from the bed, often as a consequence of destruction of trauma or injury. [read more]

  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance and a deep need for admiration. They believe that they are superior to others and have little regard for other people's feelings. However behind this mask of ultra-confidence lies a fragile self-esteem, vulnerable to the slightest criticism. [read more]

  • Nasal Polyps
    Nasal Polyps are the soft and usually not cancerous or benign growth of polyps in the lining of the nose or the sinuses. [read more]

  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer
    Nasopharyngeal cancer is a malignant tumor that grows in the nasopharynx. This tumor blocks the passageways in that open the upper throat. This passage is also where the olfactory tubes open into the throat. [read more]

  • Neck Cancer
    Neck cancer (or, more appropriately, head and neck cancer) pertains to a group of biologically related carcinomas that originate from the upper aerodigestive tract, including: the cavity (mouth), lip, paranasal sinuses, oral nasal cavity, larynx, and pharynx. In most cases, head and neck cancers originate from the epithelium or mucosal lining of the squamous cell regions. [read more]

  • Necrotizing Fasciitis
    Necrotizing fasciitis also known as fasciitis necroticans is a rare infection of the deeper skin layers and subcutaneous tissues spreading in the superficial and deep fascia enough to produce thrombosis of the subcutaneous vessels and eventually gangrene in the underlying tissues. This medical condition is commonly known as “flesh-eating bacteria”. [read more]

  • Nelson Syndrome
    Nelson's Syndrome is the rapid enlargement of a pituitary tumor that comes about after removing both adrenal glands. [read more]

  • Neonatal Hepatitis
    Neonatal hepatitis also known as perinatal hepatitis is a rare fulminant liver disease. It is characterized by extremely excessive deposition of iron in the liver, pancreas, endocrine glands, and heart. It is a life threatening condition wherein death is common during the fetal or infant stage. [read more]

  • Nephroblastoma
    Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer which affects infants and children which usually occurs and develops in the nerve cells of the body. It usually occurs in and around the adrenal glands but it some cases it may also grow in the chest, neck and pelvis. [read more]

  • Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
    Diabetes Insipidus is a medical condition referring to inability of the kidney to concentrate urine; characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine that cannot be trimmed down even if you reduce the amount of fluid intake. [read more]

  • Nerve Cancer
    Nerve cancer pertains to a type of carcinoma affecting the nerve cells, often involving a tumor that originates from the cells of the nervous system. Nerve cancer is also usually associated with brain cancer. [read more]

  • Neuroblastoma
    Neuroblastoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, originating from any neural crest element of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The sympathetic nervous system is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. It is a nerve network responsible for carrying messages from the brain throughout the whole body. It is also the part of the brain responsible for fight-or-flight response and adrenaline or epinephrine production. Neuroblastoma commonly begins in one of the adrenal glands. [read more]

  • Neuroendocrime Carcinoma Of The Skin
    Neuroendocrime Carcinoma of the skin or the Merkel cell carcinoma, is a type of cancer that appears as a flesh colored or bluish red nodule on the skin, commonly in the face, head or neck. [read more]

  • Neurofibroma
    Neurofibroma is a type of nerve sheath tumor. Nerve sheath tumors are nervous system tumors which are mostly consist of myelin surrounding nerves. Essentially, Neurofibroma is a benign tumor originating from nerve cells. It usually arises from nerves in the skin or under the skin. [read more]

  • Neurofibromatosis
    Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Neurofibromatosis covers all distinct genetic disorders that cause tumors to develop along different nerves. [read more]

  • neuroma
    Neuroma is a term generally used to describe any swelling or inflammation of a nerve, but more specifically used in reference to a tumor (usually benign) growing in the nerve cells. [read more]

  • Neuroma, Plantar
    A Plantar Neuroma or an Intermetatarsal Neuroma is an unusual growth of nerve tissue in the different parts of the body, most especially the third and fourt toes whereby there is a burning pain the ball of the foot. [read more]

  • Nevi
    Nevi otherwise known as the Moles, are clusters of pigmented cells that is usually small, and dark brown in color spots. It is usually not harmless but in some cases they are cancerous. [read more]

  • nevus
    Nevus, or nevi in plural form, is the medical term for moles, which are basically clusters of pigmented cells that typically appear as small, dark brown spots on the skin's outer layer (epidermis). Nevi can be found in virtually any part of the body. [read more]

  • Nicholas Favre Disease
    Nicholas-favre disease, also known as lymphogranuloma venereum, is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by genital ulcers. It can affect the lymph nodes and cause serious problems in the bloodstream. [read more]

  • Nicotine, Dependence
    Nicotine dependence is a condition where the person is vulnerable to a rather addicting chemical known as nicotine that is found in cigars and pipes. [read more]

  • Niemann-Pick C1 Disease
    Niemann-Pick disease is classified as an autosomal recessive disorder that mainly affects the metabolism of lipids in the body. This means that the process of breaking down fats in the body and the manner of utilizing it for daily activities is impaired. This disorder affects the body in a way because it causes excessive and unhealthy amounts of lipids or fats to accumulate in the liver, bone marrow, lungs, spleen and even in the brain. Niemann-Pick disease is classified into three variants – Types A, B and C. There are two distinct bases for the variants of this disease. First is on the genetic cause and second on the symptoms being presented by the patients. [read more]

  • Niemann-Pick C2 Disease
    Niemann-Pick disease is classified as an autosomal recessive disorder which affects the metabolism of lipids or fats in the body. The process of breaking down fats in the body and fat utilization to support daily activities is abnormal. As a result, excessive and unhealthy amounts of lipids or fats to accumulate in the liver, bone marrow, lungs, spleen and even in the brain. Niemann-Pick disease is classified into three variants – Types A, B and C. There are two distinct bases for the variants of this disease. First is on the genetic cause and second on the symptoms being presented by the patients. [read more]

  • Niemann-Pick Disease
    Niemann-Pick disease is classified as an autosomal recessive disorder. It primarily affects the way fats or lipids are metabolized in the body. This means that the normal process of breaking down fats within the body and the manner in which they are being utilized for daily activities is impaired. This disorder severely affects the body because it can cause excessive and unhealthy buildup of lipids or fats in the liver, bone marrow, lungs, spleen and even in the brain. There are three variants of Niemann-Pick Disease which are Types A, B and C. Classification is based on the genetic cause and on the symptoms being presented. [read more]

  • Nocturnal Enuresis
    Nocturnal Enuresis also known as bedwetting is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis (PNE) is during a child has not yet stayed dry on a regular basis. Secondary Nocturnal Enuresis is when a child or adult starts wetting again after having stayed dry. [read more]

  • Noise Induced Deafness
    Noise Induced Deafness may be a full or partial reduction in the ability to determine and understand sounds. This condition is usually caused by a wide range of environmental factors. Sound waves have varying frequencies and amplitudes. A person who has lost his ability to detect some frequencies and some low-amplitude sounds which should normally be detected is a characteristic of this condition. Whenever humans are exposed to harmful noise and sounds that are too loud and last a long time, the sensitive structures found in the inner ear may be damaged thereby causing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) or Noise Induced Deafness. These sensitive structures which are also called hair cells, are small sensory cells found in the inner ear. They convert sound energy into electrical signals which travel towards the brain. Once the hair cells are damaged, they cannot grow back. [read more]

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or NHL is characterized by a certain group of cancers which arise from lymphocytes. NHL has distinctive clinical presentation from Hodgkin Lymphoma based on its pathology and epidemiology. It is also different from Hodgkin Lymphoma based on the commonly involved sites, clinical behavior and medical treatment. Diseases associated with non-Hodgkin Lymphomas presents diversity. The course of the diseases varies as well as the treatments. Prognoses for recovery among patients are also variable. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually develops in the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils or in other organs which are related to the lymphatic system. Majority of the cases initially present as infiltration of lymph nodes. However, there are some subtypes which are restricted to other organs of the lymphatic system. [read more]

  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    The non-small cell lung cancers are taken as one group because their prognoses for recovery and treatments are basically the same. There are three main sub-types of non-small cell lung cancer namely adenocarcinoma, squamous cell lung carcinoma and large cell lung carcinoma. Squamous cell lung carcinoma accounts for 31.1% of the cases. This type of non-small cell lung carcinoma usually starts in close proximity to central bronchus. Development of cavities and necrotic tissues within the center of the cancer site is a major and common finding. Squamous cell lung cancers which are well-differentiated often develop and spread at a slower pace compared to other cancer types. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 29.4% of the cases. This type usually starts in peripheral lung tissue. Majority of the cases are related to smoking. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer among non-smokers. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is another subtype. Women who are non-smokers are more predisposed to this cancer form and responses to treatment vary. Large cell lung carcinoma accounts for 10.7% of lung cancers. This type grows rapidly and develops near the lung surface. It is poorly differentiated most of the time and has a tendency to metastasize during its early stages. [read more]

  • Nontropical Sprue
    Nontropical Sprue otherwise known as the Celiac sprue, is a condition triggered by consumption of the protein gluten whereby the person's immune reaction occurs in the small intestine which results in the damage to the surface of the small intestine and to the inability to take nutrients found in food. Thus, it is an enteropathy which is usually a gluten-sensitive disease which nontropical sprue and gluten-sensitive enteropathy, celiac disease occurs in people who have a susceptibility to gluten intolerance [read more]

  • Nummular Eczema
    Nummular eczematous dermatitis, or nummular eczema, is a term used to describe an itchy rash that develops patches on the skin. The sores grow bigger as time goes by, and soon becomes a chronic condition. [read more]

  • Nymphomania
    Nymphomania is a compulsive sexual behavior which is also called hypersexuality or erotomania where there is the constant and overwhelming need or urge to have sex. It is an impulse control disorder where a person cannot resist the temptation to perform sexual intercourse with another person. It is said referred to by many as the sexual addiction. [read more]

  • Obesity In Children
    Obesity in children is a form of malnutrition in which a child becomes extremely overweight. Obesity can be the cause of problems in maintaining balance as well as growth development of the physical and internal organs of child's body. [read more]

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychiatric anxiety disorder. Individuals with this disorder have thoughts that are obsessive, distressing, intrusive, related with compulsions to neutralize their obsessions. [read more]

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Obstructive sleep apnea a sleeping disorder in which a sleeping person's breathing is obstructed by a physical block to the airflow despite the effort to breathe. [read more]

  • Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome
    Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome pertains to an eye disease that causes vision loss due to the spread of fungal spores from the lungs to the eye, where they tend to lodge in a layer of blood vessels known as the choroids, which primarily supplies blood and nutrients to the retina. There, these spores cause the growth of fragile, abnormal blood vessels under the retina, consequently forming a lesion called choroidal neovascularization (CNV). [read more]

  • Ocular Melanoma
    Ocular Melanoma is a condition which occurs in the uvea or the vascular layer of the eye between the retina and the sclera or the white of the eye. It may occur in in the front part of the uvea or the iris and ciliary body or in the choroid layer or the back part of the uvea. [read more]

  • Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome
    Oculocerebrorenal syndrome is a congenital disorder wherein the affected individual has hydrophthalmia, cataracts, mental retardation, aminoaciduria, reduced renal ammonia production, and vitamin D-resistant rickets. It is also called Lowe syndrome. [read more]

  • Oligodendroglioma
    Oligodendroglioma pertains to a rare brain tumor that grows from the cells that encompass the supportive connective tissue around the nerve cells of the brain. Oligodendroglioma more commonly develops in adults than in children, and more commonly in men than in women. [read more]

  • Onychogryphosis
    Onychogryphosis is a nail deformation characterized by the thickening of a toenail at the point where the nail curves, giving it a somewhat claw-like appearance. Onychogryphosis typically affects the big toe nail. [read more]

  • Open-Angle Glaucoma
    Open-angle glaucoma pertains to a relatively common, chronic, slowly progressing form of glaucoma that usually affects both eyes. Glaucoma pertains to a group of eye conditions characterized by damage to the nerve at the back of the eye, usually due to increased pressure within the eye, and ultimately resulting in vision loss. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common of all types of glaucoma, and tends to develop very slowly. The term ?open-angle? is used in reference to the relatively normal angle between the iris and the sclera; normal in contrast to other forms of glaucoma. [read more]

  • Oral Cancer
    Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. It could arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the oral tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus. [read more]

  • Orchitis
    Orchitis is the medical inflammation where there is the inflammation of one or both testicles. It is usually connected to mumps. [read more]

  • Oropharyngeal Cancer
    Oropharyngeal cancer pertains to types of carcinomas occurring in the mouth, lips, tongue, gums, salivary glands, as well as parts of the throat located behind the stomach. It is also alternatively known as oral and throat cancer. [read more]

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease
    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition in which a growth plate at the tibial tuberosity has inflamed. [read more]

  • Osteochondroses
    Osteochondroses (singular form: osteochondrosis) pertain to a group of diseases primarily affecting children and adolescents in which necrosis or localized tissue death occurs, often followed by spontaneous regeneration of healthy bone tissue. [read more]

  • Osteochrondroma
    Osteochrondroma, or more commonly known as osteocartilaginous exostoses, is known as the overgrowth of the bone and cartilage located near the end of the bone of the growth plate. Such type of overgrowth usually occurs in bones where the cartilage will eventually form bone. Most of the commonly affected areas are the long bones of the leg, the pelvis, as well as the scapula. [read more]

  • Osteogenic Sarcoma
    Osteogenic sarcoma is also called asosteosarcoma and is identified as one of the most common types of cancer of the bones found in children. This medical condition is mostly found in lone bones such as the legs, pelvis and arm bones. This cancer has also been found to be more prevalent among male patients than females. The cancer cells can rapidly spread to other areas of the body and like any other cancer, it is fatal without any medical intervention. [read more]

  • Osteoid Osteoma
    Osteoid Osteoma pertains to a type of benign bone tumor often appearing in the long bones of the lower extremities. It most commonly affects the thighbone or femur, although it can also affect the hand bones and sometimes the lower part of the spine. Osteoid Osteoma typically affects teenagers and young adults. [read more]

  • Osteoma
    Osteoma is a generic term pertaining to a benign tumor growing in the bone. There are several types of osteoma, each occurring in a bone in a different area of the body. [read more]

  • Osteonecrosis
    Osteonecrosis is rare type of disease that often leads to the inadequate supply of the blood in the patient's bone tissue. As any living tissue, the bone will require a certain quantity of blood to be able to function properly. Without the adequate supply of blood, this condition lead to bone tissue death. [read more]

  • Osteopetrosis
    Osteopetrosis is the thickening of the bones. These results to an abnormal denseness of the bone that is mainly due to inherited bone resorption, a process under which the old bones breaks bone to be replaced by new ones. [read more]

  • Osteosarcoma
    Osteosarcoma is a disease characterized by the growth of cancer cells in the bone, commonly affecting adolescents and young adults. While it may occur in any part of the body, a majority of the cases involve a tumor found around the knee. It is alternatively known as ?osteogenic sarcoma?, which literally translates to ?bone forming cancer?. [read more]

  • Otitis Externa
    An infection of the outer ear and ear canal resulting from the growth of bacteria and fungi which may come from contaminated water or from objects placed in the ear. It is also known as “swimmer's ear” or external otitis. [read more]

  • Otospondylomegaepiphyseal Dysplasia
    Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, or otherwise known as OSMED is categorized as a genetic disorder of the bone growth. This disorder often results in serious skeletal abnormalities, accompanied by severe hearing loss as well as distinctive facial features. People suffering from this disease often experience pain on the joints and back and are only capable of limited joint movement. [read more]

  • Ovarian Cancer
    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common form of cancer found in women. This is brought about by the abnormal overproduction of ovarian and the development of tumors that may affect one or both or the ovaries. The rate of survival is critically dependent on earaly detection and expert medical intervention. [read more]

  • Ovarian Cysts
    Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. The ovaries are two organs both about the size and shape of an almond located on each side of your uterus. Eggs (ova) develop and mature in the ovaries and are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. [read more]

  • Paget's Disease
    Paget's disease is a medical disease that primarily affects the bone. This condition affects the normal processes of the bones, disrupting the process of growth and renewal. Paget's disease usually affects the skull, spine and pelvic bone causing deformities, pain and fractures. [read more]

  • Paget's Disease Type 1
    Paget's disease type 1 is the malfunction in the normal process of the remodeling of the human bones. In normal cases, the bone breaks down and growth and rebuild gradually. However, in the case of Paget's disease, this gradual process is somehow altered , where the replacement bone is porous and soft. [read more]

  • Pallister-Hall Syndrome
    Pallister-Hall syndrome is medical disorder that primarily affects the natural development of several parts of the body. Most people suffering this condition may have extra fingers on the toes and fingers as well as skin between the hands and feet. Other patients may suffer severe malformations. [read more]

  • Pancreatic Cyst
    Pancreatic cysts are often diagnosed now than it is so in the past years. However, this is not due to the fact the more people have this disease but mainly due to the advancements in imaging technology that detects the presence of a pancreatic cyst. Pancreatic cysts are mostly not cancerous, but it is often difficult to determine which cysts is malignant or benign. [read more]

  • Panhypopituitarism
    Hypopituitarism is a medical disorder characterized by the failure of the pituitary gland to produce a single or more of hormones, or the inability to produce enough. The pituitary gland secretes certain hormones that greatly influence almost all parts of the human body. This is the reason why in hypopituitarism affects any number of the normal bodily routines such as blood pressure, growth and reproduction. [read more]

  • Papilloma
    Papilloma pertains to a benign or non-cancerous epithelial tumor that grows in an exophytical fashion in finger-like fronds. More commonly, the word ?papilla? is used in reference to the projection or pattern created by the tumor; not the tumor on an already existing papilla (such as the nipple, for instance). In this context, the word ?papilloma? pertains to infections caused by the human papillomavirus. [read more]

  • Paragangliomas
    Paragangliomas are characterized as glomus tumors that are said to be derived from paraganglion tissue or the carotid body. These tumors are typically benign and usually grow in the mastoid and middle ear. [read more]

  • Paralysis
    Paralysis pertains to the complete loss of muscle function and/or sensation in one or more muscle groups. [read more]

  • Paraphilias
    Paraphilias is a medical condition that is characterized by uncontrollable impulses relating to sexual urges, fantasies and behaviors that usually involves highly unusual practices, situations and objects. This disorder can greatly impair the normal and sexual functioning of the person. Patients with paraphilias are often referred to by society as perverts because of behaviors that can possibly have serious legal and social consequences. [read more]

  • Parapsoriasis
    Parapsoriasis is a term that refers to a group of disorders involving the skin. These are most of the time characterized as having similar characteristics to psoriasis which usualy is red, with scaly lesions. Neoplasms has also been found to also devleop from parapsoriasis just like in the case when it develops into a fatty tissue which is often cutaneous T-cell. Examples of this disorder includes Pityriasis lichenoides chronica and Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. [read more]

  • Parapsoriasis
    Parapsoriasis is a term that refers to a group of disorders involving the skin. These are most of the time characterized as having similar characteristics to psoriasis which usualy is red, with scaly lesions. Neoplasms has also been found to also devleop from parapsoriasis just like in the case when it develops into a fatty tissue which is often cutaneous T-cell. Examples of this disorder includes Pityriasis lichenoides chronica and Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. [read more]

  • Paratyphoid Fever
    Paratyphoid fevers is also otherwise known as Enteric fevers. These composed a group of enteric illnesses often stimulated by bacterium Salmonella paratyphi strains. The three species of the Salmonellae which is known to have caused paratyphoid are Salmonella paratyphi A, S. schotmulleri, and S. paratyphi C or S. hirschfeldii. The species are usually transmitted through contact with the contaminated water and food. Paratyphoid fever is also similar to typhoid fever in some aspects but with more benign course. [read more]

  • Parkinson's Disease
    Parkinson's disease is likewise called Parkinson disease which is described as a degenerative disorder involving the central nervous system. Because of this, the sufferer's motor skills and way of speaking are affected. This disorder is classified under the movement disorders group. This disorder is also chronic and progressive in nature. [read more]

  • Parry-Romberg Syndrome
    Parry-Romberg syndrome is also sometimes called Romberg syndrome. This is a rare and incurable craniofacial disorder. The characteristics of which is slow atrophy of the muscle under the skin covering usually half of the face area usually occuring to females between the age group from 5 to 15. [read more]

  • Pathological Gambling
    Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder wherein the afflicted is unable to resist the urge to gamble, leading to severe consequences. [read more]

  • Peanut Allergy
    Peanut allergy is identified as one of the most common form of food allergy and is often diagnosed during the first years of life. In most cases, children usually outgrow this condition as they grow older, while there are some who tend to develop serious reactions that require emergency medical attention. [read more]

  • Pectus Excavatum
    Pectus excavatum a Latin term meaning hollowed chest is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior wall of the chest, in which several ribs and the sternum grow abnormally. It produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. It is often present at birth and progresses during the time of rapid bone growth in the early teenage years, but in rare cases does not appear until the onset of puberty. [read more]

  • Pediculosis
    Pediculosis is condition termed for the infestation of parasistic insects called lice. They mostly attact the human bodies. The more popular term for the condition is head lice, pubic lice, or body lice. Pediculus humanus capitis or the head lice in most common term affects children belonging to the age groups of 3-10 as well as their families which occur mostly in females. [read more]

  • Pelvic Lipomatosis
    Pelvic lipomatosis is a rare disease which often occurs to older black men who are obese and with hypertension. In pelvic lipomatosis, dense deposits of normal fat in abnormal amount may be seen in spaces in the pelvic area. Pelvic lipomatosis is often benign overgrowth of some adipose tissue with small fibrotic components as well as inflammatory. Pelvic lipomatosis is commonly found incidentally when doing a routine check up. [read more]

  • Pemphigus Vulgaris
    The pemphigus vulgaris is the most common form of Pemphigus disorder. Pemphigus vulgaris results when the antibodies attack the Desmoglein 3. It causes sores originating in the mouth and making eating difficult and also uncomfortable for the sufferer. Commonly, it occurs to people who are between the ages of 40 and 60 although it can also affect other people not belonging to that age group. In rare cases though, it is linked with myasthenia gravis. [read more]

  • Penis Cancer
    Penis cancer is a disease where malignant cells are found to originate from the penile tissues. It is also known as Penile Cancer. [read more]

  • Peripheral Neuropathy
    Peripheral neuropathy is the term used to describe damage to the nerves in the peripheral nervous system. The damage may be bue to diseases involving the nerve due to side-effects of some systemic illness. The damage or Peripheral neuropathies may vary on how they are presented and how it originated. [read more]

  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
    Peripheral vascular disease also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a collator for all diseases caused by the obstruction of large peripheral arteries, which can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. [read more]

  • Peritonitis
    Peritonitis is defined as an the swelling or inflammation of the serous membrane which lines a part of our abdominal cavity and the viscera it contains. This mebrane is called peritoneum. The swelling may be localised in just one part or covering generally the whole lining of the cavity. Peritonitis usually manifest an acute course which may depend largely on either localised or generalised infection. People with Peritonitis are usually treated with surgical emergency. [read more]

  • Pes Planus
    Pes planus is also popularly known as flat feet or fallen arches. This is a condition wherein the foot arch collapses making the entire sole of the foot becoming completely or nearly in contact to the ground. Having Pes planus also does not mean decreased in foot speed as it do not affect a person's response to Plantar reflex test. [read more]

  • Pfeiffer Syndrome
    Pfeiffer syndrome is a disorder often genetic in nature. This disorder is characterized by a premature fusion of the craniosynostosis and prevents the growth of the skull thereby affecting head shape as well as the face. This condition though is extremely rare which can also happen to the healthiest people. [read more]

  • Phaeohyphomycosis
    Phaeohyphomycosis pertains to a group of mycotic (fungal) infection identified by the presence of dematiaceous (brown-pigmented) septate hyphae and, sometimes, yeast, or both in the tissue. The infection can be seen as superficial and deep, and often leads to subcutaneous cyst formations. [read more]

  • Pharyngitis
    Pharyngitis is the inflammation due to irritation of the back of the throat, or of the pharynx. [read more]

  • Phenylketonuria
    Phenylketonuria or PKU is a birth defect; more specifically, a mutation of the gene causing to produce the enzyme needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. People with this disease are generally advised to limit food with high-protein like cheese, meats and nuts. [read more]

  • Phocomelia Syndrome
    Phocomelia is a malformation of the upper appendage of the arm or the leg is omitted with the hands or the legs directly attached to the body. This is a congenital defect also described as seal's flippers. [read more]

  • Pilar Cyst
    Pilar or trichilemmal cysts are sometimes called wens. These are common fluid-filled cysts growing from the hair follicles on the scalp. These growths are usually smooth and mobile which is filled with keratin. Keratin is a protein component, which is found in the hair, skin, and nails. The cysts are sometimes tender but some are not. It is but rarely that these cysts grow extensively and proliferates. [read more]

  • Pili Multigemini
    Pili multigemini, also compound hairs, is characterized by the growth of several hair fibers in one hair canal. From a single hair canal, several hair follicles combine and develop into the skin's surface. The disease is classified as rare with less than 200,000 affected in the US. There is likewise a dearth of information on the treatment of this disease. [read more]

  • Pilonidal cyst
    Pilonidal cysts, or sacroccygeal fistula, is the general term used for skin infections that occur near our tailbone. The infection commonly begins when ingrown hairs press into skin folds, irritating and inflaming skin and resulting to discomfort. The harm however lies when pus fills the infected area, causing pilonidal abscess. Pilonidal cysts are more likely to affect men than women, especially those in their early adulthood. It can also be observed in the navel and armpits. [read more]

  • Pinealoma
    Pinealoma is defined as a rare type of tumor that grows at a slow rate in the patient's brain. This disease is often referred to as pineocytoma or pinealocytoma. [read more]

  • Pituitary Cancer
    Pituitary Cancer pertains to malignant tumor or tumors that originate from the pituitary glands, those pea-sized glands located just above and behind the nose, or at the center of the brain, which primarily control hormone production and regulation for a number of bodily functions. [read more]

  • Pituitary Tumors
    Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in the pituitary gland, which may cause either overproduction or underproduction of hormones. [read more]

  • Pityriasis Versicolor
    Pityriasis versicolor, also called tinea versicolor, is a common fungal infection which affects the skin surface, and manifests as small, scaly, discolored patches on the skin. [read more]

  • Placenta Previa
    Placenta previa is a pregnancy complication, wherein the placenta positions itself in the lower part of the uterus and grows therein to block the cervix, which may result to vaginal bleeding before or during delivery. [read more]

  • Plantar Warts
    Plantar warts are benign skin growths on the feet soles caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which enters the body through tiny cuts and breaks in your skin. [read more]

  • Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome is associated with severe, long-term iron deficiency anemia that causes difficulty in swallowing because of growing web-like tissue membranes in the throat. The disorder is also referred to as Paterson-Brown-Kelly syndrome or sideropenic dysphagia. [read more]

  • Pneumonia, Eosinophilic
    Eosinophilic pneumonia is a condition in which certain white blood cells accumulate in the lungs, disrupting normal oxygen intake. The condition has many existing types occurring in any age group. [read more]

  • Pneumothorax
    Pneumothorax is a type of lung collapse. [read more]

  • POEMS Syndrome
    POEMS syndrome is a disorder of the blood. Its name stands for the syndrome's most common symptoms: Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy/Edema, M-protein and Skin abnormalities. [read more]

  • Poikiloderma Congenita
    Poikiloderma congenita, or Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, is a genetic disease characterized by the degeneration of the skin accompanied by stunted growth, cataracts, deformed nasal bridge, and other malformations in the nails, bones and teeth. [read more]

  • Polyarthritis
    Polyarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the inflammation of five or more joints. [read more]

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is the most common hormonal disorder of women of reproductive age, which may lead to infertility. [read more]

  • Polyendocrine Deficiency
    Polyendocrine Deficiency is a disease of which there are two classifications. These are simply called Type I and Type II. This disease is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders represented by autoimmune activity alongside more than one endocrine organ. [read more]

  • Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma
    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a tumor affecting the minor salivary glands, commonly but not exclusively in the palate. [read more]

  • Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia
    Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is also known as McCune-Albright syndrome. It is a genetic condition with disorder of the bones, pigmentation of skin, and premature puberty with hormonal problems. [read more]

  • Polyps, Stomach
    Stomach polyps are growths appearing in the stomach. The most common types of which are: fundic gland stomach polyps, which are found in the top portion of the stomach; hyperplastic stomach polyps; and adenomas, which arise from the stomach's glandular tissue. [read more]

  • Polyps, Uterine
    Uterine polyps are growths appearing on the inner wall of the uterus, and protruding into the uterine cavity, caused by overgrowth of cells. [read more]

  • porencephaly
    Porencephaly is a disorder of the central nervous system due to a cyst or cavity in a cerebral hemisphere that may occur before or after birth. [read more]

  • porphyria
    Porphyria is a group of various disorders due to abnormalities in the chemical process that produce heme. The largest amounts of heme are found in the blood and bone marrow, in which it carries oxygen. [read more]

  • Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a metabolic disorder characterized by decreased level of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. It is a rare disease that affects the production of heme, a prosthetic group of hemoglobin responsible for oxygen binding. [read more]

  • Postpartum Depression
    Postpartum depression is a type of depression occurring in women soon after having a baby. It occurs in 15% of women, usually after a few months upon delivery. A person experiencing postpartum depression worries about her baby's health continuously, develops negative thoughts towards the baby and experiences fears about harming the baby. Obviously, women with postpartum depression may become incapable of taking care of their babies. When women with postpartum depression become suicidal, she may try to kill her baby and other children, thinking that she wouldn't want to abandon them once she successfully commits suicide. [read more]

  • Postpartum Psychosis
    Postpartum psychosis is an extremely rare condition, which develops and occurs within the first 5 to 6 weeks after delivery. Compared to postpartum depression, signs and symptoms of postpartum psychosis are more severe. [read more]

  • Presbycusis
    Presbycusis is a common condition denoting gradual hearing loss. [read more]

  • prickly Heat
    Prickly heat is also known as heat rash or miliaria. It occurs when sweat sweat ducts are blocked and perspiration is trapped under the skin. [read more]

  • Primary Immunodeficiency
    Primary immunodeficiency is also referred to as primary immune disorders. These conditions refer to the absence of the body's immune defenses making the affected individuals more susceptible to germ- causing infections. [read more]

  • Prostate Gland Enlargement
    Prostate gland enlargement is a condition in which prostate gland is enlarged putting pressure on the urethra and causing difficulty urinating. Its medical term is benign prostatic hyperplasia. [read more]

  • Prostatitis
    Prostatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflamed prostate gland caused by an infection. The prostate is the walnut-shaped organ in males that is responsible for semen production, the fluid necessary for the nourishing and transportation of sperm. [read more]

  • Proteus Syndrome
    Proteus syndrome is a congenital condition characterized by skin overgrowths and abnormal bone developments, which often presents with tumors located in different parts of the body. [read more]

  • Pseudoachondroplasia
    Pseudoachondroplasia is a kind of dwarfism that results to shortened limbs. It is an autosomal dominant genetic defect that occurs at the first 2 to 3 years of growth. The disorder is usually observed by a slower walking progress and wadding gait. [read more]

  • Pseudofolliculitis Barbae
    This term refers to the persistent swelling which is caused by shaving. The term means false (pseudo) hair (follicle) inflammation (itis) of the beard (barbae). It is also referred to as PFB or term such as razor bumps. This often affects male faces especially with curly hair though it can also affect other parts of the body where hair is plucked or shaved. [read more]

  • Pseudomembranous Colitis
    Pseudomembranous colitis is the inflammation of the large intestine due to the use of antibiotics, which disrupt the balance of good and bad bacteria causing the harmful microorganisms to increase and spread in the colon. It is sometimes referred to as antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficile colitis. [read more]

  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei
    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a malignant tumor that develops in the abdominal and pelvic areas. In this state tumor cells grow due to the bursting of a certain polyp with the appendix wall. When the tumor cells accumulate they make the abdominal area swollen, and the gastrointestinal functions become impaired. [read more]

  • psychophysiologic Disorders
    Psychophysiologic disorders are classified as a group of disorders that affect one's mental, emotional and social capacities. It is quite difficult to determine psychophysiological disorders since they exhibit varying episodes and are caused by different reasons depending on the person afflicted by the condition. Among the common examples of psychophysiologic disorders are bipolar and multi-personality disorders. [read more]

  • Pterygium Of The Conjunctiva
    Pterygium of the conjunctiva refers to a small growth in they eye due to the ultraviolet-light exposure. It can also develop in the nasal area when the sun's ray refract when they hit the cornea and become focused on the limbic area. [read more]

  • Puerperal Fever
    Puerperal fever is a bacteria-caused disease a woman can contract during the following conditions: childbirth, abortion, and miscarriage. It is also sometimes known as childbed fever. [read more]

  • Pulmonary Sequestration
    Pulmonary sequestration is an abnormal growth within the tracheobronchial tree. This cystic growth may become a lung infection and can cause problems in the cardiopulmonary circulation. [read more]

  • Purpura Simplex
    Purpura simplex is a disorder characterized by the increased bruising from vascular fragility. This disorder affects mostly women, and is very common. This condition, in itself, is not considered serious. This disorder may characterize a heterogeneous group of disorders. [read more]

  • Pyropokilocytosis
    Pyropokilocytosis is a severe congenital disease that affects the red blood cells. It is a kind of hemolytic anemia and is under the disease group homozygous hereditary elliptocytosis. This disease causes a defect in spectrin which leads to an insufficient count of red blood cells. [read more]

  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency is a common neurodegenerative disorder that involves abnormal mitochondrial metabolism. It deprives the body from producing energy due to a dysfunctional lactate buildup. The main feature of this disease is the degeneration of gray matter with foci of necrosis as well as the proliferation of capillaries in the brainstem. [read more]

  • Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome
    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome is characterized by severe resistance to insulin, abnormal growth and development, acanthosis nigricans, and, in some cases, a hypertrophic pineal gland. In this rare insulin receptor disorder, the patient's body suffers from a disability to use insulin which is needed to control blood sugar levels. [read more]

  • Razor Bumps
    Razor bumps are also referred to as shaving bumps. This condition usually affects men who have very curly hairs. It occurs when the tip of the curly hair grows back towards the hair follicle. It is also known as ingrown hairs. The ingrown hair causes a skin reaction and results to razor bumps. The condition is not an infection but is considered as a reaction of a "foreign body". The condition becomes worst when the hair is pulled out while shaving, shaving in a motion against the natural direction of the hair growth, or when using a multi-blade razor. [read more]

  • Rectal Cancer
    Rectal cancer pertains to carcinoma affecting the last 6 inches of colon or large intestine, which is the lower part of the digestive system. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are sometimes collectively called colorectal cancers. [read more]

  • Rectum Cancer
    Rectum cancer is a kind of cancer wherein malignant cells take over the rectal tissues. In this condition the cancer cells that invade the rectal tissues cause abnormal growths in the blood vessels causing rectal obstruction. These cells can also spread in the different organs of the body. [read more]

  • Refsum Disease
    Refsum disease is a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies where the white matter of the brain is damaged, affecting motor movements. Refsum disease usually begins in childhood or adolescence and progresses through time. [read more]

  • Regional Enteritis
    Also known as Crohn's disease, regional enteritis is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), believed to be autoimmune in origin. Regional enteritis may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Consequently, symptoms vary among afflicted patients. [read more]

  • Renal Calculi
    Renal Calculi, more commonly known as kidney stones, refer to crystal aggregations or solid secretions of dissolved minerals in urine. Stones or calculi often form inside the kidneys or bladder. The presence of calculi in kidneys is known as nephrolithiasis; whereas the presence of calculi in the urinary tract is known as urolithiasis. [read more]

  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
    Renal cell carcinoma (acronym: RCC) is the most common type of renal or kidney cancer. It starts in the renal tubule and may spread to other parts of the body if undiagnosed early. [read more]

  • Renal Dysplasia Mesomelia Radiohumeral Fusion
    Renal dysplasia mesomelia radiohumeral fusion, also called Ulbright Hodes, is an extremely rare syndrome characterized by abnormalities in kidney development and various defects in the arm bone. [read more]

  • Respiratory Diphtheria
    Respiratory Diphtheria is an acute, toxin-mediated disease caused by virus called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. There are 2 main forms: respiratory and cutaneous. This kind of condition lasts for several days. [read more]

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pertains to a group of genetic eye conditions characterized by progressive night blindness preceded by an extended period of tunnel vision. In retinitis pigmentosa, abnormalities of the photoreceptors or the presence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cause progressive visual loss in affected patients. [read more]

  • Retractile Testicle
    Retractile testicle is a condition in which the testicle glides back and forth between the scrotum and the groin. [read more]

  • Retrolental Fibroplasia
    Also known as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), retrolental fibroplasia (RLF), is an eye disease that primarily affects prematurely born babies. [read more]

  • Rett Syndrome
    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly affecting females. This disease is categorized as a pervasive development disorder by the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). [read more]

  • Revesz Debuse Syndrome
    Revesz Debuse syndrome is an extremely rare condition characterized mostly by anemia, retinal disease, and anomalies in the central nervous system. [read more]

  • Rheumatic Fever
    Rheumatic fever pertains to an inflammatory disease which develops as a consequence of complications from a Group A streptococcal infection (e.g. scarlet fever and strep throat, etc.). Rheumatic fever commonly affects children 6 to 15 years old. [read more]

  • Rhinophyma
    Rhinophyma is a medical condition identified by an overgrowth of the sebaceous glands of the nose. It is part of a skin disorder called rosacea. In women, sensitive capillaries result in flushing and dilated small red veins made visible on the surface of the skin. [read more]

  • Rhupus
    Rhupus is a disease characterized by rheumatism and lupus. It is a rare condition in which the hands of an affected person become deformed due to the growth of cysts and calcification of the cartilage. The main symptoms of this illness are numbness and immobility of the affected area. Treatment for the rhupus requires surgery. [read more]

  • Richter Syndrome
    Richter syndrome is an extremely rare disease characterized by the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into a rapidly progressive form of lymphoma. Also known as Richter transformation, this disorder is a type of high grade non Hodgkin's lymphoma affecting patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To date, only 1 in 20 documented cases of CLL leads to Richter syndrome. [read more]

  • Rickets
    Rickets is a disease characterized by the softening of the bones in children, which can potentially lead to fractures and deformity. Although rickets can affect adults, most documented cases are those of malnourished or undernourished children living in developing countries. [read more]

  • Rickettsial Disease
    Rickettsial diseases refer to a group of disorders caused by Rickettsiae, a type of microorganism that can be a cross between virus and bacteria. Rickettsiae can only survive inside cells and cause disease by damaging the blood vessels in various organs and tissues. In severe cases, multiple organs and/or tissues may be affected. Rickettsial diseases vary in extent and severity, ranging from mild conditions to potentially fatal infections. Because they can be life-threatening, afflicted patients must seek emergency treatment or urgent medical care if Rickettsial diseases are suspected. [read more]

  • Riley-Day Syndrome
    Riley-Day syndrome, more commonly known as familiar dysautonomia (FD), is characterized by a disorder of the autonomic nervous system. Riley-Day syndrome commonly affects the survival and development of sympathetic, (some) parasympathetic, and sensory neurons of the autonomic and sensory nervous system. [read more]

  • Ringworm Of The Body
    Ringworm of the body is a fungal infection affecting the top layer of the skin. It is also referred to as tinea corporis. [read more]

  • Ringworm Of The Scalp
    Ringworm of the scalp is a fungal infection affecting the scalp, skin, and nails. It is also known as tinea capitis. [read more]

  • River Blindness
    The medical term for this condition is Onchocerciasis which is the world's second most leading infectious cause of blindness. Basically it is a skin and eye infection which is caused by the helmith (worm) Onchocerca volvulus. The black fly that carries the worm is only seen in parts of Africa, South America and Middle East. [read more]

  • Rod Myopathy
    Also known as nemaline myopathy and nemaline rod myopathy, rod myopathy pertains to a congenital, hereditary neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive and non-progressive muscle weakness of varying severity. Rod myopathy is clinically classified into several groups, ranging from mild (typical), intermediate, severe, to adult-onset. However, this categorization is somewhat ambiguous, with categories commonly overlapping. [read more]

  • Rodent Ulcer
    Rodent ulcer is a type of cancer of the skin accounting for about 75% of all skin cancers. This is a slow-growing skin tumor in the basal skin cells. The cancer cells that cause ulcers gradually enlarge gnawing at the normal cells, thus the name rodent ulcer. [read more]

  • Rubella, Congenital
    Congenital rubella syndrome (or CRS) can affect a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has been infected by rubella during the first trimester of her pregnancy. If the mother is infected 0-28 days before conception, there is a 43% risk of the fetus being affected. If infection occurs 0-12 days after conception, chances of CRS affecting the infant are 51%. If the infection occurs 13-26 weeks after conception, the chances of CRS affecting the fetus are 23%. However, if the infection occurs in the last trimester, specifically in the 26th to 20th week after conception, the infants are not generally affected. [read more]

  • Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (Gene Promoter Involvement)
    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, also called Broad Thumb-Hallux syndrome, is a condition characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, broad thumbs and first toes, distinctive facial features, and short stature. A distinction can be made between Rubinstein-Taybi like syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; the latter has gene promoter involvement. [read more]

  • Rumination Disorder
    Rumination disorder is a type of eating disorder in which the affected patient brings up partially digested food, and then chews it again before either swallowing or spitting it out. Originally named “childhood rumination disorder”, this chronic condition commonly affects children 3 to 12 months of age and may cause malnutrition. But while rumination primarily occurs in infancy or childhood, it may also affect adults. In some animals known as ruminants, rumination is a normal part of digestion. However, in humans, this behavior is distinctly abnormal and can be potentially dangerous because the esophagus can be damaged by frequent exposure to stomach acids. Rumination is linked to other eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, and is believed to be related to the sufferer's apprehension or stress after eating a normal meal. For individuals with bulimia or purging compulsions, rumination may occur when the patient is unable to throw up. To date, there is no known cure or case for rumination. In some cases, the patients may simply “grow out of it” (or outgrow the condition), but there is no guarantee the affected patients will do so. [read more]

  • Russell Silver Syndrome
    Russell-Silver syndrome is a rare disorder that affects slow development, low birth weight, and obvious differences in the size of the sides of the body. [read more]

  • Sakati Syndrome
    Sakati syndrome encompasses a group of rare genetic diseases collectively known as Acrocephalopolysyndactyly or ACPS. Sakati syndrome, along with all known types of ACPS, is characterized by the premature closure of the cranial sutures (fibrous joints) between certain bones of the skull. This premature closure, known as craniosynostosis, leads to: acrocephaly (pointed appearance of the top of the head); syndactyly (webbing or fusion) of digits; and appearance of more than normal digits (polydactyly). In addition, Sakati syndrome is linked to defects in the bones of the legs, congenital heart defects, as well as other complications. The disease is speculated to develop as a consequence of a sporadic mutation that occurs randomly for unknown reasons. [read more]

  • Sanfilippo Syndrome
    Sanfilippo syndrome pertains to a hereditary metabolism disorder characterized by the body's inability to properly break down complex sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans. Sanfilippo syndrome belongs to a group of diseases called mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), and is sometimes called MPS II. [read more]

  • SAPHO Syndrome
    SAPHO syndrome encompasses a range of chronic inflammatory bone diseases usually associated with skin changes. [read more]

  • Satoyoshi Syndrome
    Satoyoshi syndrome is an extremely rare progressive disease believed to be of autoimmune etiology. To date, there are less than 40 documented cases of Satoyoshi syndrome worldwide. [read more]

  • Say Meyer Syndrome
    Say Meyer syndrome is a familial condition characterized by short stature, trigonocephaly, motor impairment, and mental retardation. Say Meyer syndrome is named after Burhan Say, a Turkish medical geneticist, and Julia Meyer, an American physician, who both discovered the disorder. [read more]

  • SCAD Deficiency
    SCAD deficiency (short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency) pertains to a defect in the oxidation of fatty acids in the body. This disorder affects enzymes that are necessary in breaking down a group of fats known as short-chain fatty acids. [read more]

  • SCARF Syndrome
    SCARF syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by skeletal defects, cutis laxa, ambiguous genitalia, craniostenosis, mental retardation, and facial abnormalities. SCARF syndrome shares some clinical features of Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism syndrome. [read more]

  • Scarlet Fever
    Scarlet fever is an exotoxin illness characterized by a red “strawberry-like” tongue, sore throat, fever, and a rash on the upper body that may spread to other parts of the body. A distinction must be made between scarlet fever and rheumatic fever, although the former can progress into the latter. [read more]

  • Scheie Syndrome
    Scheie syndrome is the mildest form of MPS I, the most frequently occurring type of Mucopolysaccharidosis, or a group of hereditary metabolic diseases that result from the malfunctioning or absence of lysosomal enzymes necessary for breaking down long chains of sugar carbohydrates known as glycosaminoglycans. [read more]

  • Schinzel-Giedion Syndrome
    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is an extremely rare neurodegenerative terminal disease characterized by severe mid-face retraction, renal abnormalities, skull deformities, and other anomalies. [read more]

  • Schwannoma, Malignant
    Schwannoma, malignant is a type of malignant tumor that grows from the nerve sheath cells. It originates from the Schwann cells that are responsible for providing myelin insulation to nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system. It is most common to occur on the sciatic, brachial and sacral plexus nerves. [read more]

  • Schwannomatosis
    Schwannomatosis is a disorder that causes tumors, known as Schwannomas to grow on nerves in the peripheral nervous system. It is a form of a genetic disorder known as Neurofibromatosis, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. In Schwannomatosis, there is a great possibility that the nerves in the head and peripheral nerves may be affected. [read more]

  • Scratch Dermatitis
    Scratch dermatitis is medically known as neurodermatitis, which is actually the tendency of a person to scratch simply out of habit. This cycle is brought about by a stubborn skin condition that causes the skin to become leathery and thick. [read more]

  • Sebaceous Cysts
    Sebaceous cysts or epidermoid cysts are small painless bumps that slowy grow beneath the skin on the face, neck, trunk, and sometimes in the genital area. [read more]

  • Seckel Syndrome
    Seckel syndrome is a rare medical condition marked by fetal and postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation and characteristic or distinguishing facial features. [read more]

  • Seizure, Temporal Lobe
    Temporal lobe seizure is a type of complex partial seizure that is usually localized to one part of the brain. [read more]

  • Semantic Pragmatic Disorder
    Semantic-pragmatic disorder is a developmental language speech disorder in which children have difficulties in using language in appropriate instances, as well as with the semantic use of language. This disorder is believed to be linked with Asperger's syndrome and autism. [read more]

  • Sensorineural Hearing Loss
    Sensorineural hearing loss is hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or the cochlea, which is the part of the brain that processes sound. It may be present at birth or congenital. It may also be acquired as a result of aging, excessive noise, diseases like meningitis. [read more]

  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
    Severe combined immunodeficiency refers to a group of genetically inherited disorder which causes severe abnormalities in the immune system. These disorders result to reduced or impaired functions of the T and B lymphocytes. These are the specialized white blood cells processed in the bone marrow that fights infection. It is also known as the Boy in the Bubble Syndrome and referred to as the “bubble boy” disease because victims are extremely vulnerable to infectious diseases. This group of life-threatening diseases is present at birth and if left untreated may cause death in the first years of the child. [read more]

  • Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome
    Short rib-polydactyly syndrome is a description for a group of bone growth disorders referred to as skeletal dysplasias, which is commonly known as dwarfism. Any form of short rib-polydactyly syndrome is fatal for newborns because of severe underdevelopment of the lungs causing inability to breathe. There are four closely related dysplasias in Short rib-polydactyly syndrome namely: I-”Saldino-Noonan Type” II- “Majewski Type” III- “Verma-Naumoff Type” IV- “Beemeer-Langer Type” [read more]

  • Short Stature
    Short stature or dwarfism caused by a medical condition resulting in an adult height ranging from 2 feet 8 inches to 4 feet 8 inches. [read more]

  • Shwachman Syndrome
    Shwachman syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with numerous and wide-ranging manifestations. The disease is characteristically marked by signs of insufficient fat and nutrient absorption because of abnormal development of the pancreas and improper functioning of the bone marrow, which results in hematologic abnormalities. [read more]

  • Sialidosis
    Sialidosis is a very rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by an insufficiency of the enzyme alpha-neuraminidase. This insufficiency leads to the abnormal accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) and mucolipids (fatty substances) in most tissues of the body. Sialidosis belongs to a group of disorders that are known as lysosomal disorders. It is also known by other names like Mucolipidosis I, Sialidase deficiency, and Alpha-neuraminidase Deficiency. [read more]

  • Sickle Cell Anemia
    Sickle cell anemia is a serious blood disorder wherein the red blood cells can assume the shape of the letter “C” (sickle-shaped). Normal red blood cells are smooth and shaped like a doughnut. Sickle cell anemia is a chronic and life-long condition most sufferers are often well but with a shortened life expectancy and risk for various complications and periodic attacks of pain related to the disorder. [read more]

  • Siderosis
    Siderosis is a medical condition characterized by abnormal amount of iron deposits in body tissues. It is caused by exposure to iron oxide present in welding material, foundries and iron ore mining. Symptoms that are usually observed in individuals with siderosis include retarded growth in children, endocrine dysfunctions, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and symptoms affecting the liver. It is also referred to as an environmental disease of the lung because of the causative agent that is associated with the disorder. [read more]

  • Silver-Russel dwarfism
    Silver-Russell dwarfism is another type of less common dwarfism. It is also known as Silver – Russell Syndrome and Russell – Silver syndrome. [read more]

  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome
    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome is a rare genetic congenital disorder marked by accelerated growth and other abnormalities. The syndrome is also known as Sara Agers Syndrome and Bulldog Syndrome. The syndrome somehow resembles another overgrowth syndrome referred as Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome; another syndrome concerned with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). [read more]

  • Sipple Syndrome
    Sipple syndrome is a group of rare inherited disorders that causes the growth of tumors in several glands. It is also known as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2. Tumors produced by this syndrome can either be benign or malignant. Sipple syndrome is a subtype of multiple endocrine Neoplasia producing tumors that generally occur in endocrine glands and sometimes in endocrine tissues. [read more]

  • Skin Cancer
    Skin cancer is a type of cancer characterized by abnormal growth of skin cells commonly affecting areas of the skin that are exposed to sunlight, including the lips, face, scalp, neck, ears, chest, arms and hands, and on the legs in women. However, skin cancer may also occur in skin areas that are rarely exposed to the sun, such as the palms of hands, genital area, and spaces between toes. [read more]

  • Skin Tags
    Skin tags or fibroepithelial polyp is a tiny benign tumor that forms mainly in areas where the skin forms creases, like in the neck, groin and armpits. The size of the tumor may range from a grain of rice to the size of a golf ball. Its surface maybe smooth or has an unusual appearance. It is raised in the skin on a fleshy stalk referred to as peduncle. [read more]

  • Skin Tags
    Skin tags, also known as acorchordons, are small benign growths that arise on the creased areas of the skin, such as the face, neck and armpits. These can be removed by surgery. [read more]

  • Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is an illness in which the bacteria found in the small intestine have grown to abnormally large proportions, which can cause infections and obstruction of the intestinal lining. [read more]

  • Small Intestine Cancer
    Small Intestine Cancer is the cancer that grows in the intestine between the stomach and the colon which is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients. It includes adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma and the carcinoids. [read more]

  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
    Soft tissue sarcoma is a type of malignant or cancerous tumor that grows in mesenchymal tissues including all muscles, connective tissues and bones present in the body. It can invade surrounding tissue and can spread to other organs of the body to form secondary tumors with cells similar to primary tumors. [read more]

  • Solar Lentigines
    Solar lentigines are flat, dark spots on the areas of the skin most exposed to the sun. They may be gray, brown or black spots with varying sizes. They are also called liver spots and age spots. [read more]

  • Soto's Syndrome
    Soto's syndrome is a rare genetic disorder wherein excessive physical growth is observed during the first two to three years of life. This is the probable reason why this disorder is also named as cerebral gigantism. Children with this syndrome are often large at birth and often presents with larger heads and taller and heavier than what should be considered as normal for their age. [read more]

  • Soy Allergy
    Soy allergy is known to affect only about one percent of Americans. This condition triggers an allergic to any soy-based product, as well as infant formulas with soy, and is mostly found in infants. However, in most cases, children will outgrow soy allergy by the age of three. [read more]

  • Spermatic Cyst
    A Spermatic cyst is a type of cysts that develops in the epididymis, this is a tiny, coiled tube that is situated in the upper section of the testicle that is responsible for collecting and transporting sperm. Generally this condition is often painless and known to be noncancerous, as a spermatic is often filled with a clear or milky fluid that usually contains sperm. [read more]

  • Sphingolipidosis
    Sphingolipidosis is a group of disorders involving the abnormal metabolism and storage of a substance called sphingolipid. Symptoms will differ depending on the particular disease. Examples of disorders from this group of diseases include gangliosidosis, Gaucher's disease and Niemann-Pick disease. [read more]

  • Spider Angioma
    A spider angioma is a group of small blood vessels seen at the surface of the skin. The pattern of the blood vessels will sometimes resemble the threads like that of a spider's web. This condition is usually common to young children and to pregnant women. People suffering from liver diseases are likely to have spider angiomas. [read more]

  • Spielmeyer-Vogt Disease
    Spielmeyer-Vogt disease is a progressive genetic disorder where defective lipid metabolism that causes blindness, neurological deterioration, dementia leading to total incapacitation within years and death within 10-15 years. It is the most common type of a group of disorders called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs). The disease is also known as Batten disease. [read more]

  • Spinal Cord Neoplasm
    Spinal cord neoplasm is a growth or tumor located in the spinal cord which can be either benign or malignant. Spinal cord neoplasms often originate in other parts of the body and metastasize (spread or travel) to the spinal cord. [read more]

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy
    Spinal muscular atrophy is a degenerative group of disorder affecting the spinal cord and nerves, which results in muscle wasting and weakness caused by loss of motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem. [read more]

  • Spinal Tumor
    Spinal tumor pertains to a potentially malignant mass growing at or near the spinal cord. Spinal tumors may be either cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). [read more]

  • Spirochetes Disease
    Spirochetes disease is a medical condition marked by infection with bacteria that is often found in mud, sewage or septic tanks, and contaminated water. The bacterium that causes Spirochetes disease known as Spirochaetes is free-living and does not need oxygen for growth; in fact presence of oxygen can even cause death to this organism. Salvarsan is an effective antibiotic against Spirochaetes. [read more]

  • Spondylarthritis
    Spondylarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease that is characterized by inflammation of the joints of the spine. It stands for a group of closely related disorders such as psoriatic arthritis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease and ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to chronic inflammation, ankylosis, stiffness and fusion of bones and peripheral joints of the spine are remarkable traits of this group of disorders, which are usually aggravated by anomalous cartilage and bone formation. The most remarkable symptoms that a person with spondylarthritis experience is back pain and impaired spine mobility along with the remarkable traits of the disorder. [read more]

  • Spondylarthropathies
    Spondylarthropathies are inflammatory joint disorders. The spondylarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, the reactive arthritides, certain subsets of juvenile arthropathy including juvenile ankylosing spondylitis and the seronegative enthesopathic arthropathy syndrome, enteropathic sacroiliitis, psoriatic arthropathy, and possibly a group of rarer disorders such as Behqet's syndrome, Whipple's disease, and pustulotic arthro-osteitis. Different spondylarthropathies can be recognized and differentiated from one another according to the particular peripheral joints concerned, the presentation of clinical features, and the way leading to the progression of the disease. [read more]

  • Spondylarthropathy
    Spondylarthropathy refers to a group of closely related inflammatory conditions affecting the sacroiliac joints, spine and in some cases other joints as well. Also referred to as seronegative arthropathy, this condition also involves other conditions such as inflammation of the urethra, alternating buttock pain, acute diarrhea, psoriasis, sacroiliitis or inflammatory bowel disease. Ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis are some of the disorders within this group. [read more]

  • Spondylitis
    Spondylitis is inflammation of one or more of bony vertebrae of the spine. In addition to this definition, spondylitis is also used to refer to any spinal column disorder. This also refers to a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that are forms of inflammatory arthritis affecting the spine, joints of the spine and other organs. The spondylitis family consists of the following conditions: ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile spondyloarthropathy, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, reactive, enteropathic and psoriatic arthritis; and Pott's disease. [read more]

  • Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia
    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia is a rare genetic bone growth disorder that leads to dwarfism, skeletal abnormalities, and in some cases visual and auditory disturbances. As the name of the disease suggests, this rare medical condition can be defined as a disease that affects the bone of the spine and the ends of bones and is actually presented at birth. [read more]

  • Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia, Congenital Type
    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, congenital type is a rare genetic bone growth disorder that leads to dwarfism, skeletal abnormalities, and in some cases visual and auditory disturbances. As the name of the disease suggests, this rare medical condition can be defined as a disease that affects the bone of the spine and the ends of bones which is present at birth. [read more]

  • Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia
    Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia is a rare inherited bone growth disorder that leads to dwarfism, skeletal abnormalities, and visual problems. As the name of the disease suggests, this rare medical condition can be defined as a disease that affects the bone of the spine and two regions near the ends of bones. [read more]

  • Stagnant Syndrome
    Stagnant loop syndrome results when a portion of the small intestine has been cut off from the normal flow of food and digestive juices. It is sometimes called blind loop syndrome or stasis syndrome. [read more]

  • Stammering
    Stammering or stuttering is a disorder that results in repeating or prolonging a word, syllable or phrase, or stopping during speech and making no sound for certain syllables. [read more]

  • Stasis Syndrome
    Stasis syndrome results when a portion of the small intestine has been cut off from the normal flow of food and digestive juices. It is sometimes called blind loop syndrome or stagnant loop syndrome. [read more]

  • Steatorrhea
    Steatorrhea is a medical condition wherein there is an increased fat excretion in feces. It is characterized by the formation of non-solid feces, floating stools due to excess fat from malabsorption, or the occurrence of an oily anal leakage, or some level of fecal incontinence. [read more]

  • Stickler Syndrome
    Stickler syndrome (also known as David-Stickler syndrome or Stickler-Wagner syndrome) is a group of genetic disorders affecting connective tissue, specifically collagen. Stickler syndrome is marked by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [read more]

  • Stickler Syndrome Type 2
    Stickler syndrome (also known as David-Stickler syndrome or Stickler-Wagner syndrome) is a group of genetic disorders affecting connective tissue, specifically collagen. Stickler syndrome is marked by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [read more]

  • Stickler Syndrome Type 3
    Stickler syndrome (also known as David-Stickler syndrome or Stickler-Wagner syndrome) is a group of genetic disorders affecting connective tissue, specifically collagen. Stickler syndrome is marked by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [read more]

  • Stickler Syndrome, Type I
    Stickler syndrome, type I also known as David-Stickler syndrome and Stickler-Wagner syndrome is a group of rare genetically inherited disorders, which affect connective tissue particularly collagen. Distinctive facial features, aye anomalies, loss of hearing, and joint problems are the main traits of Stickler syndrome. [read more]

  • Strep Throat
    Strep throat is an infection caused by group A streptococcus bacteria, and it's very frequent among kids and teens. [read more]

  • Streptococcus Group B
    Infection with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), also called Streptococcus agalactiae, can cause serious illness and sometimes death, especially in newborn infants and the elderly. Group B streptococci are also important pathogens in veterinary medicine, because they can result to bovine mastitis (inflammation of the udder) in dairy cows. The species name "agalactiae" meaning "no milk", refers to this. Streptococcus agalactiae is a gram-positive streptococcus marked by the presence of Group B Lancefield antigen, and so takes the name Group B Streptococcus. [read more]

  • Stuttering
    It is also called as stammering which a speech disorder that includes saying a word, phrase or syllable in a repeated or prolonged manner. What makes stuttering worse are stress, excitement and fatigue though when the patient is relaxed stuttering is decreased. [read more]

  • Subfertility
    Subfertility, also known as infertility, is the inability of a couple to get pregnant despite a year of frequent and unprotected sex. [read more]

  • Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADH) is a rare metabolic disorder marked by lack of the enzyme involved in the degradation of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. [read more]

  • Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency
    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a congenital error of the metabolism of sulfated amino acids. Individuals affected with sulfite oxidase deficiency typically present in the neonatal period with intractable seizures, characteristic dysmorphic features, and profound mental retardation. [read more]

  • Surfers Nodules
    Surfer's nodules are skin lesions that grow on the ankles, soles and dorsal areas of the foot. This is common ailment among surfers. Surfer's nodules are caused by trauma and skin injuries suffered by the foot. Inflammation also occurs when the nodules begin to develop. [read more]

  • Swallowing Difficulties
    Difficulty swallowing may be a medical condition in which an individual needs more time and effort to move his or her food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach. The condition may also be associated with pain. The condition is also known as dysphagia. [read more]

  • Sweeley-Klionsky Disease
    Sweeley-Klionsky disease (also known as Anderson-Fabry disease, Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, Ceramide trihexosidosis, and Fabry disease) is an X-linked recessive (inherited) lysosomal storage disease. [read more]

  • Sweet's Syndrome
    Sweet's syndrome is a skin disorder marked by fever and painful skin lesions. [read more]

  • Swollen Lymph Nodes
    Swelling of lymph nodes typically results from localized or systemic infection, abscess formation, or malignancy [read more]

  • Sydenham's Chorea
    Sydenham's chorea (also known as "Saint Vitus Dance") is a disease marked by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements affecting primarily the face, feet and hands. [read more]

  • Synostosis
    Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect resulting to an abnormally developed brain and misshapen head. [read more]

  • Syphilis
    Syphilis is a bacterial infection typically transmitted by sexual contact. The disease affects the genitals, skin and mucous membranes, but it may also involve many other parts of the body, including the brain and the heart. [read more]

  • TAR Syndrome
    TAR Syndrome (Thrombocytopenia with Absent radius) is a rare genetic disorder which is marked by the absence of the radius bone in the forearm, and a dramatically reduced platelet count. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia, or a lowered platelet count, results to bruising and potentially life-threatening haemorrhage. [read more]

  • Tardive Dyskinesia
    Tardive dyskinesia is a symptom caused by the long-term or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics, but also those such as antiemetic metoclopramide. These neuroleptic drugs are typically prescribed for psychiatric disorders. [read more]

  • Tay Syndrome Ichthyosis
    Tay syndrome is a recessive hereditary disease marked by trichothiodystrophy (sulfur-deficient brittle hair) with photosensitivity, ichthyosiform erythroderma (fish-like scales on skin), dystrophic (abnormal) finger and toe-nails, progeria-like faces (prematurely aged looking face), growth and mental retardation, infertility and variable other defects. [read more]

  • Teeth grinding
    Teeth grinding, which is also known as bruxism is the unconscious clenching, grinding, or gnashing of teeth. [read more]

  • Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic
    In medicine, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also called Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that leads to vascular malformations. [read more]

  • Temporal Lobe Seizure
    Temporal lobe seizure is a type of complex partial seizure that is usually localized to one part of the brain. [read more]

  • TEN
    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a life-threatening dermatological condition that is commonly induced by a reaction to medications. It is marked by the detachment of the top layer of skin (the epidermis) from the lower layers of the skin (the dermis) all over the body. [read more]

  • Testicle, Undescended
    Undescended testicle, also referred to as cryptorchidism, is a condition in which the testes did not completely descend into the scrotum. [read more]

  • Testicular Cancer
    Testicular cancer is characterized by a growth of a malignant mass in the testicles or testes, which are located inside the scrotum below the penis of males. [read more]

  • Testicular Cancer
    Testicular cancer is known as disease wherein the cells become cancerous either in one or both testicles. The testicles are a pair of male sex organs that produce and store sperm and the main source of testosterone in men. [read more]

  • Testicular Torsion
    Testicular torsion is a condition in which blood flow to the testicle is cut off causing sudden and severe pain and swelling due to the rotation of a testicle on the spermatic cord. [read more]

  • Testosterone Deficiency
    Testosterone deficiency or male hypogonadism is the body's insufficient production of the sex hormone testosterone. [read more]

  • Testotoxicosis
    Familial male precocious puberty (also called testotoxicosis) is a form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in which boys experience early onset and progression of puberty. Signs of puberty can start as early as an age of 1 year. [read more]

  • Tethered Spinal Cord
    Tethered Spinal Cord is an uncommon neurological disorder. [read more]

  • Tetralogy Of Fallot
    It is a congenital heart defect that originally has four anatomical components and also it is the most common cyanotic heart defect and most usual cause of blue baby syndrome. [read more]

  • Tetraploidy _
    Tetraploidy is a very rare chromosomal disorder which leads to various abnormalities. Infants are often stillborn or die within months of birth [read more]

  • Thalassemia
    Thalassemia, also called as Mediterranean Anemia, Cooley's Anemia or Homozygous Beta Thalassemia, is a group of inherited disorders in which there is a fault in the production of hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying pigment found in red blood cells). [read more]

  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is made up of a group of distinct disorders that affect the nerves in the brachial plexus (nerves that pass into the arms from the neck) and the subclavian artery and vein blood vessels between the base of the neck and axilla (armpit). [read more]

  • Thyroid Cancer
    Thyroid cancer refers to one of four kinds of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. [read more]

  • Tick Bites
    Usually caused by ticks where in it's the general name for small arachnids in the Ixodoidea superfamily together with other mites that comprises the Acarina. [read more]

  • Tinea
    Tinea otherwise known as Dermatophytes is a fungeal infection that is caused by a group of fungi that usually invades the dead keratin of the skin, hair and nails. It may be spread from person to person or anthropophili animal to person or zoophilic. [read more]

  • Tinea Capitis
    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection affecting the scalp, skin, and nails. It is also known as ringworm of the scalp. [read more]

  • Tinea Versicolor
    Tinea versicolor is a common fungal skin infection resulting in abnormal skin pigmentation. The condition is also known as pityriasis versicolor. [read more]

  • Tongue Neoplasm
    Tongue neoplasm is a new abnormal tongue tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. [read more]

  • Tonsillitis
    It is basically the infection of the tonsils and may or may not cause a fever or sore throat. There are three types of tonsillitis which are acute which can be viral or bacterial, subacute which is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces that can last for at least three to three months and chronic that can last for long periods if not immediately treated. [read more]

  • TORCH Syndrome
    TORCH or TORCHES infections are a group of viral, and seldom bacterial infections, which gain access to the fetal bloodstream transplacentally via the chorionic villi. [read more]

  • Touraine-Solente-Gole Syndrome
    Touraine-Solente-Gol? syndrome is marked by cutis verticis gyrata (corrugated overgrowth of the scalp, or so-called "bull-dog scalp" lesions) also involving the forehead, face, and extremities; clubbing of the digits due to soft tissue hyperplasia; elephantiasis of long bones, enormously large hands and feet; periosteal lesions, fatigability, blepharitis, arthralgia, periosteal overgrowth, and occasionally pulmonary osteoarthropathy. This syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males, though it is more severe in females. It occurs at the time of puberty, up to third decade, with the general health and mental status not affected. It is inherited dominantly with variability of expression. This condition is distinguished from the Brugsch syndrome by the presence of acromegaly. [read more]

  • Toxic Shock Syndrome
    Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, life-threatening bacterial infection that has been most often linked with the use of superabsorbent tampons and occasionally with the use of contraceptive sponges. [read more]

  • Toxocariasis
    Toxocariasis (or Toxocarosis) is a helminth infection of humans caused by the dog or cat roundworm, Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, respectively. It is an infection that is caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae of the dog roundworm Toxocara canis or the cat roundworm Toxocara cati. The soil of parks and playgrounds is commonly contaminated with the eggs of T canis, and infection may result to human disease in the liver, lung, muscle, eye, and brain. [read more]

  • Transposition Of The Great Vessels
    Transposition of the great vessels or TGV involves an abnormal spatial arrangement of the primary blood vessels including the superior and/or inferior vena cavae (SVC,IVC), pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta. It also belongs to a group of congenital heart defects (CHDs) involving only the primary arteries, belonging to a sub-group called the transposition of the great arteries. [read more]

  • Tremor Hereditary Essential
    Also known as essential tremor or ET, Tremor hereditary essential is a neurological disorder characterized by shaking of hands and sometimes the other parts of the body such as the head, induced by intentional movements. Though the exact incident is unknown, ET is presumed to be the most common type of tremor and also the most commonly observed movement disorder. The disease was also previously known as “benign essential tremor” but the “benign” was removed due to the sometimes disabling nature of the disorder. [read more]

  • Trench Mouth
    Trench mouth is severe type of gingivitis that usually causes painful, bleeding, infected gums and ulcerations. Usually develops in nations that have poor nutrition and poor living conditions. [read more]

  • Trench Mouth
    Trench mouth is a severe form of gingivitis that results to painful, infected, bleeding gums, and ulcerations. It is also referred to as Vincent's stomatitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. [read more]

  • Treponema Pallidum
    Treponema pallidum is a subspecies of the bacteria-like spirochete pallidum, which causes a highly contagious disease known as syphilis. [read more]

  • Trichothiodystrophy
    Trichothiodystrophy is a characterization of the recessive hereditary disease Tay syndrome. Trichothiodystrophy means sulfur-deficient brittle hair with photosensitivity, ichthyosiform erythroderma (fish-like scales on skin), dystrophic or abnormal finger and toe nails, progeria-like faces or prematurely aged looking face, growth and mental retardation, infertility, and variable other defects. [read more]

  • Triple A Syndrome
    Triple-A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder discovered by Jeremy Allgrove and colleagues in 1978. The name Triple A stands for achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome. This means that affected individuals have adrenal insufficiency, alacrima (absence of tear secretion), and achalasia. The latter means failure of a ring of muscle fibers such as the sphincter, to relax. [read more]

  • Triploid Syndrome
    This disorder is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder. Affected individuals have 3 chromosomes for a total of sixty-nine rather than the normal 46 chromosomes. Unborn children with Triploid syndrome are usually lost through early miscarriage but those who make it survive for as long as five months. [read more]

  • Triploidy
    This disorder is a rare lethal chromosome abnormality caused by the presence of an entire extra set of chromosomes. Unborn children with triploidy has 69 chromosomes rather than 46. Most fetuses are miscarried during pregnancy and those that survive usually have severe growth retardation and multiple birth defects. [read more]

  • Trisomy 21 Syndrome
    Trisomy 21 syndrome is a form of down syndrome, which is caused by the abnormal cell division involving the 21st chromosome during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell. [read more]

  • Trophoblastic Neoplasms
    Gestational trophoblastic disease or also known as Trophoblastic neoplasms is a quick growing form of cancer that occurs in a woman's uterus after a pregnancy, miscarriage, or abortion. The disease is usually metastatic, which means it spreads to other places in the body. It is also known as choriocarcinoma. [read more]

  • Trophoblastic Tumor
    Also known as Gestational trophoblastic disease or Trophoblastic neoplasms a Trophoblastic tumor is a quick growing form of cancer that occurs in a woman's uterus after a pregnancy, miscarriage, or abortion. The disease is usually metastasizes and spreads to other places in the body. It's other name is choriocarcinoma. [read more]

  • Tropical Sprue
    Commonly found in the tropical regions, Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disease marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine. [read more]

  • Tuberculosis-Pulmonary
    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is very common and attacks the lungs. The disease can also affect the central nervous system, the lympathic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and even the skin. About one-third of the world's population has been infected with the disease and new cases are added at a rate of one per second. [read more]

  • Tuberous Sclerosis
    Tuberous sclerosis is also known as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). It is a rare, multi-system genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. The disease also has a predilection to tumor and the names are named after a characteristic abnormal growth in the brain, which takes the shape of a tuber root. [read more]

  • Tularemia (deliberate release)
    Tularemia (deliberate release) is a serious infection caused by Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) bacterium, a tiny gram-negative non-motile coccobacillus. Deer-fly fever, Francis disease, rabbit fever, and Ohara fever are other names for Tularemia (deliberate release). [read more]

  • Turner Syndrome
    A genetic condition, Turner syndrome is a disease in which a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes. [read more]

  • Tyrosinemia
    Tyrosinemia is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is a building block of most proteins. There are three types of tyrosinemia namely Type I, Type II, and Type III. [read more]

  • UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
    A genetic metabolic disorder, Galactosemia affects an individual's ability to properly metabolize the sugar galactose. In 1917, Goppert first described the disease, citing a defect in galactose metabolism that was identified by a groups led by Herman Kalckar in 1956. The disease's incidence is about 1 per 47,000 births (classic type) and is much rarer in Japan and much more common in Italy, particularly the traveler region. The disease is also very common within the Irish Traveler population. This is credited to consanguinity within a relatively small gene pool. [read more]

  • Ulbright Hodes Syndrome
    Ulbright Hodes syndrome or Renal dysplasia-limb defects syndrome (RL syndrome) is a very rare disorder that has been described in three infants, all of whom died shortly after they were born. [read more]

  • Ulcerative Colitis
    Ulcerative colitis or colitis ulcerosa is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large intestine and rectum. A systemic disease affects many parts of the body outside the intestine, it is often confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). [read more]

  • Uncombable Hair Syndrome
    Uncombable Hair Syndrome, also referred to as spun-glass hair, was discovered by French researchers in the early 1970s and was termed “cheveux incoiffables.” Uncombable hair syndrome is characterized by scalp hair that has an irregular structure and that is arranged in jumbled bundles, making it impossible to comb. UHS however, is not a common phenomenon. Between 1973 and 1998, there have only been 60 reported cases of the disorder. [read more]

  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
    Upper Respiratory Tract Infections or URTI or URI refers to the sickness caused by an acute infection that usually involves the upper respiratory tracts like the nose, pharynx, larynx and the sinuses. [read more]

  • Ureter Cancer
    Ureter Cancer or the Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter is a cancer that grows in the urinary system that is either on the kidney which is responsible for collecting urine or the pelvis which empties the urine into a tube called the ureter that leads to the bladder. [read more]

  • Urinary Incontinence
    Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control which is often become embarrassing to the individuals affected by this condition where in an individual cannot control the release of urine from the bladder. Urinary incontinence severity ranges from urine secretion from simply coughing or sneezing to sudden, random episodes of strong urinary emergencies. [read more]

  • Urinary Tract Infection
    UTI is a bacterial infection that greatly affects any part of the urinary tract. The most common kind of UTI is called cystitis which is a bladder infection and pyelonephritis which is a kidney infection. [read more]

  • Urinary Tract Neoplasm
    Urinary tract neoplasm means that a tumor that develops anywhere along the urinary tract. The urinary tract involves the kidneys, urethra and ureters. The tumor may be malignant or benign. [read more]

  • Urticaria
    The skin disorder physical urticaria (or urticaria) usually results from allergic reactions to certain substances. It is characterized by the swelling of the skin, called welts or uredo, on different parts of the body, such as the face, throat, ears, lips, and tongue. The welts, whose sizes may grow up to that of one dinner plate, commonly itch severely, burn or sting. [read more]

  • Urticaria Pigmentosa
    Urticaria pigementosa is a rare disease and is the most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis. [read more]

  • Uterine Fibroids
    Uterine fibroids are characterized as noncancerous growths that develop in the uterus that appear within the childbearing years. Uterine fibroids are also known as fibromyomas and are not elated with uterine cancer. Generally, these growths do not pose any real problem and would seldom require any treatment. [read more]

  • Uterine Growths
    Uterine growths, also known as endometriosis, are benign growths that come from the tissues of the uterine lining. These tissues develop into cysts on the pelvic area. When not treated, these growths can form scars and adhesions which can bind reproductive organs together. [read more]

  • Vagina Cancer
    Vaginal cancer is a rare form of carcinoma that affects the vagina, or the muscular tube connecting the uterus to the outer genitals. Most cases of vaginal cancer occur in the birth canal. [read more]

  • Vaginal Discharge
    Vaginal discharge, also known as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation of the female genital tract. It is a result of various sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea. [read more]

  • Vaginitis
    Vaginitis is the swelling of the vagina, which is the female genital, that can lead to discharge, pain and itching. There are common types of vaginitis which are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infection, trichomoniasis and atrophic vaginitis. [read more]

  • Vaginitis
    Vaginitis is characterized as the inflammation of the vagina, which can often result to discharges, as well as itching and pain. Vaginitis is usually triggered by the change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria or caused by an infection. [read more]

  • Valinemia
    A very rare metabolic disorder, Valinemia is a deficiency of the enzyme valine transminase resulting in increased blood and urine levels of valine, an amino acid. [read more]

  • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is a group of bacterial species of the genus Enterococcus, which is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. The aid bacteria are enteric and can be found in the digestive and urinary tracts of some humans. Even healthy people can carry VRE if they have been exposed to the bacteria. Hospitals are the most likely places whewre such contacts can occur although it is thought that a significant percentage of intensively-farmed chicken can also carry VRE. [read more]

  • Varicella Virus Antenatal Infection
    TORCH or TORCHES infections are a group of infections that can lead to sever fatal anomalies or even fetal loss among pregnant women. Varicella virus antenatal infection is one of the infections in this syndrome. These infections are rarely bacterial and gain access to the fetal bloodstream via the placenta or the chorionic villi. TORCH stands for Toxoplasmosis, Other agents (Varicella zoster virus and human parvovirus), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus/HIV, and Syphilis. [read more]

  • Varicose Veins
    Varicose veins looks like gnarled, enlarged veins. The veins that are usually affected are those found in the legs and feet. For other people pain and discomfort can be felt. Varicose veins can also indicate other disorders especially in the circulatory system. [read more]

  • Vasculitis
    A group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins (phlebitis), arteries, and capillaries due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage, Vasculitis is a condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own blood vessels. Vasculitides generally affect several organ systems and can cause severe disability. [read more]

  • Velocardiofacial Syndrome
    Velocardiofacial Syndrome, otherwise known as the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, DiGeorge Syndrome Strong Syndrome, is a disease or a condition that is characterized by the deletion of a chromosome that occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location named or designated as q11.2 It usually one of the causes which causes hypemasality, language delays and speech sound errors (D'Antonio LL, Scherer NJ, Miller LL, Kalbfleisch JH, Bartley JA (2001). "Analysis of speech characteristics in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and children with phenotypic overlap without VCFS". Cleft Palate Craniofac. J. 38 (5): 455-67). [read more]

  • Venereal Warts
    Venereal warts is more commonly known as warts in the genitals is categorized as one of the most common types of sexually transmitted diseases. As its name suggests, this disease primarily affects the moist tissues found in the genitals. While these warts can be treated with medications and surgery, it poses a health risk that should be treated seriously. [read more]

  • Ventricular Septal Defect
    Ventricular septal defect or VSD for brevity is a defect in the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart called the ventricular septum which consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion which is close to the atrioventricular node, It is the most common congenital heart defects in adults and older children (Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. (2002) The Incidence of congenital heart disease, p 39). [read more]

  • Veruccas
    Veruccas, also known as plantar warts, skin lesions that grow on the soles of the feet. These warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), but they are not harmful to the body's internal organs. [read more]

  • Vincent's Stomatitis
    Vincent's stomatitis is more commonly known as Trench mouth, which has been known to be quite prevalent among soldiers who were are stuck during the World War I in the trenches. This is caused by a severe form of gingitivis caused by poor living conditions and poor nutrition. [read more]

  • Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
    Viral haemorrhagic fevers is actually categorized as a group of illnesses that are primary caused by a number of highly distinct virus families that includes filoviruses, arenaviruses, , flaviviruses and bunyaviruses. Some of these virus may cause some relatively mild illnesses, while others can result to life-threatening diseases. [read more]

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
    Viral hemorrhagic fever, VHF for brevity, is a group of illnesses that are caused by a taxonomically diverse group of simple RNA viruses with lipid envelopes (Gravenstein, N., Lobato, E., Kirby, R. (2007) Complications in Anesthesiology, p.446). It is an illness which is commonly detected or seen in both human and animals. [read more]

  • Vision Problems
    Vision problems are anomalies that affect normal eye function. These disturbances are caused by a variety of factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental exposure. Among the main forms of vision problems are cataracts, blurry vision, refractive errors and swelling corneal blood vessels, as well as partial or total blindness. Vision problems can also be an effect of severe conditions such as eye cancers and other malignant growths. Vision problems can be detected by physical eye examinations and be treated with prescription glasses, contact lenses or eye surgery to restore normal vision. [read more]

  • Vitamin A Deficiency
    In developing countries Vitamin A deficiency is common and often seen in developed countries. This deficiency contributes to blindness because it can make the cornea very dry and destroying the retina and cornea. Pregnant women are at risk because there is a high possibility that they acquire this deficiency. [read more]

  • Vitamin A Deficiency
    Vitamin A Deficiency is the medical condition that refers to the person's inability to take the required or the minimum level of Vitamin A which helps the body to fight infections. itamin A deficiency also diminishes the ability to fight infections. In countries where children are not immunized, infectious disease like measles have relatively higher fatality rates. As elucidated by Dr. Alfred Sommer, even mild, subclinical deficiency can also be a problem, as it may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease likelihood of survival from serious illness. [read more]

  • Vitamin D Resistant Rickets
    Vitamin D Resistant Rickets is the clinical condition characterized by the person's prevalent body resistance to the vitamin D treatment generally used in deficiency rickets. [read more]

  • Von Gierke Disease
    Glycogen storage disease type I otherwise known as the Von Gierke's disease, is a genetic disease that is said to be a most common glycogen storage disease. It impairs the person's ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. [read more]

  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
    Von Hippel-Lindau disease or VHL for brevity is a rare genetic condition which usually involves the unusual and abnormal growth of tumors in different parts of the body which is usually rich in blood supply. [read more]

  • Warts
    Warts are small, rough tumor that is typically located on the hands and feet and can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. [read more]

  • Weaver Syndrome
    Weaver Syndrome otherwise known as the Weaver-Williams syndrome, is a congenital disorder which is usually linked to the unusual and rapid growth which may formally begin during the prenatal period. Its manifestation includes an unusual facial appearance and unusual skeletal features. It is a syndrome associated with the so called NSD1 (Douglas J, Hanks S, Temple IK, et al (2003). "NSD1 mutations are the major cause of Sotos syndrome and occur in some cases of Weaver syndrome but are rare in other overgrowth phenotypes". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (1)). associated with rapid growth beginning in the prenatal period, a characteristic facial appearance and certain skeletal features. The first syndrome was first described in 1974 by Weaver (Weaver DD, Graham CB, Thomas IT, Smith DW (1974). "A new overgrowth syndrome with accelerated skeletal maturation, unusual facies, and camptodactyly". J. Pediatr. 84 (4): 547-52). [read more]

  • Weber Sturge Dimitri Syndrome
    Weber Sturge Dimitri Syndrome otherwise known as the encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis is a rare congenital neurological and skin disorder. It is a phakomatoses and usually associated with port-wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma and mental retardation. [read more]

  • Womb Cancer
    Womb cancer, or cancer of the uterus, is a slow-growing cancer that may affect a woman's ability to get pregnant. It is easily detected and can be treated immediately once diagnosed. [read more]

  • Worms In Children
    Worms in children are an infestation of certain worms on children's gastrointestinal tract. These worms can be ingested through eating contaminated food as well as playing games on the ground with only bare feet. [read more]

  • X-Linked Ichthyosis
    X-linked ichthyosis is a heriditary skin condition which is due to the deficiency of the steroid sulfatase. During prenatal, the X-linked ichthyosis is a condition that affects the placental oestrogen production inasmuch as the steroids from the male fetus are not fully utilize because of the difficulty in the removal of the sulfate group. People with this kind of disorder has low estriol levels and results in to the inability to go into spontaneous labor. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 1
    Type 1 Xeroderma pigmentosum other wise known as the Xeroderma pigmentosum group A is the most classical form of Xeroderma pigmentosum whereby the gene variation involves the XPA located at the 9q22.3. Its symptoms are the same as those of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum itself and the only difference is the gene variation and its location. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 2
    Type 2 Xeroderma pigmentosum or the Xeroderma pigmentosum group B is a complementation subgroup of the main disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum. The gene variation involved in this subtype of the Xeroderma pigmentosum is the XPB gene located at the 2q21. Symptoms are the same as that of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 3
    Type 3 Xeroderma pigmentosum or the Xeroderma pigmentosum group C is a subtype of Xeroderma pigmentosum whereby the variation in the gene involved is the XPC located at the 3p25. Symptoms and treatment usually is the same as that of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 5
    Type 5 Xeroderma pigmentosum or the Xeroderma pigmentosum group E is a subtype of the Xeroderma pigmentosum where the variation in the gene involved is the DDB2 located at the 11p12-p11. This type only difference to the rest of the types of the disorder as well as to the Xeroderma pigmentosum itself is the gene variation involved and its location. Treatment as well as the symptoms are the same. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 6
    Type 6 Xeroderma pigmentosum or the Xeroderma pigmentosum group F is a complementary group of the Xeroderma pigmentosum characterized by the variation in the gene ERCC4 located at the 16p13.3-p13.13. Symptoms as well as the treatments are similar to that of the Xeroderma pigmentosum itself. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Type 7
    Type 7 Xeroderma pigmentosum otherwise known as the Xeroderma pigmentosum group G is a complementary group of the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum characterized by the involvement of the gene RAD2 ERCC5 located at 13q33. Its symptoms as well as treatment and diagnosis are similar to that of the Xeroderma pigmentosum disorder itself. [read more]

  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Variant Type
    Variant type Xeroderma pigmentosum or XPV for brevity, is a complementary group of the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum whereby the gene involved is the POLH located at the 6p21.1-p12. Usually person who has Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant type suffer from mutation of the gene that codes particular DNA polymerase named as the polymerase-? (eta) which are used when cells goes to a S-phase where there is a damage in the DNA. [read more]

  • Yeast Infection
    Yeast infection is medically known as candidiasis it is an infection caused by fungi of any of the Candida species where in the most common type is the Candida albicans. Yeast infection can range from superficial to systemic which can be a dangerous disease. [read more]

  • Yellow Fever
    Yellow fever otherwise known as the yellow jack, the black vomit or the vomito negro, or the American Plague, is a viral and acute disease (Schmaljohn AL, McClain D. (1996 isbn= 0-9631172-1-1). Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae). In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch). [read more]

  • Yips
    Yips are characterized as a sudden and involuntary jerk or tremor that affects the wrists and hands. This condition is more commonly found among golfers and can interrupt a putting stroke. In some cases, yips can be associated with a neurological dysfunction that affects certain muscle groups. [read more]

  • Yolk Sac Tumor
    Yolk sac tumor, YST for brevity, and which is otherwise known as the Endodermal sinus tumor or the infantile embryonal carcinoma, is a type of germ cell tumor group of cancers and is said to be common to children under three years old. [read more]

  • Young Simpson Syndrome
    Young Simpson Syndrome or YSS for brevity, is an unusual congenital disorder discovered in 1987. Manifestation of the Syndrome includes hypothyroidism, heart defects, facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism in males, hypothyroidism and even mental retardation and torticollis. It is said that these symptoms are similar to those of the Ohdo Blepharophimosis syndrome. Theories varies regarding the Yound Simpson Syndrome's mode of inheritance. One group suggests that is is through an autosomal recessive inheritance while another group says its is not. [read more]

  • Yunis Varon Syndrome
    Yunis-Varon syndrome is a congenital disorder that affects the skeletal system, ectodermal tissue, and cardiorespiratory systems. [read more]

  • Zellweger Syndrome
    Zellweger syndrome is a congenital disorder caused by reduced or absent peroxisomes in the cells of the liver, kidneys, and brain. Peroximes are cell structures that get rid of toxic substances in the body. The syndrome belongs to a group of peroxisomal diseases, which affect brain development and the growth of the myelin sheath on nerve fibers in the brain. [read more]

  • Zinc Deficiency
    Zinc deficiency is a medical condition whereby there is a low intake of zinc which is an essential mineral in every cell. [read more]

  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
    It is an uncommon disease that results from a tumor referred to as gastrinoma which often occurs in the pancreas. The tumor then extracts the hormone that causes gastrin which in turn results to elevated growth of gastric acid which leads to extreme recurring ulcers of the esophagus, stomach and the upper portions of the small intestine. [read more]

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