ILLNESSOPEDIA

Free Online Database Of Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments

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2302 results found for "sh"



  • 11 Beta Hydroxylase Deficiency
    It is important to understand what congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is before the nature of 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency can be fully explained. CAH refers to any one of the many autosomal recessive illnesses that result from flaws in cortisol synthesis steps done by the adrenal glands. All of the types of CAH have either overproduction or malfunctioning of sex steroids. 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency is just one of the types of CAH and is a result of mutation in the gene called CYP11B1. This type is next only to 21-hydroxylase deficiency when it comes to its prevalence, comprising only 5-8% of the entire number of cases. [read more]

  • 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency
    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency also known as (11beta-HSD2) is one of the most common causes of retention of sodium and serious cases of hypertension. This happens when glucocorticoids are admitted to the mineralocorticosteroid receptors which are non-selective. [read more]

  • 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    The hormones estrogen and androgen play critical roles in the development of sexual organs. 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozyme (17?-HSD) acts as a catalyst between the biologically inactive and active types of hormones. Any deviation from this normal process results into various abnormal conditions. [read more]

  • 1p36 Deletion Syndrome, rare (NIH)
    1p36 deletion syndrome also known as monosomy 1p36 is a disorder of the chromosomes in which chromosome 1 loses the end part of its short arm. This disorder was first depicted during the late 90's and the early parts of 2000's. FISH testing is often required to be able to confirm a diagnosis. This condition can occur as a ‘pure' case or it can occur together with other imbalances of the chromosome. [read more]

  • 21 hydroxylase deficiency
    21-hydroxylase deficiency is also called as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and is a disorder that is often inherited. This disorder affects the adrenal glands which are located above the kidneys and these glands produce hormones that are responsible for regulating many important human body functions. The two hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are produced by an enzyme called the 21-hydroxylase. Patients that have 21-hydroxylase deficiency lack the 21-hydroxylase enzyme which then affects the cholesterol conversion to aldosterone and cortisol. When the precursors of these two hormones are stored excessively in the adrenal glands, they are changed into androgens (which are male sex hormones). Whether the patient is male or female, growth development could be hampered because of this deficiency. [read more]

  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, rare (NIH)
    The disorder known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by the deficiency or deletion of a tiny piece of chromosome 22. This deletion happens near the midsection of a chromosome located at q 11.2. [read more]

  • 3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3B HSD) is a very rare disorder of the genes involving steroid biosynthesis. This deficiency results into the decrease on the production of adrenal steroid groups which are inclusive of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and the sex steroids. A decrease on the secretion of mineralocorticoid would result into various salt wasting degrees in males and females. And for the 46 XY males, a deficiency in androgen would result into ambiguous genitals (the females are seen with enlarged clitoris). [read more]

  • 3 methylglutaconyl coa hydratase deficiency
    The enzyme called 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase is involved in amino acid (Leucine) metabolism. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria together with other enzymes of catabolic leucine. When an individual has a deficiency of 3-Methyl Glutaconyl-CoA Hydratase, 3-methylglutaconic acid is excreted massively and the impaired leucine breaks down. Very few patients have been reported with this type of deficiency but its occurrence is a reality, nonetheless. There a few severe clinical cases that have been reported which resulted because of this deficiency. Some patients have developed severe cardiopulmonary manifestations as soon as they were born; others have been reported to have psychomotor retardation; other cases include hypotonia, seizures, spasticity and thriving failure. Carnitine levels are at their lowest with this deficiency occurs. There are also rare cases of recurrent acidosis (seen in cases of fasting that has been prolonged). There was also a reported case of speech retardation. [read more]

  • 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency
    LCHAD or the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of the components of the trifunctional protein of mitochondria. When a person becomes deficient of LCHAD activity, he will soon show various manifestations of his inherited condition. [read more]

  • 3-methyl crotonyl-coa carboxylase deficiency
    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency is known by many names. It is also called as 3MCC deficiency, Methylcrotonylglycinuria type 1, or BMCC. This is a disorder that can be inherited where the human body becomes incapable of properly processing some proteins. Those who suffer from this deficiency have an insufficient supply of leucine-breaking enzyme. Leucine is an amino acid which is a protein base. [read more]

  • 3-methyl glutaconic aciduria
    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria also known as MGA is a term that is used to depict at least 5 varying disorders which makes the body incapable of creating mitochondrial energy. Due to this impairment, 3-methylglutaric acid and 3-methylglutaconic acid create a buildup and their presence can be detected in the patient's urine. 3-Methylglutaconic acid, by classification, is an organic acid. The potency of this acid is made possible by the roles of the double carboxylic acids. The acid function makes the 3-methylglutaconic acid detectable. [read more]

  • 3C Syndrome
    3C syndrome is also known as cranio-cerebello cardiac (CCC dysplasia) or Ritscher-Schinzel (named after Ritscher and Schinzel who discovered the illness) and is a very rare case of disease. This syndrome is characterized by heart defects or heart malformations and other symptoms that involve the brain. As of 2006, a Kuwaiti medical journal showed that only 30 cases have been reported worldwide and these cases were discovered in Europe and North America. Due to the limited number of cases reported, this disease was classified as a rare type of illness. The molecular basis for this syndrome is still unknown. [read more]

  • 3M Syndrome
    3M syndrome is known by many names. It can also be called as Three M syndrome or dolicospondylic dysplasia; le Merrer syndrome or gloomy syndrome (because prevalent symptoms show malformities on the patients' faces). This is a very rare illness where only 32 patients have been reported to have acquired it. Its name originated from the names of the authors who first described the characteristics of the illness. The authors' names were Miller, J.D., Malvaux P. and the third is McKusick, V.A. No mental retardation has been mentioned as a result of 3M. This disorder is known as an autosomal recessive trait of the genes and can be inherited. [read more]

  • 46,xx gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid
    46 Gonadal dysgenesis epibulbar dermoid can be best described as a female in her adolescent period that experiences no changes even during this age of puberty. This is because this disorder is a type of female hypogonadism. When this disorder is acquired, the ovaries do not develop and function to perform their duties. With this type of disorder, female patients experience a deficiency in their supply of estrogen while the LH and FSH levels are at their peak. It is advisable to give the patient hormonal treatments such as the introduction of estrogen and progesterone to the body. [read more]

  • 47 XXY Syndrome
    47 XXY syndrome is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome, or simply, the XXY syndrome. Chromosome aneuploidy causes the occurrence of this condition. The male patients develop an extra X chromosome. Typically, males should have one each of the X and the Y chromosomes. Patients who suffer from this condition have smaller testicles when compared to their normal male counterparts and thus, they acquire problems on infertility. There are very few symptoms to this syndrome and the cases vary among boys and men. The term for this illness was named after an endocrinologist, Harry Klinefelter. 1942 was the year when he first described the XXY syndrome. The patients who suffer with XXY syndrome are called XXY males or 47,XXY males. [read more]

  • 47 XYY Syndrome
    The XYY syndrome should never be interchanged with the XXY syndrome which is popularly known as the Klinefelter's syndrome. XYY syndrome is a condition when a male patient acquires an extra Y chromosome in addition to the normal one X and one Y chromosomes. It is often argued whether the term ‘syndrome' should be used in connection to the XYY condition since the patients' phenotypes are normal and they do not have knowledge of their karyotype. [read more]

  • 48,XXXX Syndrome
    48 XXXX syndrome is a very rare disorder of the chromosomes where the normal XX combination becomes a quadruple X grouping. This condition is also called tetrasomy X, 48, XXXX or quadruple X and is only seen among females as there is no Y chromosome involved. The first occurrence of this disorder was discovered in 1961 and since then, there are about 100 reported cases globally. [read more]

  • 49 XXXXX Syndrome
    The 49 XXXXX syndrome (also called as Penta X or pentasomy X) is a chromosomal condition that affects females. In a normal setup, females have only two X chromosomes and anything beyond this is abnormal. In the case of Penta X syndrome, there are an additional three X chromosomes which now totals five. The three additional X chromosomes are the ones that cause multiple problems. These extra X chromosomes are formed together with the two healthy chromosomes inside the nucleus of the human body cells. [read more]

  • Aagenaes syndrome
    Aagenaes syndrome is a condition which is characterized by inborn hypoplasia of the lymph vessels. This eventually causes recurring cholestasis on the formative years lymphedema on the legs. This could develop into hepatic cirrhosis and giant cell hepatitis (which could occur with portal tract fibrosis). The name of Aagenaes syndrome was derived from a pediatrician in Norway named Oystein Aagenaes. The name was finalized in 1968 when the condition was first described by Aagenaes. It is sometimes called cholestasis-lymphedema syndrome or simply CLS. [read more]

  • Aarskog Ose Pande Syndrome
    Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is a rare type of medical disorder where the main symptoms include lipodystrophy on the buttocks and face. Since this is an adipose tissue defect, the loss of body fat in the body could get severe and this state could progress extensively. There are three kinds of lipodystrophy: localized lipodystrophy, partial lipodystrophy and total lipodystrophy. One other symptom is Rieger anomaly. This anomaly is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of teeth (it could also mean the delay of tooth eruption) and some abnormalities of the eyes and face. Having sparse hair is also a common sign. This does not only mean hair on one's head but also body hairs. Other defects include retardation of bone age and abnormal motion of the joints (which could eventually lead to dislocation). This syndrome could begin to affect the patient as early as the fetal stage. It could ruin the growth of the fetus in the uterus by slowing its development. When this happens, many other systems are affected. Development of the patient's skills on speech could also be delayed when this disorder is acquired. This and all other symptoms are similar to characteristics of many other diseases that is why the physician should perform a thorough checkup of the patient to be able to diagnose the real condition. Aarskog Ose Pande syndrome is also considered as a variant of Short syndrome. This symptom does not only mean having a short stature but also having low weight at birth and fat losses on the skin. [read more]

  • Aarskog Syndrome
    Aarskog syndrome is an inherited disorder that is often characterized by abnormalities of the face, short stature, genital abnormalities and mucoloskeletal anomalies. [read more]

  • Aase Smith syndrome (or Aase syndrome)
    Aase Smith syndrome also known as Aase syndrome is a very rare disorder that can be inherited. It is often characterized by skeletal and joint defects. Aase syndrome is known as an autosomal dominant condition. The genetic origin of the illness is still not known. Anemia which results from this syndrome is often caused by the underdevelopment of bone marrows. These bone marrows are where formation of blood cells takes place. The syndrome was named after two pediatricians who were David Weyhe Smith and Jon Morton Aase. [read more]

  • Aase Syndrome
    Aase syndrome is a rare congenital defect characterized by anemia accompanied with certain skeletal deformities. [read more]

  • Aaviophobia
    Aaviophobia is a fear of being on a plane while in flight. Other names include aviatophobia, aerophobia, and pteromerhanophobia. The condition is considered more of a symptom rather than a disease. When fear of flying reaches a level that can significantly interfere with a person's ability to travel by plane, it will then be classified as fear of flying. [read more]

  • Abasia
    Abasia is a condition where the patient is unable to walk due to impaired muscle synchronization. This means that the patient lacks motor synchronization in walking. With this condition, the foundation of gait (this is the distance of the two feet when measured sideways) is not constant or cannot be measured. This often leads the patient to sway from side to side or in any other direction, nearly falls, only to recover in the end. There are many other medical conditions that are connected to this disorder: choreic abasia (brought about by chorea of the leg); paralytic abasia (this is a paralysis of the muscles in the legs); spastic abasia (a condition where the leg muscles stiffen because they do not coordinate properly); ataxic abasia (legs become ataxic); paroxysmal trepidant abasia (a condition where the legs become spastic); trembling abasia (by its name, it means trembling legs). Abasia often comes with astasis (this is the state of being unable to stand). This condition is also referred to as astasia-abasia. [read more]

  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be diagnosed on anyone but the most viable candidates are men aged over 60. Couple this range of age with some of the common risk factors and the patient is on his way to developing this condition. This disorder happens when a blood vessel enlarges abnormally or causes a protrusion. The abdominal aorta, which is a huge blood vessel, is the one responsible in supplying blood to the abdomen, the legs and the pelvic area. When this abdominal aortic aneurysm raptures, is truly becomes life-threatening and should be attended to immediately. [read more]

  • Aberrant subclavian artery
    Aberrant subclavian artery is also known as the aberrant subclavian artery syndrome. This condition is a rare anatomical variety of the source of the left or the right subclavian artery. This abnormality has the most number of cases when it comes to the anomaly of inborn vascular aortic arch. The aberrant artery commonly occurs just distal on the left portion of the subclavian artery. It then passes later to the mediastinum when it is on its way to the upper right extremities. This course may be the root cause of a vascular ring about the mediastinal makeup. [read more]

  • Abetalipoproteinemia
    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare hereditary disorder that hinders regular absorption of fact from digested food. Patients with the disease lack the vitamins A, D, E and K. [read more]

  • Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome or AMS is a very uncommon genetic disorder that can be inherited. This syndrome is characterized by various physical defects which usually affect areas of the face, fingers, skin, and the genitalia (penis symptoms and some defects on the testes). Patients of AMS could also have other malformations on their abdominal walls or on their nipples. Other traits include having underdeveloped eyelids (or Ablepharon); the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes; mouths that look like that of a fish's (also known as Macrostomia); cracked skin; ears that appear to be low-set (also known as pinnae). The eye defects could appear due to ablepharon. Some people with AMS could also have very thin or sparse hair (alopecia); their skin appears to be wrinkled, dry, coarse, or thick; their fingers could also be webbed and with inadequate extension; the genitalia could have external malformations. In very few cases of Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome, the patient could have little or no nipples at all (having small nipples is known as hypoplastic nipples). One of the worst characteristics could be the protrusion of some parts of the large intestine through a dilated portion of the abdominal wall (this condition is called ventral or abdominal hernia). Infants and children who suffer from AMS may have some delays on the development of their language skills. Some of them may manifest signs of mild retardation of the mind while others may grow up to be normal. A disorder that appears to have the same features as Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome is the Barber-say syndrome. The latter is characterized by laxity of the skin; ablepharon; hypertelorism, macrostomia, telecanthus, acute hirsutism, and helix agenesis of the pair of ears. Less common signs of AMS include undescended testes and hernia on the umbilicus. [read more]

  • Absence Seizure
    Absence seizure is more commonly known as the petit mal seizure that involves some a brief episodes or some sudden lapse of conscious activity. This occurs most often in children. Absence seizure may often look like the individual is only staring into space for a several seconds. This means in comparison to the regular epileptic seizures, the petit mal is very mild. However, some people may suffer from hundreds of episodes a day, which interrupts ordinary activities. [read more]

  • Absent T lymphocytes
    The deficiency or absence of T lymphocytes is a rare immuno-deficiency condition which is characterized by the lack of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the absence or depression of the function of the T cell. A mutation of the gene for ZAP-70 (tyrosine kinase which has notable effects on indicating through the T cell receptor) has been associated with this syndrome. T cells are cells that belong to a cluster of white blood cells which are known as the lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are responsible in cell-mediated immunity. They are distinguished from the other types of lymphocytes (the NK cells and the B cells) through the presence of a specific receptor on the surface of these cells. This receptor is called as T cell receptor or the TCR. The T abbreviation in T cell refers to thymus which is the primary organ in the development of the T cell. [read more]

  • Acanthocheilonemiasis
    Acanthocheilonemiasis is an uncommon tropical infectious illness which is caused by Acanthocheilonema perstans, a parasite. This parasite causes rashes of the skin, chest and abdominal pains, joint and muscle pains, lumps on the skin and also neurologic defects. This disease is often transmitted when small flies bite the victim and the bite has the parasite with it. The scientific name of the fly that transmits the ‘infectious bite' is A.Coliroides. Studies manifest that the white blood cell levels at elevated when the parasite is present in the human body. Acanthocheilonemiasis belongs to the parasitic diseases group which is called nematode or filarial diseases. This disease is often found in Africa only because the parasite is found abundantly on this region. Uganda, specifically, has had a lot of reported cases. A handful of patients were found in South America. Other names for this disease are Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans, Dipetalonema perstans, Mansonella perstans, and Dipetalonemiasis. [read more]

  • Acanthocheilonemiasis Perstans
    Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans is a tropical contagious illness characterized by purities, pain in the chest and abdomen an enlarged spleen. This is a rare disease caused by the bit of flies known as A. coliroides that can be found in Africa. The disease can be treated by antibiotics and is diagnosed by laboratory tests showing elevated amounts of white blood cells. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis
    Acanthocytosis is a phenotype of the red cell which can be found in different fundamental conditions. Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome or Abetalipoproteinemia; and an acute disease of the liver (spur cell hemolytic anemia) are the most common conditions that can be associated with acanthocytosis. Acantha is a Greek word for thorn and it is fitting that it is given to name the spur cells that have projections of different sizes which are the acanthocytes. These cells appear to be contracted, irregular, and dense. The formation of these cells depends on the alteration of the fat composition and the fluidity of red cell's membrane. [read more]

  • Acanthocytosis chorea
    The mean age of the start of chorea-acanthocystosis or ChAc is approximately at age 35. There are a few cases, though, where it can occur as early as the initial decade or it can be as late as the 70th year of life. It runs a persistent progressive course and it may end up as a major disability in just a few years. Some patients become dependent on wheelchairs or become bedridden just on the third decade. It is certain that the individual's life expectancy will be reduced; there are even cases of unexplained or sudden deaths when the patient goes through an epileptic seizure. The range of the patients' ages at death is at 28-61 years. [read more]

  • Accessory pancreas
    Accessory pancreas is a medical condition that is rare and in which there are little clusters of pancreatic cells that are distinct from the pancreas. This condition could occur in the mesentery of small intestines, duodenal walls, the upper portion of the jejunum or, in its rarest form—in the stomach walls, spleen, ileum or gallbladder. Accessory pancreas was first observed and described in 1859 by Klob. [read more]

  • Achalasia
    Achalasia also called esophageal achalasia; cardiospasm, achalasia cardiae; dyssynergia esophagus or esophageal aperistalsis; is an esophageal motility disease. This disorder manifests an impaired peristalsis of the smooth muscle level of the esophagus. Peristalsis is the term used to describe the muscular capability of the esophagus to make the food move down to the stomach). Also, a patient with achalasia has a lower esophageal sphincter or LES that cannot relax which is its normal response to swallowing. The most common form of this disorder is primary achalasia. This form has no recorded underlying cause. Esophageal cancer (Chagas disease in South America) could be a result of achalasia. [read more]

  • Achard-Thiers syndrome
    The Achard Thiers syndrome, also called the Diabetic Bearded Woman syndrome or diabete des femmes a barbe, is a rare disease which occurs commonly among women who are in their postmenopausal stage. Its name was derived from the combination of the names of Joseph Thiers and Emile Achard. This is characterized by insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (an example is glucosuria) and also indications of excess in androgen. This syndrome has the combined features of Cushing syndrome and Adrenogenital syndrome. It is a form of virilizing disease which is adrenocortical in origin. And since androgen is excessive on this disease, the common manifestations are masculinization (the voice pitch is lowered) and menstrual disorders (the menstrual flow can be sparse or non-existent). There are also cases of growth of ‘manly hair' all over the body. The most common complication of this disorder is hirsutism. [read more]

  • Achilles Tendinitis
    Achilles Tendinitis is inflammation ans irritation of the Achilles tendon usually resulting due to sudden increase in the intensity or frequency of exercise. [read more]

  • Achilles Tendon Rupture
    The Achilles tendon rupture is the damage of the large and fibrous cord that naturally connects the lower leg to the heel bone. The person may initially hear a snap followed by a sharp pain at the back of the ankle as well as in the lower leg. Such injuries may be improved with home treatment. However, more often than not, a surgical repair is required. [read more]

  • Acholuric Jaundice
    Acholuric jaundice is a form of jaundice in which there is no bile in the urine. This is hereditary disorder in which bililrubin was not able to produce bile pigments causing now yellowish color on the organs and the skin. [read more]

  • Achondrogenesis
    Marco Fraccaro was the very first person to observe and record the description of achondrogenesis in the year 1952. Fraccaro used this name in description of a stillborn female who was afflicted with acute micromelia and apparent changes on her histological cartilage. This term was then coined to characterize many more acute kinds of chondrodysplasia among humans. The conditions were invariably lethal on pre and post births. When the 70's came, researchers have concluded that the disorder is a part of a heterogenous cluster of chondrodysplasias that are fatal to neonates. Histological and radiological measures have distinguished the achondrogenesis type 1 (which is the Fraccaro-Houston-Harris kind) and the type 2 (or the Langer-Saldino kind). 1983 marked a new radiological category of the disease (Types 1-4). This was done by Gorlin and Whitley and was adapted by the McKusick catalog. This classification describes types 1 and 2 as having similar femoral cylinder indeces (or Clfemur which is calculated as the length of the femur bone divided by the range of the width of the same bone. Both kinds have stellate elongated bones and crenated ilia. Both types 1 and 2 are characterized by several rib fractures. Type 3 has ribs that are non-fractured, mushroom-stemmed elongated bones, halberd ilia, and a Clfemur 2.8 to 4.9. The last type (type 4) has sculpted ilia, long bones that are well-developed, non-fractured ribs and Clfemur measured at 4.9 to 8.0. The late 80's was the time when mutations on the collagen II structure were depicted to cause achondrogenesis type 3 (which might also correspond to type 2). At present, only 3 variants of the disorder have been identified and they are type IA or the Houston-Harris type; type IB (or the Parenti-Fraccaro type); and type II (or the Langer-Saldino type). [read more]

  • Achondroplasia
    Achondroplasia is a kind of autosomal disorder of the dominant genes which commonly causes dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs are short in stature and their average height when they reach adulthood is at 123 centimeters (about 4 feet and 0.6 inches) for females and 131 centimeters (about 4 feet and 3.8 inches) for males. [read more]

  • Achondroplastic Dwarfism
    Achondroplastic Dwarfism is a medical condition characterized by the occurrence of the disturbance of the growth of the bones. [read more]

  • Achromatopsia
    Achromatopsia or ACHM is a condition where the patient is unable to perceive color. Although this name may also be used to refer to acquired defects such as cerebral achromatopsia or color agnosia, it normally refers to a congenital disorder of the vision which is autosomal recessive in nature. It can also be called rod monochromacy or total inborn color blindness. Patients with this kind of disorder manifest total absence of the cone cell activity through electroretinography. At least 4 causes are listed as congenital ACHM: ACHM2 and ACHM3; the third type is a cone photoreceptor transducin called GNAT2, ACHM4; the last cause is still unknown. [read more]

  • Acid maltase deficiency
    Acid maltase deficiency or AMD is a type of autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by an extreme buildup of glycogen contained by vacuoles (in almost all cell types) that are lysosome-derived. Quantities of free extralysosomal glycogen that are in excess have also been depicted. AMD was first observed and described by JC Pompe in 1932 at Amsterdam. He reported a case of a baby girl, aged 7 months, who became chronically ill from what they believed to be pneumonia. The autopsy that was done later showed an uncommonly engorged heart but with normal valves. This condition was called cardiomegalia glycogenica diffusa by Pompe. He considered it as a disorder that is analogous to the von Gierke syndrome. This very first article was soon followed by reports that seemed similar. The two other authors described the children as afflicted with cardiomegaly and acute muscle weakness. They died in their early infancy. Their disease was linked to an excess in the deposition of glycogen in numerous tissues. This disorder was then named the Pompe disease and by the year 1957, it was typified as type 2 glycogenosis by GT Cori. [read more]

  • Acidemia, isovaleric
    Isovaleric Acidemia or isovaleric aciduria is an autosomal metabolic illness which prevents or disturbs the normal metabolism of branched-chain amino acid leucine. It is a traditional form of organic academia. [read more]

  • Acidemia, propionic
    Propionic acidemia also known as propionic aciduria or ketotic glycinemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder which is characterized by the deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase (an enzyme that is involved in breaking down the amino acids). It is categorized as branched-chain organic acidemia which often presents symptoms early on in the neonatal period which comes with progressive encephalopathy. [read more]

  • ACL Injury
    Athletes are more likely to suffer from anterior cruciate ligament injury or ACL, but quite uncommon for the general public who are not subjected to strenuous physical activities. An anterior cruciate is one of the two ligaments that crosses in the middle of the knee, connecting the thighbone and the shinbone. Hard twisting or some sudden stop while landing, running or a direct blow to the knee can injure the ACL. [read more]

  • Acne
    Acne vulgaris or just acne is a common skin disease which is caused by changes on the pilosebaceous units (structures of the skin which consist of sebaceous gland and a hair follicle). The severe cases of acne are often inflamed but it can also show up as non-inflamed. Lesions are common and they are called spots, zits or pimples. This condition is common during the stage of puberty (affecting about 85% of teeners) while some cases carry on to adulthood. Most acne cases diminish and then disappear over time and this begins during the early twenties of an individual's life. There are no means of predicting when the disease will totally disappear because some cases continue even when the person is already in his thirties or forties. Acne is an altered form of the Greek word akun (or skin eruption). The vernacular name bakne or bacne is used often to specify acne that is found at the back of a person. [read more]

  • Acne rosacea
    Acne rosacea or simply Rosacea is a very common condition which affects over 45 million people all over the world. Although common, it is a misunderstood condition. This often affects white-skinned individuals who are of northwestern European descent. This has been nicknamed as the ‘Celtic curse' by some Irish people. This often begins as mere redness and flushing (erythema) right on the center of the face, also the cheeks, forehead and the nose. It can also affect the chest and the neck. As this disorder progresses, other signs come up such as erythema that is semi-permanent; telangiectasia (or the opening of the surface facial blood vessels); small bumps or domed pustules; reddish gritty eyes, stinging or burning sensations, and the most advanced cases manifest rhinophyma or lobulated nose. This disorder is often confused with seborrheic dermatitis or acne vulgaris. It can co-exist with these two conditions and it can affect both sexes (with females thrice more vulnerable). This peaks on the age of 30 to 60. the primary diagnosis of this disease is mainly facial and when the ears or the scalp become involved, it is a suggestion of a different illness. [read more]

  • Acoustic Neuroma
    Acoustic neuroma also known as a vestibular schwannoma is a primary intracranial tumor that is benign. This is a tumor of the cells that form myelin of the CN VIII or vestibulocochlear nerve. Neuroma is a derivation of a Greek word which means ‘tumor of the nerve'. The name ‘acoustic' is a misnomer because the tumor hardly occurs from the cochlear or acoustic part of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The precise medical name is vestibular schwannoma. This is because it engages the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve and it occurs from schwann cells (the cells that are responsible for the peripheral nervous system myelin sheath). [read more]

  • Acquired Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis is an inherited disorder of the skin. This disorder is an extreme type of ichthyosis which can afflict both sexes all over the world. When this disease is acquired because of a causal disorder, although, it is very rare; it is still not known how this occurs. But there are studies that claim that it can result from mutations of the genes. The mutated genes can be passed from one generation onto the next. The mutation is believed to cause the abnormality in the skin's standard lifecycle. Normal people shed dead skin cells unnoticed but patients of ichthyosis produce new cells of the skin at a rate where their rate of shedding could not cope. This way, there is a dead skin cell buildup and the patient's skin would then appear to be dry or scaly. Acquired ichthyosis often occurs in adulthood. It could occur before or after a systemic condition diagnosis. [read more]

  • Acrocephaly
    Acrocephaly is a rare congenital syndrome which is often characterized by a narrowing of the pulmonary valve, retardation of the patient's mental development, and a pointy skull (or the skull's loftiness). More often than not, the head of the patient appears cone-like. A term that is similar to acrocephaly is oxycephaly. Oxycephaly has features that are similar to acrocephaly such as the coronal sutre and other sutures that close prematurely. Oxycephaly is the most severe type of of all craniostenoses. [read more]

  • Acrochordon
    Small growths of skin that develop in some people on the neck, face, groin and armpits are called skin tags or acrochordons. These skin tags do not become cancerous or malignant since they are harmless. [read more]

  • Acrocyanosis
    Acrocyanosis refers to a condition where the hands, feet or even the face persistently appear to have cyanotic or blue discoloration. The bluish color is caused by the lowered oxygen levels on the patient's extremities (some areas that can also be affected are the nipples, just the nose, or lips). The condition may not only manifest the pallor on the extremities but this discoloration could be accompanied by feelings of numbness, pins and needles sensation, soreness or even pain. The toes or fingers could also appear to be shiny and the tight-skinned. Acrocyanosis could also cause vasomotor disturbance (such as in the case of Raynaud's disease). This is a disease of the arterioles of the hands and feet that are exposed which also involves unusual contraction of the arteriolar walls which are magnified by exposing the areas to cold. This exposure results into the blue, mottled skin, sweating of the feet or hands, and chilling. It has been observed that patients who suffer from acrocyanosis may have acquired this condition because of the occurrence of other conditions before it such as emotional or mental disturbance. Neurocirculatory asthenia could also be an underlying cause. This condition can be subdivided into two forms: acrocyanosis (non-benign) with a sign which could allude to a more chronic medical concern; and acrocyanosis (benign) which is the more common condition which requires very little, if any, medical treatment. Females who are in their 20's are more vulnerable to the illness. The good thing about this condition is, it can improve as the patient ages. [read more]

  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive disease which affects zinc metabolism. This is characterized by periorificial (in the region of natural orifices) and in the limbs (acral dermatitis), loss of hair (also known as alopecia), and diarrhea. Having acquired zinc deficiency is somewhat similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica because it, too, can be congenital. The other known terms for acrodermatitis enteropathica are: Brandt syndrome, congenital zinc deficiency, and Danbolt-cross syndrome. [read more]

  • Acrodysostosis
    Acrodysostosis also known as acrodysplasia, Arkless-Graham, or Maroteaux-Malamut is defined as a very rare inborn skeletal illness which is marked by defects on the bones of feet, hands, and the nose. Retardation of the patient's learning and mental development is a common occurrence. [read more]

  • Acrodysplasia
    Acrodysplasia or acrocephalosyndactyly is an uncommon medical condition which is often characterized by a bulbous nose, bony growths, and loose extra skin throughout infancy. This is also a very rare genetic disease. A synonymous word is acrocephalosyndactyly. [read more]

  • Acrofacial dysostosis, Nager type
    Acrofacial dysostosis or Nager syndrome is a term that was coined by Nager and DeReynier in 1948. This condition is described as a syndrome which involves the upper limbs and skull. The most ordinary type of acrofacial dysostosis is the Nager Type (NAFD) of the so-called pre-axial acrofacial dysostosis. Generally, the effects of Nager type acrofacial dysostosis are palpebral fissures that are down-slanted; micrognathia; coloboma of the lower eyelids; and absent or hypoplastic radii or thumbs. [read more]

  • Acromegaly
    Acromegaly was derived from the Greek word ‘akros' meaning ‘extremities' or ‘extreme' and ‘megalos' which means ‘large'. This is a syndrome which results as the pituitary gland has an overproduction of hGH or growth hormone following the closure of the epiphyseal plate. There are several disorders that could cause the pituitary gland to come up with this circumstance. Most of these conditions involve a tumor that produces GH which is derived from a distinctive cell type (called somatotrophs) and named pituitary adenoma. [read more]

  • Acromicric Dysplasia
    Acromicric dysplasia is a very rare inherited illness that is often characterized by unusually short feet and hands, retardation of the patient's growth and delays on bone maturation which lead to short stature, and mild abnormalities of the face. The face often appears with a happy or ‘smiling' expression thus the descriptive word geleophysic which is derived from the Greek word ‘gelios' which means ‘laughing' and ‘phylis' meaning ‘nature'. Most of the number of cases for this illness has occurred in random for no obvious reason (sporadic). It has not been ruled out, though, that this is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. The disease database clearly indicates that acromicric dysplasia is similar to Geleophysic dwarfism (also known as Geleophysic dysplasia) and Focal mucopolysaccharidosis. [read more]

  • Acromicric Skeletal Dysplasia
    Acromicric skeletal dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder that features unusually short hands and feet. Patients with this disease may suffer from slow development and delayed bone growth that often leads to a short stature with facial deformities. No treatments yet are found for this disorder. [read more]

  • Acrophobia
    Acrophobia is derived from the Greek word ‘akpoc' which means ‘summit'. This phobia is described as the irrational dread of high places. This belongs to a certain category of phobias which are called motion and space discomfort (these two share like etiology and choices of treatment). This phobia could become very dangerous because those who suffer from it could experience attacks of panic when on a high place. As a result, they could become so agitated and they would have troubles getting themselves down to the ground safely. Vertigo is often associated or link with acrophobia and it is sometimes misconstrued as the phobia itself. The former is a feeling of nausea which is correctly described as a sensation of being spun. Vertigo can be caused by acrophobia when the person gets to a high place and then experience nausea. This type of vertigo that is triggered by heights is referred to as height vertigo. [read more]

  • ACTH Deficiency
    ACTH deficiency or isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency is a disorder which arises from a decrease or absence of the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (also known as ACTH hormone). The pituitary gland is the one which produces this hormone. A decrease on the concentration of adrenocorticotropic in a person's blood would lead to reduced adrenal hormone secretions. This reduction of secretion of adrenal hormones could result into hypoadrenalism or adrenal deficiency. Adrenal insufficiency would then lead to loss of weight, a lack of appetite or anorexia nervosa (which is also a psychological disorder), nausea, weakness, vomiting, and hypotension or low blood pressure. Other uncommon symptoms include the lack or absence of pubic hair in some female patients; the lack or absence armpit hairs; having pale skin. These symptoms can be so general that is why proper diagnosis is often totally missed or delayed. For this reason, some physicians tend to believe that the disorder could be more common than had been previously thought. [read more]

  • Actinic Cheilitis
    Sometimes known as “sailor's lip” or “farmer's lip,” actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition related to cumulative lifetime sun exposure. People with this disorder often complain of cracking of the lips and persistent dryness where the lower lip is most often affected. [read more]

  • Actinic Keratosis
    Actinic keratosis also known as solar keratosis, even AK is a premalignant condition of the skin where the signs include crusty, scaly, thick patches. This disorder is common among fair-skinned individuals who are often exposed under the sun (white people have less protection from their skin's pigment). This condition is often accompanied by damage made by the sun. Since a few of these are pre-cancer carcinomas, they should be attended to immediately. When a person's skin is exposed under the sun, the signs such as crustiness and thickness begin to appear. These bumps are often rough and dry and they start out as flat areas but soon develop into something tough which often resembles a wart. Actinic keratosis is about 2.0-6.0 mm. in range and they can be light or dark, pink or tan, it can even be red in color or it can be a combination of all the mentioned colors. It could appear on the areas that are exposed under the sun such as the chest, back, ears, neck, face, scalp, forearms, hands, and lips. [read more]

  • Actinomycetales Infection
    Actinomycetales infection is an infection which is bacterial in nature. This comes from the order of actinobacteria. The alternate names for this type of infection are: actinomycete infection; actinomycetales infection; or actinomycte infection. [read more]

  • Actinomycosis
    Actinomycosis (pronounced ak-tuh-nuh-my-KOH-sihs) is a rare and infectious bacterial disease among humans. This is generally caused by Propionibacterium propionicus and actinoyces israelii, A.gerencseriae. This condition is unlikely a polymicrobial infection. Actinomycosis is a sub-acute to chronic bacterial disease which is caused by the filamentous, anaerobic to microaerophilic, and gram positive bacteria that are non-acid fast. [read more]

  • Activated Protein C Resistance
    Activated protein C resistance is a hemostatic disease which is characterized by a reduced anticoagulant response to APC or activated protein C. The result is a heightened risk of venous thrombosis. The activated protein C resistance or APCr was first studied and reported by Dahlback in 1993. Activated protein C with protein S as its co-factor degrades Factor VIIIa and Factor Va. Activated protein C resistance is the failure of protein C to cleave Factor VIIIa and/or Factor Va. This permits for a longer extent of thrombin generation and could proceed to the hypercoabulable phase. The most common form of hereditary resistance to activated protein C is Factor V Leiden. Acquired types occur together with elevated concentrations of Factor VIII. It has been evaluated that up to 64% of people who are afflicted with venous thromboembolism could also have activated protein C resistance. [read more]

  • Acutane Embryopathy
    Acutane embryopathy is a rare disease that is caused by exposure of the fetus to retinoids and which often results into physical and mental defects at birth. [read more]

  • Acute articular rheumatism
    Acute articular rheumatism is a rare and non-contagious medical condition brought about by a bacterial joint infection that can possibly come with a heightened risk of the development of heart complications. Adults are the common victims affected by this disease. However, statistics have shown that less than 200, 000 Americans are afflicted with this condition, which explains why it is categorized as a rare disease. [read more]

  • Acute Bronchitis
    Acute Bronchitis is a medical condition that is characterized by the inflammation of the large bronchi tubes in the lungs. [read more]

  • Acute erythroblastic leukemia
    Acute erythroblastic leukemia is also known by other medical terms such as erythremic myelosis, erythroleukemia and the DiGuglielmo syndrome, which is the uncontrolled production of immature and undeveloped erythrocytes, more popularly known as the red blood cells. This type of leukemia is a rare form of cancer that originates from the marrow and blood. [read more]

  • Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis
    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is more popularly known as Sweet's syndrome, which is a type of skin disorder characterized by sudden appearance of painful skin lesions and fever. This condition often appear on the patient's back, face, arms or neck and red bumps may rapidly increase in size and can possibly progress to blisters. [read more]

  • Acute gouty arthritis
    Acute gouty arthritis is characterized as sudden pain attacks in the joints, most especially in the legs and feet due to the buildup of uric acid in the joints. Gout is generally caused by an abnormality in the individual's metabolism which results to the proliferation if uric acid that consequently reduced the ability of the kidney to get rid of the uric acid. Patients suffering from sickle cell anemia, diabetes and obesity as well as kidney disorders are among the people who are most likely to develop acute gouty arthritis. [read more]

  • Acute intermittent porphyria
    Acute intermittent porphyria is a very rare metabolic disorder that is characterized by an abnormal deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme that would result to the buildup of polyphyrins. This medical condition is inherited and is passed on from one generation to another. [read more]

  • Acute Kidney Failure
    Acute kidney failure is characterized by the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to perform its normal functions, which includes eliminating the excess waste and fluid from the blood. When the kidney is damaged and losses its filtering capability, a highly dangerous level of fluid may accumulate in the body. [read more]

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, otherwise known as acute lymphocytic leukemia is another form of cancer of the white blood cells. In this case, the immature and malignant white blood cells continues to multiply in an abnormally rapid thereby causing overproduction in the bone marrow. This disease causes damage and death by actively crowding out the Bone marrow's normal cells and spread to the other organs in the body. ALL is found to be common among children and young adults. [read more]

  • Acute monoblastic leukemia
    Acute monoblastic leukemia otherwise known as acute monocytic leukemia is an acute type of myeloid leukemia. For patients to be considered a victim of AML-M5, he must have more than 20% blasts in the marrow. Monoblasts are largely distinguished for displaying a rough, circular nucleus and a delicate lacy chromatin. [read more]

  • Acute myelocytic leukemia
    Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is known to be the most common type of leukemia, which is found in adults, although people pf all ages can be affected by this serious medical condition. In AML, underdeveloped leukemia cells accumulate in the patient's bone marrow, thereby causing the destruction and replacement of cells that would produce normal blood cells. [read more]

  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or ANUG is characterized as a plymicrobial infection of the patient's gums that normally leads to bleeding, inflammation, necrotic gum tissue and deep ulcerations. Patients with this condition also suffer from fever and halitosisi. ANUG is also known as Vincent's angina, a popular term whioch was coined in WW1 when a great number of soldiers suffered from this condition. [read more]

  • Acute pancreatitis
    Acute pancreatitis is characterized as the rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas. Depending on the severity of the condition, serious complications and high mortality occur despite treatment. This disease is usually prevalent among individuals with bile duct obstruction of prolonged alcohol abuse. [read more]

  • Acute Pancreatitis
    Acute Pancreatitis is a medical condition whereby there is an inflammation of the pancreas. [read more]

  • Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is a unusual form of eye disease that mostly affects Caucasia people ranging from ages 20–30 years old. This medical condition is characterized by a patient's central vision either in one or both eyes is affected or vision is completely lost due to inflammation a at thed the buildup of fluid in the back of the eye. [read more]

  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia
    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a known subtype of AML or acute myologenous leukemia, which is a form of cancer of the bone marrow and the blood. APL patients suffer from the abnormal accumulation of underdeveloped granulocytes . APL is characterized as a disorder brought about by chromosomal translocation. [read more]

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome, is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. This is the most important disorder that is caused by an increased permeability pulmonary edema. ARDS is a severe lung disease caused by different direct and indirect issues. It is marked by inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with concomitant systemic release of inflammatory mediators causing inflammation, hypoxemia and frequently resulting in multiple organ failure. This condition is life threatening and often lethal, typically requiring mechanical ventilation and admission to an intensive care unit. A less severe form of this disease is called acute lung injury (ALI). ARDS most commonly signified adult respiratory distress syndrome to differentiate it from infant respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. However, as this type of pulmonary edema also arises in children, ARDS has gradually shifted to mean acute rather than adult. The differences with the typical infant syndrome remain the same. [read more]

  • Acute Tubular Necrosis
    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular cells that form the tubule that transports urine to the ureters while reabsorbing 99% of the water, highly concentrating the salts and metabolic byproducts. Tubular cells continually replace themselves, and if the cause of ATN is taken out, then recovery is likely. ATN presents with acute renal failure and is one of the most frequent causes of ARF. The presence of "muddy brown casts" of epithelial cells present in the urine during urinalysis is pathognomonic for ATN. ATN may be classified as either toxic or ischemic. Toxic ATN arises when the tubular cells are exposed to a toxic substance (nephrotoxic ATN). Ischemic ATN occurs when the tubular cells do not get adequate amounts of oxygen, a condition they are highly sensitive to due to their very high metabolism. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of
    Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD) is a rare hereditary disease that is the result of the lack of an enzyme required to convert fat to energy. People with MCADD cannot refrain from eating for very long. Fasting starts after the body has used all the food that the person has eaten, then begins to use the body's own fat to make energy. When people with MCADD fast, they can experience a variety of serious life threatening symptoms or even death. Persons with MCADD cannot utilize this fat to make energy, consequently, the body begins to fail and malfunction once the food the person has eaten runs out. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of
    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition in which the body fails to oxidize fatty acids because an enzyme is either missing or not functioning correctly. Long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCHAD) is 1 of 3 enzymatic activities that comprise the trifunctional protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The other 2 activities of the protein are long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (LCKT) and 2-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase (LCEH). The protein is an octamer made up of 4 alpha subunits that contain the LCEH and LCHAD activities, and 4 beta subunits that contain the LCKT activity. This enzyme complex helps metabolize long-chain fatty acids, and the LCHAD activity is specific for compounds of C12-C16 chain length. The genes for the alpha and beta subunits have been traced to chromosome 2. Affected infants with LCHAD deficiency, which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, arise in infancy with acute hypoketotic hypoglycemia. These episodes usually appear for the first time after a fast, which usually occurs in the context of intercurrent illness with vomiting. [read more]

  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very short chain, deficiency of
    Short Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCADD) is a condition in which the body fails to oxidize fatty acids because an enzyme is either missing or not functioning correctly. Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD) is a rare condition that stops the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). People affected with this disorder are not able to break down a certain group of fats called short-chain fatty acids efficiently. Some affected infants will display vomiting, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), a lack of energy (lethargy), poor feeding, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Other features of this disorder may include poor muscle tone (hypotonia), developmental delays, seizures, and a small head size (microcephaly). The symptoms of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be activated by periods of fasting or during illnesses such as viral infections. In some cases, signs and symptoms may not exhibit themselves until adulthood, when some individuals may develop muscle weakness and wasting. Other people with gene mutations that can lead to this disorder may have such mild symptoms that they are never diagnosed. [read more]

  • Addiction
    Addiction was a term used to describe an attachment, devotion, dedication, inclination, etc. Nowadays, however, the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, social life, or mental state. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as compulsive overeating and problem gambling. Factors that have been suggested as causes of addiction include biological/pharmacological, genetic, and social factors. [read more]

  • Addison's Disease
    Addison's disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces inadequet amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). It may arise in children as well as adults, and may occur as the result of a large number of underlying causes. The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who initially described the condition in his 1855 On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. The adjective "Addisonian" is used for features of the condition, as well as individuals with Addison's disease. The condition is typically diagnosed with blood tests, medical imaging and additional investigations. Treatment is with replacement of the certain hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). If the disease is the result of an underlying problem, this is addressed. Regular follow-up and monitoring for other health problems is required. [read more]

  • Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form
    Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form, also known as Christian syndrome or Craniostenosis arthrogryposis cleft palate, is a rare disease that affects multiple systems which causes malformations of the palate, thumbs, and upper limbs. [read more]

  • Adenitis, Mesenteric
    Mesenteric adenitis is characterized as an inflammation of the mesenteric lymph nodes found in the abdomen. If the inflammation is found in the right lower quadrant, most people would mistake it as appendicitis but is often preceded by sore throat. [read more]

  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Adenocarcinoma of the lung (or lung cancer) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both women and men in the United States and throughout the world. Lung cancer has beaten breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In 2007, 160,390 people were projected to die from lung cancer in the United States, which is more than the number of deaths from colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer combined. Only about 2% of those diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body are living five years after the diagnosis, although the survival rates for lung cancers diagnosed at a very early stage are higher, with approximately 49% surviving for five years or longer. Cancer arises when normal cells undergo a transformation that causes them to grow and multiply without the normal controls. The cells form a mass or tumor that varies from the surrounding tissues from which it arises. Tumors are dangerous because they take nutrients, oxygen, and space from healthy cells. [read more]

  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma
    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that develops within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. Other sites of origin include the trachea, lacrimal gland, skin, breast, and vulva. This neoplasm is defined by its characteristic histologic appearance. Adenoid cystic cancer (AdCC) is a very rare type of cancer that can develop in many different body sites. It most often arises in the areas of the head and neck, in particular the salivary glands; but has also been reported in the breast, lacrimal gland of the eye, lung, brain, bartholin gland, and the trachea. It is sometimes known as adenocyst, adenocystic, malignant cylindroma, adenoidcystic, ACC, AdCC. [read more]

  • Adenoma
    Adenoma is characterized as a collection ogu growth that is glandular in origin. Adenomas usually grow in major body organs such as the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and colon. These growths are usually benign in nature but can progress into malignant over. While it can be ntbenign, it can also present some potentially serious complications by mass effect and production of large volumes of hormones. [read more]

  • Adenoma of the adrenal gland
    Adrenal adenomas are categorized as benign or a non-cancerous form of tumour of the adrenal gland. It can arise from the gland's outer layer or what is known as as the adrebal cortez. Ig the adenoma produces hormones, it is considered as a functioning adenoma and non-functioning for adenomas that do not produce hormones. [read more]

  • Adenomyosis
    Adenomyosis is more popularly known as amenorrhea, and is characterized as a serious health complication among women that consist of the detection of an ectopic endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, are found to extend into the muscular and fibrous tissue of the uterus.There are two known types of adenomyosis–primary and secondary. This disorder may coexist along with external endometriosis. [read more]

  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
    Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency (ADA) is a highly rare genetic disorder and is categorized as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency that largely affects body's immune system. To date, there are only about a dozen documented cases of ADA deficiency. This genetic disease is known to be quite fatal, and often lead to death if afflicted patients do not seek treatment. People who have this disease usually lead a sheltered life and live in enclosed environment to prevent exposure to infectious agents. [read more]

  • Adenosine monophosphate deaminase
    Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMD) is a type of muscle-specific deficiency that is a common cause of many exercise-induced myopathy and is one of the most common causes of metabolic myopathy among human beings. [read more]

  • Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a type of disorder of the purine metabolism that affects patients both behaviorally and biochemically. Patients afflicted with this disorder normally have autistic features and display some mild psychomotor delays. [read more]

  • Adhesive Capsulitis
    Adhesive capsulitis is also known as frozen shoulders, a condition that is characterized by the abnormal stiffness and pain on the shoulder joint area. As the condition progresses and worsens, the individual will experience a limited range of motion. This condition usually affects one shoulder at a time. [read more]

  • Adiposis dolorosa
    Adiposis dolorosa, is also known as Dercum's disease and Ander's disease, which is a type of a rare disease that is characterized by some multiple painful lipomas that usually arise in adult life. Among the individuals commonly afflicted with this disease are those who are also battling with obesity and occurs on both men and women. [read more]

  • Adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) generally refers to several autosomal recessive medical conditions that are results from some biochemical pathway of the steroidogenesis of the cortisol from cholesterol by the patient's adrenal glands. Majority of these conditions involve lesser or greater production of sex steroids and can also greatly alter the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in affected individuals. [read more]

  • Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenital, X-linked (Adrenal Hypoplasia)
    There are four types of congenital adrenal hypoplasia that have been recognized and they are the following: an X-linked type or the OMIM 300200 which is caused by a deletion or mutation of the AHCH gene or the DAX1 gene (found in the X chromosome dosage-receptive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital vital region). This type is often linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It might be a component of an adjacent deletion of chromosome (this may include congenital adrenal hypoplasia, OMIM 310200 or the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and OMIM 307030 or glyce3rol kinase deficiency; the second type is the autosomal recessive type and it is caused by a deletion or mutation of the gene which is responsible for coding for SF-1 or steroidogenic factor 1 on OMIM 184757 or chromosome 9q99. This type is also linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; The third type is an autosomal recessive type. This type has a vague etiology (or OMIM 240200); The fourth type of adrenal hypoplasia which is linked with the retardation of intrauterine growths, genital defects, and metaphysical dysplasia is the OMIM 300290 or the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysical dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, genital defects) association. The X-linked type adrenal hypoplasia congenital is a disease which is mainly acquired by males. It usually involves several endocrine tissues of the body most especially the gmall glands above the kidneys or the adrenal glands. The characteristics that often manifest are a reduction in the function of the adrenal gland; hypoglycemia; dehydration, feeding difficulties; and shock. Other male patients might also be sexually underdeveloped. The females who are rarely affected also have adrenal insufficiency and a deficiency of sex hormones. [read more]

  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma
    Adrenocortical carcinoma also called as ACC or adrenal cortical carcinoma and adrenal cortex cancer is a cancer that is aggressive which originates from the cortex (a tissue that produces steroid hormones) of the adrenal gland. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a tumor that is rare with an incidence of 1-2 in every 1,000,000 individuals annually. ACC has a bimodal allocation by age (most of the cases cluster among children that are under the age of 6 and in adults at 30-40 years of age). ACC can result into many syndromes such as Cushing's syndrome, virilization, Conn syndrome, and feminization. It also commonly metastizes or invades neighboring tissues and the survival rate is estimated at only 20-35%. [read more]

  • Adrenogenital Syndrome
    The more proper term for adrenogenital syndrome is congenital adrenal hyperplasia or CAH. This refers to numerous other autosomal recessive disor which result from biochemical paths of cortisol setoidogenesis from cholesterol done by the adrenal glands. Most number of these conditions could have lesser or greater sex steroid production and they can alter primary or secondary sex characteristic development among adults, children and infant patients. Only a few cases of people with CAH can be appropriated with intersex condition although this attracted the attention of the American public in the 90's and since then, there have been various accounts that have been circulated. It is estimated that 95% of CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Conditions Caused by CAH The most common conditions that are caused by adrenogenital syndrome are: ambiguous genitals (in some female patients wherein it can be initially hard to know the exact sex of the infant); salt-wasting that causes vomiting (which may lead to dehydration and eventually—death); the early appearance of pubice or the occurrence failure or the delay of puberty (including sexual infantilism); too much facial hair; virilization; irregular menstrual periods during the adolescent stage; infertility caused by anovulation; and hypertension. [read more]

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
    Adrenoleukodystrophy is also known as ALD, Sudanophilic leukodystrophy and Schilder's disease. This is a rare disorder that is inherited which often leads to progressive damage of the brain, adrenal gland failure and eventually, death. ALD belongs to a group of disorders that are inherited which are called Leukodystrophies. Leukodystrophies often progressively destroy the myelin (a complex fatty neutral tissue which insulates numerous nerves of the peripheral and central nervous systems). The absence of myelin intensifies destruction. Patients of this disorder have a missing essential protein called the transporter protein. The transporter protein is needed in carrying an enzyme (the one used in breaking down long chain fatty acid in a normal person's diet). A long chain fatty acid accumulation can bring about brain damage and adrenal gland damage. Usually, the patients of ALD are males who inherit the X-linked disorder. Leudodystrophies are not similar to demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis where the myelin is normally formed but is eventually lost through immunologic dysfunction or for other causes. [read more]

  • Adrenomyodystrophy
    Adrenomyodystrophy is a rare genetic disease which is often characterized by chief adrenal insufficiency, acute psychomotor retardation, dystrophic myopathy, and an acutely swollen bladder which can result into death. [read more]

  • Adult Onset Still's Disease
    Still's disease was first discovered as a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that is common among children but is now also discovered to have a few cases in adults. The adult type is called the adult onset Still's disease (or AOSD). AOSD was first described by an English doctor in 1971. The physician's name was Bywaters who is also famous for his work on the crush syndrome. There are varying theories as to the cause of Still's disease. There is a suggestion that it originated from a microbacterial infection. To this day, the cause of the illness remains unknown. It is more securely established that the disorder's pathogenesis is autoimmune. [read more]

  • Aggressive fibromatosis
    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unusual type of tumor that is locally persistent but not malevolent or malignant. Patient's symptoms will depend on the precise location and size of the tumor and also whether it reduces adjacent structures. [read more]

  • Aging
    Aging, also known as the cycle of life, is any form of change of an organism as time passes. There are many dimensions to aging such the physical, psychological, mental, and emotional aspects. For example, the time of reaction of a human being is lessened or slowed as he ages while his wisdom and knowledge of facts may improve. There should be a distinction between universal aging (where all people go through) and probabilistic aging (which is a type of aging that occurs only to some and not all individuals). An example of probabilistic aging is the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Chronological aging refers to the actual age of an individual and it can clearly be distinguished from social aging (where the society expects people to behave in accordance to their age and status). The third type of aging is biological aging (which is the person's physical state as he ages). Age measurement is done through entire years or months in the case of infants. An individual's birthday is often a significant event. As to mental aging, it is a bit more challenging to categorize individuals under this type because an older person does not guarantee mental or emotional capacities that are greater than the younger generation. [read more]

  • Agnosia
    Agnosia or failure to know is a condition in which the person is unable to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells without any defective in a specific sense. There are different types of agnosia. The Autotopagnosia, the person is unable to identify the parts of the body. Visual agnosia the person cannot recognize a visual objects. Another type is Alexia, Inability to recognize text. We also have color agnosia, the patient has difficulty in distinguishing between color perception versus color recognition. Prosopagnosia also called as faceblindness or facial agnosia , the affected person is unable to recognize faniliar faces. Expressive agnosia is a type o g agnosia that the person cannot perceive different facial perception. Visual Verbal agnosia, the patient cannot understand spoken words. Auditory agnosia. The person can hear but unable to determine environmental and non-verbal auditory signs. Amusia, unable to identify music. Somatosensory agnosia or Astereognosia the patient is unable to identify object that is touch. Time Agnosia another type of agnosia that characterized with loss of comprehension of the time and duration of events. Apraxia or motor (body) agnosia it involves loss of ability to determine physical actions thus lead to repetitive of action. [read more]

  • Agoraphobia
    Agoraphobia is usually referred to as "fear of open spaces" though this explanation is simple and confusing. Agoraphobia is like an irrational fear or anxiety related with unknown environment or events or situations though this explanation also oversimplifies a complicated topic.. Panic attacks from panic disorder, usually causes agoraphobia to arise in several situations and the fear of places or situations happen when these were the reasons of the panic attacks. Agoraphobia in other words is the “fear of having another panic attack” or simply the fear of something or somewhere that may cause a panic attack. A violent sequence situates in where worry or fear of certain places or circumstances create a panic attack more possible to happen, which in turn elevates the level of anxiety. No matter what the explanation is, agoraphobia can not be only put pressure emotionally but it can really turn to be devastating which results to a life of self-imposed loneliness. [read more]

  • Agyria
    Agyria which actually means smooth brain is an unusual brain formation disorder distinguished by the absence of normal folds in the brain. Malfunctioning neuronal movement is the cause of Agyria where in the nerve cells travel from their original place to their stable location. It is a kind of cephalic disorder. Convolutions or gyri refer to the folds in the brain and this forms the surface of the normal brain. Young patients who have Agyria has have a lack of or partially formed convolutions which makes the exterior of the brain smooth. [read more]

  • Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria
    Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria is an abnormal development of the human brain distinguished by a huge amount of small folds or concolutions (gyri) on the exterior of the brain. The entire surface or other parts of the brain may be involved. [read more]

  • Aicardi syndrome
    Aicardi syndrome is an unusual abnormality syndrome distinguished by the lack of a major structure in the brain referred to as corpus callosum, the existence of abnormalities in the retina adn seizures in the form of immature spasms. An X-linked dominant trait is inherited in Aicardi syndrome that is fatal in males. [read more]

  • Aichmophobia
    Aichmophobia is the tremendous and unreasonable fear of being touched by a finger or any pointed materials or objects such as needles or injections. [read more]

  • AIDS Dementia Complex
    AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is one of the most common complications of HIV-1 infection. It is severe and is greatly associated with high morbidity. Its pathogenesis is still a mystery although as compared with other opportunistic infections of HIV, it is believed to be caused directly by the HIV-1 virus. ADC was first seen alongside the AIDS epidemic. As with the term, there is the persistent cognitive deterioration which not only affects the intellect of the patient but including the motor complex and behavior. Also, myelopahty is an important aspect of the ADC. The moment the patient is diagnosed with the ADC, it is staged according to the ADC Staging System. The staging is composed of five steps which are based on the cognitive and motor incapacity of the patient. The earlier stage is when there are neurologic symptoms but without the functional impairment and the advanced stage is when there is severe dysfunction. Generally, ADC affects the patient's cognition, motor skills and behavior. Usually the cognitive and motor skills are the first ones affected and the diagnosis is usually made when the patient manifest impairment of these skills. In a study conducted on the ADC, it was found that ADC is commonly found for those with advanced HIV-1 infection although it is also commonly found in those with preserved helper lymphocyte. This means that immunosuppression has an effect on the development of the complex. According to the data by the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA), ADC is strongly associated with the advanced stage of HIV. Moreover it also showed that there is strong relationship between survival rate and the development of stage 2 and over of ADC. Compared with the mortality rate of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia, the 6-months cumulative mortality rate of ADC is three times greater. Compared with other neurologic diseases it is almost the same is the 85% rate if PML, 70% of CNS lymphoma and 51% of cerebral toxoplasmosis. The high rate may be attributed to ineffectiveness of antiviral treatment, the vulnerability of neurologic debility and the hopelessness attitude of the caregivers. According to the most recent studies the HIV-1 plays a significant role in the development of ADC particularly those with severe cognitive dysfunction. It was found that it is due to the production of the macrophages and microglia by the HIV-1, which affects the neuronal dysfunction. There is also the activation of the cytokine circuits and the neuropahtologic sequelae which causes neurotoxicity. By identifying these factors doctors may soon find effective treatment for ADC. [read more]

  • Ainhum
    Ainhum is a disease characterized by painful constriction of the fifth toe. This generally leads to amputation after a few years. Ainhum is more common among black African descents. It is commonly found among the blacks in West Africa, India and South America. The first recorded incidence of the disease is in 1867 by J.F. da Silva Lima. He described the disease suffered by one of the tribes in Brazil, the Nagos, who gave the disease its name. It is very rare in Europe and only a few incidences have been reported. It is also more common among those in between 20 and 50 years of age, with the average in 38 years of age. The youngest patient in record to have Ainhum is seven years old. The cause of the disease is still being studied. At present though, scientists have found that it is not caused by fungi, virus, parasite, bacteria and injury. Although it linked with walking barefoot during childhood, the disease is also found among those who have not gone barefoot. Among all the predisposing factors, race has been found to be on top of the list and thus scientists believe that it has some genetic component. Scientists believe that the disease is caused by the abnormal blood supply on the foot. Angiography of the peripheral limb has shown that the tibial artery may have become attenuated at the ankle and that there is noticeable absence of the plantar arch and branches. There are four stages of ainhum: the Grade I, wherein there is the presence of the groove; Grade II, wherein the floor of the groove is ulcerated; Grade III, wherein the bone is involved; and Grade IV wherein autoamputation occurs. In about 78% of the cases there is the presence of pain. For those in the early stage the pain may be slight and may have been caused by the pressure on the nerves. For those in the advanced stage, the pain is quite severe which is caused by chronic sepsis or fracture of the phalanx. Ainhum is commonly confused with diabetic gangrene, scleroderma, leprosy, Vohwinkle syndrome and leprosy. The pain is the symptom of the ainhum and it is a progressive condition. For the treatment of the ainhum, for the Grade I and II excision of the groove and z-plasty has been proven to relieve pain and prevent autoamputation. For the Grade III disarticulating the metatarsophanlangeal joint has been proven to be as effective. [read more]

  • Akathisia
    Akathisia also spelled as acathisia from the greek word means without or not. Akathisia is characterized by restlessness. The patient is unable stay still or motionless. [read more]

  • Alagille Syndrome
    Alagille syndrome is a disease that affects the heart, liver and other major organs of the body. [read more]

  • Albers-Schonberg Disease
    The Albers-Schonberg disease is one of the most common types of osteopetrosis. It has been found that it is caused by the mutation in the CICN7 chloride channel gene. Those who have Albers-Schonberg disease, have bone cells, osteoclats, not functioning normally. These osteoclats are responsible for the breaking down of old bone tissues so that new ones will grow. In case of the disease, the osteoclats do not break the old bone tissues which then results in overgrow of the bones in the body. These overgrown then become very brittle and break easily. In the United States, it is estimated that around 1,250 persons have osteopetrosis. There are different forms of osteopetrosis and the most severe type is very rare that in the United States, there are only about 8 to 40 cases reported each year. The malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a severe form of the disease. It affects the child even when she is still in the womb. When the baby is delivered, the bones of the shoulder usually break. The baby with malignant infantile osteopetrosis has low calcium, has pressure on the optic nerve in the brain and experiences frequent bone fractures. About 75% of those affected with this disease will develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. If not treated, the child is not expected to live beyond the age of 10. Children have the disease when the parents have the abnormal genes even though they may not have the symptoms. The transient infantile osteopetrosis is the same as the infantile osteopetrosis except that in this case the patient heals on her own without treatment. The adult benign osteopetrosis is what is originally called the Albers-Schonberg disease. The disease is named after the man who first recorded or described the disease. The disease is generally mild and is more common among those in between the age of 20 and 40. One of the most common manifestations of the disease is frequent bone fractures and difficulty healing them. In some cases bone infections, degenerative arthritis, headache and pain may also be experience by those with the disease. The disease may be inherited from the parent with the defective gene and children of parents with the Albers-Schonberg disease have about 50% chance of having the same defective gene. The intermediate osteopetrosis is more common among children below the age of 10. The symptoms is almost the same as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis although less severe. It is believed that it is inherited the same way as the malignant infantile osteopetrosis. [read more]

  • Albright hereditary osteodystrophy
    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, otherwise known as Martin-Albright syndrome is generally a form of osteodystrophy. This is considered to be a very rare genetic disorder characterized as the body's failure t respond and recognize parathyroid hormone. This hormone is involved in taking control of phosphate and calcium in the blood vessel. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    In 1937, Donovan James McCune and Fuller Albright explained Albright's syndrome as an inherited condition distinguished by abnormalities in the skin pigmentation, bone ailments and endocrine complications. The diseases in the bone may result to the weakness of the bone and abnormalities in the legs, arms and skull. Diseases in the endocrine may the reason for early puberty and elevated growth rate. Patients are affected by several distinctiveness of the ailment to various degrees several individuals may have the condition and have no evident complications. [read more]

  • Albright's syndrome
    Albright's syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by some irregularities on the skin known as caf?-au-lait spots, endocrine problems and bone diseases, by which the bones become weak and the development of deformities in the skull, legs and arms. The endocrine diseases may cause an abnormally rapid increase of growth rate and early puberty. Patients are affected in varying degrees and display different characteristics largely depending on the severity of the case. [read more]

  • Alcaptonuria
    Alcaptonuria is more commonly known as black urine disease, which is very rare genetic disease that can be passed on as an autosomal recessive trait. The particular gene that causes this disorder is unable to break down some proteins known as phenylalanine and tyrosine that may be toxic to the human body. This condition is harmful to the bones and body tissues. [read more]

  • Alcohol fetopathy
    Alcohol fetopathy is characterized by a series of congenital defects that affect the facial, cranial, cardiac and nueral abnormalities. This medical condition also involves mental and physical retardation that occur on infants arising from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. [read more]

  • alcohol hepatitis
    Alcohol is commonly associated with a number of liver diseases including hepatitis. However, the relationship between alcohol hepatitis and drinking is quite complex. This is because only a small number of heavy drinkers are afflicted with alcohol hepatitis and there are some moderated drinkers who have contracted this disease. Alcohol can possibly progress to liver failure and cirrhosis if patient continues to drink and is often fatal. [read more]

  • Alcohol Induced Neurotoxicity Syndrome
    Alcohol-induced neurotoxicity syndrome is an acquired neurological damage caused by excessive alcohol abuse. This condition is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and is characterized by dementia. [read more]

  • Alcohol Poisoning
    Alcohol Poisoning is a serious — sometimes deadly — result of consuming dangerous amounts of alcohol. Excessive alcohol intake can create a direct and devastating impact on the central nervous system. Alcohol can lead to serious conditions including slowing your breathing, heart rate and gag reflex. These occurences can result to severe implications like choking, coma and even death. Alcohol poisoning is life-threatening condition that is usually brought about as a result of drinking excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages within a short period of time. [read more]

  • Alcoholism
    Alcoholism is drinking alcoholic beverages at a level that obstruct with physical health, mental health, and social, family, or job responsibilities. It is a progressive medical condition that encourages alcohol dependency. You may be fascinated with alcohol and unable to control how much you drink. [read more]

  • Alexander disease
    Alexander disease is considered as a very rare type of neurological conditions that is known as leukodystrophies, which is a disorder results from abnormalities in myelin, the “white substance” that protects the nerve fibers in the brain. Alexander disease is progressive in nature and is usually fatal. [read more]

  • Alkaptonuria
    Alkaptonuria is a very rare disease that is genetically transmitted. The disease is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme called homogentisic acid oxidase. This type of deficiency often leads to the buildup of the homogentisic acide on the tissues of the body. This medical condition has been reported to be more prevalent in Dominican Republic and Slovakia. [read more]

  • Allan-Herndon syndrome
    Allan-Herndon syndrome is categorized as an extremely rare hereditary disorder that causes severe mental retardation along with impaired speech ability, diminished muscle tone, as well as possible movement abnormalities. For most infants afflicted with this medical condition tend to develop normally during the first few months. However, when the child reaches more or less six months, the baby will appear weak and unable to hold up its head and may never learn to walk on their own. [read more]

  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus
    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus is a serious respiratory disorder that is characterized by the allergic reaction of the lungs to a certain type of fungus. This disease occurs mostly in individuals that has cystic fibrosis and asthma, triggering cough, wheezing and in some cases accompanies by fever. If left untreated, this disorder may cause serious lung damage. [read more]

  • Alopecia areata
    Alopecia areata is a medical condition that affects humans, characterized by excessive loss of hair in certain areas of the body, typically the scalp. This disease is often referred to as spot baldness since the initial stage causes the formation of bald spots that gradually spread through all areas of the scalp. [read more]

  • Alopecia Totalis
    Alopecia totalis means “loss of all hair in the head” that affects men, women and children. While the causes of alopecia totalis is still unclear, research has confirmed that this condition is an autoimmune disorder, wherein an organism fails to recognize its own parts as “self” and results in a negative response against its own tissues and cells. [read more]

  • Alopecia universalis
    Alopecia Universalis, also known as “Alopecia areata universalis” is a condition that involves rapid loss of all hair, including eyelashes and eyebrows. Alopecia universalis is the most serious type of alopecia areata, affecting only 1 person in 100,000. [read more]

  • Alopecia, Female Pattern
    The medical term for hair loss is called alopecia. Female alopecia is often characterized as being distressing and common. Caused by hormones, genes and aging, female pattern baldness involves a typical patter of loss of hair in women. [read more]

  • Alopecia, Male Pattern
    Androgenetic alopecia or the male pattern baldness is the patterned balding of a man. One should note that the condition is not a medical disorder although it may affect both the appearance and self-esteem of some men. [read more]

  • Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
    Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, also known simply as Alpha-1 or A1AD, is a genetic disorder caused by the defective production of “alpha 1-antitrypsin”. When this happens, the blood and lungs receives insufficient amounts of A1AT while the liver cells receive excess amounts of A1AT proteins. Serious cases of Alpha-1 cause emphysema in most patients with this condition. Children and adults may experience liver diseases. Treatments of this disease include intravenous A1AT protein infusions, liver or lung transplants and avoidance of dangerous inhalants. People of Iberian, Saudi Arabian and northern European ancestry are more at risk of having A1AD. [read more]

  • Alpha-thalassemia
    In this condition, “a thalassemias” involve genes HBA1 and HBA2, which occurs due to Mendelian inheritance in a recessive fashion. Alpha-thalassemia is also connected to the deletion of 16p chromosome. Alpha-thalassemia results in a decrease in alpha-globin production that causes a decrease in the production of alpha-globin chains. As a result, an excess of beta chains occur in adults, while an excess of gamma chains occur in newborns. [read more]

  • Alport syndrome
    Alport syndrome, which first occurred in a British family and identified by Dr. Cecil Alport in 1927, is a genetic disorder characterized by end-stage kidney disease, hearing loss and glomerulonephritis. Hematuria or the presence of blood in urine always occurs in patients with this condition. Some also develop eye problems. [read more]

  • Alstrom syndrome
    Alstrom syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder – one of the rarest in the world, existing in only 266 reported cases in medical books and only 411 patients in 42 countries. First described by Carl Henry Alstrom in 1959, this condition is usually mistaken with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, which has resembling symptoms. However, the Bardet-Biedl syndrome usually have later onset with its symptoms. [read more]

  • Altitude Illness
    Alternative names for Altitude Illness are the ff: High altitude cerebral edema; High altitude pulmonary edema; Mountain sickness; acute mountain sickness. Altitude Illness is a sickness that can influence mountain climbers, hikers, skiers, or travelers who climb very fast; usually encountered when reaching high elevation in a very rapid manner. [read more]

  • Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia
    (ACD) is defined as a lethal evolving anomaly of the pulmonary vasculature. It is normally illustrated as the miscarriage of the normal air-blood diffusion barrier in the newborn lung. It is usually supplementary with the misalignment of the pulmonary veins. [read more]

  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease
    Alveolar Hydatid Disease is a rare medical condition where there is a multi-organ infection caused by the larval stage of a Echinococcus multilocularis, tapeworm that is usually microscopic and is usually found in foxes, coyote, dogs and cats. When affecting human, the tapeworm thrive on the lungs, brain and organs of the body. [read more]

  • Alveolar Osteitis
    Alveolar osteitis or dry socket is a type of dental condition that typically occurs when the blood clots at the area where an extracted tooth is dislodged, and exposes the underlying nerves and bones. This causes increasing pain. [read more]

  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma
    Alveolar soft part sarcoma or “ASPS”, which was first identified in 1952, is an extremely rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, a slow-growing tumor that occurs mainly in children and young adults. ASPS is a highly angiogenic disease, which involves an intensive production of new blood vessels connecting the tumor to the blood and enabling dissemination of tumor cells into the bloodstream. Because of this, tumor cells can easily transfer into various parts of the body, usually affecting the brain and lungs. ASPS is a sarcoma that affects soft tissues that connects and supports organs and structures of the body. It usually develops in the deep soft tissues and muscles of the leg or thighs, but could also appear in hands, head and neck. However, it could also spread and develop inside bones. [read more]

  • Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an inflammation of the alveoli found in the lung. This condition is caused by hypersensitivity to various types of inhaled organic dusts. People with this disease are usually exposed to dust from their hobbies or occupations. Several types of extrinsic allergic alveolitis exist based on the provoking antigen. These include Bird-Breeder's Lung (avian proteins), Farmer's Lung (molds), Bagassosis (moldy bagasse or sugarcane), Malt Worker's Lung (moldy barley), Humidifier Lung (by mist of standing water). Mushroom Worker's Lung (mushroom compost), Compost Lung (compost), Peat Moss Worker's Lung (peat moss), Suberosis (moldy cork dust), Japanese Summer-Type HP (damp wood and mats) and Cheese-Washer's Lung (cheese casings). Other types of EAA include Hot Tub Lung, Mollusc Shell HP, Metalworking Fluids HP, Isocyanate HP, TMA HP, Beryllium and Wine-grower's Lung. The most common of all EAA are Bird-Breeder's Lung and Farmer's Lung, affecting 8 to 850 people in 100,000 persons each year for farmers alone and 6,000 to 21,000 people in 100,000 persons for pigeon breeders yearly. [read more]

  • Alveolus Cancer
    Alveolus Cancer is the cancer of the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchial tubes located in the lungs. [read more]

  • Alzheimer disease, familial
    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a very rare form of Alzheimer's disease that affects people aged 20 to 65. This condition is inherited in an “autosomal dominant fashion”. As its name suggest, Familial AD occurs in patients with 2 or more first-degree relatives with AD history. However, only 5% of the total Alzheimer's disease account to familial AD. Emil Kraepelin first identified the symptoms of FAD, while Alois Alzheimer observed the characteristic neuropathology of FAD in 1906. [read more]

  • Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease, which is named after Alois Alzheimer, is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs in people aged 65 and over. This disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting over 20 million people worldwide. Once Alzheimer's has been diagnosed, the life expectancy of patients is around 7 years. Only 3% of patients live for more than 10 years. [read more]

  • Ambiguous Genitalia
    Ambiguous genitalia is a very rare medical condition in which the external genitals of the newborn do not clearly appear if it's a male or female usually because it is not properly formed. This may cause serious social stigma and question to the baby's gender. In most cases, it is important to wait to determine to true gender of the child. [read more]

  • Amblyopia
    Amblyopia, commonly known as “lazy eye”, is a visual system disorder characterized by poor vision in one of the eyes. However, the affected eye remains physically normal or out of proportion. This condition affects 1% to 5% of the global population. Poor or no transmission of the visual images to the brain causes lazy eye. This condition usually affects only one eye, but it could occur in both eyes if both are similarly deprived of clear visual images. However, if detected early in life, the chance of successful treatment increases. [read more]

  • Ambras syndrome
    Ambras syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by excessive hair throughout the body. It is also known as “hypertrichosis lanuginosa”, congenital hypertrichosis universalis and congenital hypertrichosis lanuginose. Ambras syndrome affects only one person in 1 billion people. Less than 40 cases of Ambras syndrome have been documented worldwide. This condition is said to have genetic component with family histories of Ambras syndrome being reported in relation to affected patients. In the 19th century, people suffering from Ambras syndrome perform in sideshow acts or circuses. People described as “wolfmen” or “werewolves” due to their excessive hair growth are most likely sufferers of Ambras syndrome. [read more]

  • Amelogenesis imperfecta
    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of a person's tooth development, which causes teeth to become discolored, grooved, pitted, prone to breakage, become unusually small and develop other dental abnormalities. This condition produces varying effects and can affect both baby teeth and permanent teeth. Fourteen types of amelogenesis imperfecta exist. Each type is distinguished by specific dental abnormalities present. All types of amelogenesis imperfecta can affect any number of teeth. People with amelogenesis imperfecta develop teeth with abnormal color, such as grey, brown or yellow. Their teeth have greater risk of developing cavities and become hypersensitive to changes in the temperature. It is estimated that 1 in 14,000 people in the U.S. and 1 in 700 people in Sweden suffer from amelogenesis imperfecta. However, the exact incidence of this condition remains uncertain. [read more]

  • Amenorrhoea
    Amenorrhoea, a term derived from the Greek “a”=negative, “men”=month, “rhoea”=flow, is a condition wherein a female does not experience a menstrual period. Amenorrhoea is also a symptom of various causes. For women where menstrual cycles never start, a condition called primary amenorrhoea, the condition may be caused by several developmental problems such as failure of ovaries to maintain or receive eggs cells as well as congenital absence of one's uterus. Delay in a female's pubertal development may also cause primary amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhoea, wherein menstruation cycles cease, is usually caused by hormonal problems from the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. This can also occur when a female experiences premature menopause and intrauterine scar formation. [read more]

  • American trypanosomiasis
    American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas' disease, is a human parasitic disease, which occurs in tropical areas in South America. The pathogenic agent of this disease is a “flagellate protozoan” called “Trypanosoma cruzi”, which is transmitted to mammals by blood-sucking assassin bugs of the Reduviidae Family. These insects are also called barbeiro, chupanca, chipo, vinchuca, benchuca and kissing bug. However, other forms of transmission are possible; some affected patients acquire the disease through fetal or blood transmission as well as ingestion of food contaminated with various parasites. [read more]

  • Amnesia
    Amnesia is a condition in which memory is disturbed. The generators of amnesia are organic or functional. It is the loss of recall; usually natural causes include damage to the brain, within trauma or disease, or use of specific drugs [read more]

  • Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
    Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning is an unusual and rare disease which occurs as a result of a toxin made by a microscopic, salt-water plant that is usually red-brown or a diatom specie called Nitzchia Pungens. [read more]

  • Amoebic Dysentery
    Amoebic dysenery is an intestinal illness due to a microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Anyone can be infected with Entamoeba histolytica. It is common to people living in tropical or subtropical areas and men fun of having sex with men. [read more]

  • Amputation
    Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. It is implemented to control pain or a disease, such as malignancy or gangrene. A special case is the congenital amputation, where foetal limbs have been taken off by constrictive bands. Amputation of the hands or feet is implemented as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes in some countries. [read more]

  • Amyloidosis
    Amyloidosis is a unique and potentially deadly disease that takes place when substances called amyloid proteins build up in your organs; which areabnormal proteins commonly formed by cells in your bone marrow that can be deposited in any tissue or organ. [read more]

  • Anal Cancer
    Anal cancer is a type of cancer which arises from the anus, the distal orifice of the gastrointestinal tract. [read more]

  • Anal Itching
    Anal itching is characterized by an intense itching felt around the anus causing extreme discomfort. This medical condition is also called pruritus ani and can be caused by a number of irritants such as abrasion of the clothing, moisture or even pressure in sitting. [read more]

  • Anaphylactic Shock
    Anaphylactic Shock is also called Anaphylaxis. It is a life-threatening type of allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. It occurs when an allergic response triggers a rapid release from mast cells of huge quantities of immunological mediators leading to systemic vasodilation and edema of bronchial mucosa. Anaphylactic shock can advance to death in a count of minutes if left untreated. Anaphylactic Shock may occur after ingestion, injection of an allergen, skin contact or, in rare cases, inhalation. [read more]

  • Anaphylactoid Purpura
    Anaphylactoid Purpura otherswise known as the Henoch-Schonlein purpura or HSP is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the blood vessels or the vasculitis. [read more]

  • Anaphylaxis
    Anaphylaxis, from the Greek words “ava ana” (against) and “phylaxis” (protection), is a severe type I hypersensitivity and acute systemic allergic reaction in mammals, including humans. This condition occurs when an animal or person is exposed to an allergen that has already become sensitized. Large amounts of this allergen may cause a life-threatening reaction. Anaphylaxis occurs after injection, ingestion and inhalation of an allergen. In the United States, 1% to 17% of the population is estimated at risk for experiencing an anaphylactic reaction if exposed in various allergens, especially insect stings and penicillin. Of those who suffer from Anaphylaxis, 1% die as a result, accounting to 1,000 deaths per year in the United States. [read more]

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer that has an extremely poor prognosis with only 14% survival rate. This disease is known for its aggressive behavior and fatal resistance to available cancer treatments. Anaplastic thyroid cancer quickly invades surrounding tissues. [read more]

  • Anasarca
    Anasarca, also called Swelling is the enlargement of skin, organs or other body parts. It is caused by build up of liquid in the tissues. The extra fluid can advance to a quick upsurge in weight over a short period of time. Anasarca can occur throughout the body or only in a definite part of the body. [read more]

  • Anemia
    Anemia comes from the Greek words “an-hama”, which means “without blood”. Anemia is the most widespread blood disorder. This condition is a deficiency of RBCs (red blood cells) or hemoglobin, the molecules inside RBCs. When hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs into tissues, anemia causes lack of oxygen in organs. When this happens, different clinical consequences may occur due to oxygen deficiency. There are three classes of anemia – excessive blood loss, excessive blood cell destruction and deficient production of red blood cells. Anemia has several types, which are produced by various underlying causes. This disease can be classified using different ways, normally based on discernible clinical spectra, the morphology of red blood cells and etiologic mechanisms. [read more]

  • Anemia, Pernicious
    Pernicious anemia, also called “Addisson's anemia” or “Biermer's anaemia”, is a type of megalobastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. This condition is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in adults. [read more]

  • Anemia, Sideroblastic
    Sideroblastic anemia is a condition caused by the abnormal production of red blood cells, normally as a part of myelodysplastic syndrome that can evolve into hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia. When this happens, the patient's body will have iron, but it cannot incorporate this into the hemoglobin. [read more]

  • Anencephaly
    Anencephaly is a cephalic disorder resulting from a neural tube defect, which occurs when the head of the neural tube does not close. It usually occurs around the 23rd to 26th day of pregnancy. This condition results in the absence of a large portion of the scalp, skull and brain. Infants with Anencephaly are born with no forebrain, the part of the brain where the cerebral hemispheres should be present. The brain tissues that exist are often uncovered by skin or bone. Infants born with Anencephaly are usually deaf, blind, unconscious and inability to feel pain. This is because the cerebral hemispheres affected by this condition are responsible for higher level of cognition, such as thinking. In the United States, 1,000 to 2,000 babies are born with Anencephaly every year. Female babies are more likely to be affected by Anencephaly. Unfortunately, the cause of Anencephaly is unknown. [read more]

  • Angelman Syndrome
    Angelman syndrome is a hereditary disorder that causes developmental disabilities and neurological problems, such as balancing and walking, and difficulty speaking. Regular smiles and outbursts of laughter are common for people with Angelman syndrome, and many have happy, excitable personalities. [read more]

  • Angina Pectoris
    Angina pectoris is a type of chest pain or discomfort that is primarily caused by reduction of the blood flow to the heart muscle. This medical condition is categorized as a coronary artery disease. [read more]

  • Angina Pectoris
    Angina Pectoris is a term that illustrates chest pain due to myocardial ischemia. It normally happens on exertion and is comforted by resting. Alternative names for Angina Pectoris are stable angina and chronic angina. [read more]

  • Angiolipoma
    It is important to discuss lipoma to understand the nature of angiolipoma. Lipoma is a benign tumor composed of fatty tissues. These tumors are usually movable, soft to touch and painless. They could grow extremely slow and can sometimes be cancerous. Most types of lipomas are small, but can increase its size up to six centimeters. Lipoma usually occurs in adults aged 40 to 60, but could also appear in children. An estimated 1% of the global population suffers from lipoma. Lipomas are also seen in animals. They are found usually on older dogs, but lipomas can also occur in puppies. They appear in single or multiple. While these lipomas grow, they are usually benign. Malignant forms of lipoma in animals are extremely rare. [read more]

  • Angioma
    Angioma is a benign tumor, which is made up of small blood vessels. Angioma normally appears near or at the surface of the skin in any part of the body. However, Angiomas are usually not considered dangerous (depending on location). Some Angiomas are present as symptoms for other serious diseases, such as cirrhosis. When an angioma is removed, it is usually for cosmetic reasons. [read more]

  • Angiomatosis
    Angiomatosis is a condition that refers to “little knots” of capillaries in different organs. Angiomatosis tend to be defined, sponge-like, sharp tumors that are composed of dilated and large cavernous vascular spaces. Angiomatosis often appears in people with Sturge-Weber syndrome, Bacillary angiomatosis, Von-Hippel-Lindau disease and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. [read more]

  • Angiopathy
    Angiopathy refers to any disease associated with the blood vessels or the lymph vessels. When angiopathy is caused by diabetes, it is called diabetic angiopathy. Similar to most complications brought about by diabetes, diabetic angiopathy is primarily due to hyperglycemia or the high levels of blood sugar known to us as glucose. This disease can occur in any part of the body where the effect of high glucose level resulted to clogged up due to build up of plaque in the inner walls of the vessels. There are two types of this disease, macroangiopathy or microangiopathy. [read more]

  • Angiosarcoma
    Angiosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that develops from the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. Such tumors could occur in any part of the body, but they mostly appear in the neck, head, legs and arms. [read more]

  • Anguillulosis
    Anguillulosis is a parasitosis caused by roundworm. It affects over 50 million people worldwide, occurring mainly in sub-tropical and tropical zones, such as South East Asia, West Indies, Indian Ocean region, Southern Africa and Central & South America. The female roundworm, measuring only 2.55 long, lives in the small intestines of humans. When they lay eggs in the small intestines, they release larvae in their feces. These roundworms reach infectious stage directly after sexual reproduction. When they become infectious, roundworms penetrate skin directly. They could also affect the digestive system and may produce symptoms 30 years after roundworms are reproduced. [read more]

  • Angular Cheilitis
    A chronic inflammatory condition of the corners of the mouth is called angular cheilitis or perleche. It is usually associated with a bacterial (Staphylococcal) or fungal (Candidal) infection, and those infected may also have thrush (an oral candidiasis). Depending upon whether or not the affected person seeks treatment, the condition can last from days to months. [read more]

  • Anhidrosis
    Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat normally that can eventually lead to overheating of the body which can be very fatal. Anhidrosis can be quite difficult to diagnose and often goes unrecognized. There are a number of factors that can cause this medical condition and treatment would usually depend on the underlying cause. [read more]

  • Anisakiasis
    Anisakiasis is a condition caused by an infection from Anisakis worms of the genus parasitic nematodes. These nematodes have a life cycle that involves marine mammals and various fishes. When fishes are infected with Anisakis, it could produce an “Anaphylactic reaction” in people sensitized to IgE (immunoglobulin) Anisakiasis usually occurs in areas where fish is consumed raw, salted or lightly pickled. The highest number of people with Anisakiasis is Japan (consuming sushi), Scandinavia (due to cod liver), South America (after eating ceviche) and Netherlands (from infected fermented herrings). [read more]

  • Ankle Fracture
    An ankle fracture is a quite common injury, especially among athletes. There are three bones on each ankle joint, each one is susceptible to stubbing, twisting, stress and trauma. The degree of the severity of an ankle fracture varies from one case to another, ranging from mild to severe such as shattering the bones into tiny pieces. [read more]

  • Ankylosing spondylitis
    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic degenerative inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, causing a painful and eventual fusion of the spine. When complete fusion occurs and results in complete spine rigidity, it becomes a condition known as “bamboo spine”. [read more]

  • Ankylosis
    Ankylosis is a condition characterized by joint stiffness caused by an injury or a disease. The rigidity of joints may be partial or complete. Some cases of Ankylosis may be due to the inflammation of the muscular (tendinous) structures in the outer part of the joints or of the joint's tissues itself. [read more]

  • Anorchia
    Anorchia is a medical condition wherein both testes are not present at birth. Anorchia is also known as congenital anorchia, vanishing testes syndrome, vanishing testes, empty scrotum and testicular regression syndrome (TRS). During the first few weeks of fertilization, the embryo needs to develop rudimentary sex organs that are very important to the development of the reproductive system. In human males, if their sex organs do not develop within the first 8 weeks, they will develop female genitalia. When the testes are lost between 8 to 10 weeks, they will develop “ambiguous genitalia” at birth. However, when the testes are lost after fourteen weeks, the baby can develop a normal, male reproductive system, but without testes. People with Anorchia have a 46-XY chromosome constellation. Signs of Anorchia include lack of secondary sex characteristics and an empty scrotum. [read more]

  • Anosmia
    Anosmia is a condition wherein patients experience the loss of temporary or permanent ability to smell. Hyposmia is a related condition wherein patients experience a decrease in their ability to smell, while “hyperosmia” is a condition that causes an increase in the patient's ability to smell. However, when a person loses his sense of smell for a particular odor, he is suffering from a genetically based disorder called “specific anosmia”. “Congenital Anosmia” refers to the condition wherein a person is born without the sense of smell. Anosmia can be associated with other conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, zinc deficiency, cadmium poisoning, allergies, Refsum disease, holoprosencephaly, Alzheimer's disease, Kallman syndrome and Parkinson's disease. [read more]

  • Anoxia
    Anoxia is a medical condition where there is lack of oxygen in the body to supply it to the person's organ tissues. It is also known as hypoxia inasmuch as they refer to same condition where there is not enough oxygen needed to supply the organ tissues of the body. [read more]

  • Anthrax
    Anthrax is an acute disease in animals and humans, which is caused by the bacterium “bacillus anthracis”. Some types of anthrax are highly lethal. There are 89 types of anthrax recorded. Unlike other types of bacteria, anthrax can form long-lived spores. As soon as the life cycle of the bacteria is threatened by various factors, such as temperature change of dying host, the bacteria can transform into dormant spores, wait for another host and transfer to continue their life cycle. Anthrax usually occurs in wild and grass-eating mammals that breathe or ingest in the spores while eating grass. This disease can also be caught by humans exposed to dead infected pigs, high amounts of anthrax spores in animal wool, fur or hide and tissues from infected animals. While anthrax cannot be spread directly from one person to the next, human clothing can transfer the spores and when an infected person dies and the body is buried. [read more]

  • Antibiotic-caused Colitis
    Antibiotic-caused colitis is an infectious disease affecting the colon. Like the typical colitis, it is caused by C. difficile, which is also present among individuals who are taking antibiotic treatment. This infection commonly occurs in hospitals. [read more]

  • Antisocial personality disorder
    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a mental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern and violation of and disregard for the rights of others, which begin in early childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood. Features of Antisocial personality disorder include manipulation and deceit. [read more]

  • Antithrombin deficiency, congenital
    Antithrombin is a small protein molecule, which is responsible for inactivating several enzymes of the coagulation system. It consists of 432 amino acids and contains 3 disulfide bonds as well as 4 possible “glycosylation” sites. The role of antithrombin in regulating normal blood coagulation is demonstrated by the relationship between acquired and inherited antithrombin deficiencies. This relationship is also seen in the increased risk of developing thrombotic disease. Antithrombin deficiency usually appears to patient with recurrent pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. [read more]

  • Antitrypsin
    Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic defect caused by an abnormal production of alpha-1 antitrypsin, a protein that thrives in the liver cells. The lack of this protein may cause severe disorders in the different organs and weakness of the immune system. [read more]

  • Aortic aneurysm
    Aortic aneurysm is a general term referring to the swelling of the aorta, usually caused by an underlying weakness in the aorta's wall. Although stretched vessels may only cause discomfort, aortic aneurysm may result in rupture, which causes massive internal hemorrhage, severe pain and a quick death if not treated promptly. [read more]

  • Aortic arch interruption
    Aortic arch interruption, also commonly known as “interrupted aortic arch”, is an extremely rare heart defect wherein the aorta did not complete its development – did not form a complete tube or the aorta has a hole in the muscle wall. As such, patients with an aortic arch interruption have a gap between the descending and ascending thoracic aorta. Majority of patients with this condition have other cardiac-related anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, truncus arteriosus, aortic stenosis or ventricular septal defects. As such, treatment of aortic arch interruption would depend on the presence of any of the associated defects. [read more]

  • Aortic coarctation
    Aortic coarctation is a condition characterized by narrowing of the aorta in an area where the “ductus arteriosus” inserts. There are three types of aortic coarctation – preductal, ductal and postductal coarctation. In preductal coarctation, the narrowing is near the ductus arteriosus. Severe cases of preductal coarctation, blood flow to the lower body to the narrowing could become dependent on a patent ductus arteriosus. When this happens, its closure can become life threatening and lead to hypoplastic development of the aorta. In ductal coarctation, the narrowing occurs along the insertion of the “ductus arteriosus”. This type of condition usually develops when the ductus arteriosus closes. In postductal coarctation, the narrowing is far from the instertion of the ductus arteriosus. Newborns with this type of aortic coarctation may become critically sick after birth. Ductal aortic coarctation is more common in adults and is associated with hypertension, weak pulses in lower extremeties and notching of the ribs. [read more]

  • Aortic dissection
    Aortic dissection is a condition wherein the wall of the aorta tears, causing blood to flow between the layers of the aorta wall and forcing the layers apart. Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition and is considered as a medical emergency because it could lead to a quick death even with appropriate treatments. If the dissection tears the aorta through all its three layers, rapid and massive blood loss would occur. Aortic dissection that result in rupture have 80% mortality rate. Almost 50% of patients with aortic dissention die before they reach the hospital. [read more]

  • Aortic supravalvular stenosis
    Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a fixed form of congenital left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction that arises as a localized or a diffuse narrowing of the ascending aorta beyond the superior margin of the sinuses of Valsalva. It is responsible for less than 7% of all fixed forms of congenital LVOT obstructive lesions. SVAS may arise sporadically, as a manifestation of elastin arteriopathy, or as part of Williams syndrome (also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome), a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. [read more]

  • Aortic Valve Regurgitation
    Aortic valve regurgitation is also known as aortic incompetence or insufficiency. This medical condition occurs when the heart's aortic valve does not close tightly, causing some of the blood to that has been pumped out to leak back. This leakage will result to preventing the heart to supply blood to the rest of the body, causing the patient to always feel tired and short of breath. [read more]

  • Apert syndrome
    Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder commonly known as “acrocephalosyndactyly”. This disorder is classified as a “branchial arch syndrome”, which affects the first branchial arch, responsible for the maxilla and mandible. Apert syndrome causes lasting and widespread effects to individuals because branchial arches are important in the fetus development. [read more]

  • Aphasia
    Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from damage to segments of the brain that are responsible for language; usually on the left brain hemisphere. It often occurs all of a sudden usually as a result of stroke or head injury. In some cases, it progresses gradually. In both cases, the result is remarkable impairment in writing, reading, expression and language understanding [read more]

  • Aphthous stomatitis
    Aphthous stomatitis is a form of mouth ulcer that presents a painful open sore within the mouth, which is caused by a break in the patient's mucous membrane. Also known as aphthous ulcer or “Sutton's disease”, the term “aphtha” means ulcer. Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by repeated painful discrete areas of ulceration. Recurrent Aphthous stomatitis (RAD) is distinguished from other diseases by their multiplicity, chronicity and tendency to recur. RAD is one of the most common oral diseases, accounting to 10% of the population. Females are more affected by Aphthous stomatitis than men are. However, over 35% of patients with RAD have a family history of this disease. [read more]

  • Aphthous Ulcers
    Aphthous ulcers are more commonly known as canker sores. These are characterized by the development of small and shallow lesions on the soft tissues in your mouth, under the tongue, or insides of the cheeks or lips, as well as at the base of the gums. Often , it will usually go away naturally after a few weeks or so. [read more]

  • Apiphobia
    Apiphobia is the fear of bees or bee stings, a common phobia among people. Derived from the Latin words “apis” for honeybee, Apiphobia is a specific phobia – an abnormal fee of bees. Apiphobia is a type of zoophobia common in young children, which could prevent them from participating in any activities outdoors. Older people with Apiphobia can control this fear more easily. However, a few cases of Apiphobia in adults, such as Adam Savage of MythBusters, may show extreme fear of bees. One method of overcoming Apiphobia in children is to train them in facing their fears. [read more]

  • Aplastic anemia
    Aplastic anemia is a condition wherein the bone marrow does not produce enough new cells to replenish the blood cells. The word “aplastic” refers to the marrow that suffers from aplasia, making it unable to function normally. Anemia is the disorder that results in having lesser red blood cells than normal, which are needed to function properly. Although anemia refers to low levels of red blood cells, Aplastic anemia differs due to the lower counts of all blood cell types – platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells. [read more]

  • Apnea, Infantile
    Apnea is a condition that is characterized by the sudden or spontaneous loss of breathing for 20 seconds or more. Infantile apnea, as its name suggest, occurs in children under 1 year old. [read more]

  • Apocrine Duct Occlusion
    Apocrine duct Occlusion, commonly known as the Fox-Fordyce disease, is an uncommon skin disorder, affecting male and children, but is more common in women between 13 and 35 years old. This condition is characterized by the sudden development of itchy bumps usually around hair follicles of nipples, underarm areas and pubic region. [read more]

  • Apraxia
    Apraxia is a neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of ability to carry out or execute learned movements, such as speech, despite having the physical ability and desire to perform such movements. [read more]

  • Arachnitis
    Arachnitis, commonly known as Arachnoiditis, is a severe condition characterized by intense stinging, burning pain and various neurological problems, which could lead to scarring, irritation and blinding of blood vessels ad its nerve roots. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly
    This disease is also known as "spider fingers" or archromachia. It is referred to as "spider fingers" due to the fact that the fingers are slim and long comparing it to the palm like a spider's legs. This disease can occur after birth or later in life. This disease can happen without any medical conditions but sometimes it is related with some medical condition for instance Marfan Syndrome. Other term for this disease is Dolichostenomelia. [read more]

  • Arachnodactyly, Contractural Beals Type
    Contractural Beals Type Arachnodactyly is a very rare genetic disorder also known as Beals Syndrome. It is characterized by permanently flexed fingers, abnormally shaped ears and the permanent fixation of affected joints like hips, fingers, knees and elbows that is in a flexed position. [read more]

  • Arachnoid cysts
    It is an uncommon disease which involves cysts that are fluid-filled that forms in the arachnoid membrane that is a thin layer of tissue that creates a membrane that covers the brain and the spinal cord It can start during childhood or can come later during adulthood. The determination of the severity of the disease is based on the location of the cyst and how big it is. [read more]

  • Arachnoiditis
    A disease due to the swelling of the arachnoids which is a membrane that encloses and shields the central nervous system nerves together with the spinal cord and the brain. The swelling can be caused by infections due to viruses or bacteria and can also be caused by chemical irritation. The swelling may cause creation of scar tissue and bonding that results the nerves on the spine to “bond”. The disease is usually progressive and treatments differ in its efficiency, the disease is not often cured. [read more]

  • ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a condition in which a patient with underlying disease has a breathing problem. It is a non- specific respiratory disorder that occurs if there is a fluid build up in the lungs that blocks the exchange of gases that provide energy in the body. ARDS is a life threatening disease if failed to provide care immediately and properly. [read more]

  • ARG Deficiency
    ARG deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that is shown by a lack of the arginase enzyme. This enzyme plays a big role in removing nitrogen from the body, and insufficient amounts of arginase can lead to nitrogen poisoning in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Effects of nitrogen contamination include mental retardation, spasticity and mental retardation. ARG deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Arginase deficiency (Arginemia)
    A hereditary disorder, that causes high level of arginine in the blood. Death is the result for total deficiency while partial deficiency causes hyperammonemia, metabolic alkalosis, convulsions, hepatomegaly, mental retardation and failure to grow. [read more]

  • Argyria
    An intake of elemental silver, silver dust or silver compounds, over exposure to silver salts - typically industrial exposure or medication causes Argyria. The most evident symptom if Argyria is that the skin turns to blue or bluish-grey colored. Argyria may start as generalized or local Argyria. A condition that is related to the eye is called Argyrosis. It is believed that the disorder can be permanent but laser therapy is helpful. [read more]

  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
    Ocassionally it is called as Chiari II malformation or ACM, it is is a hereditary deformity of the brain. It is an unusual deformity where the support of the brain goes through the upper spinal canal. This disorder happens to approximately every child born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Chiari malformations I, II and III is associated with the apparent irregularity of the hindbrain which was described by German pathologist Hans Chiari in the late 1800's. Afterwards, further investigators supplemented a fourth (Chiari IV) malformation. The severity scale is rated I – IV, with IV as the most severe. Arnold Chiari Malformation particularly refers to the Chiari II malformation. [read more]

  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
    This disorder is an unusual heart ailment that involves primarily right ventricle. It causes the muscle tissue of right ventricle to be changed by fibrous or fatty tissue which affects the capability of the heart to pump blood. It is distinguished by hypokinetic parts relating the free wall of the right ventricle, with fibro-fatty substitute of the right ventricular myocardium, together with related arrhythmias starting in the right ventricle. It is also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC. [read more]

  • Arterial tortuosity
    Arterial tortuosity is an unusual hereditary connective tissue disorder distinguished by elongated and widespread tortuosity of the main arteries involving the aorta. The autosomal recessive acquired and location of the gene responsible is in the chromosome 20q13. [read more]

  • Arteriosclerosis
    Arteriosclerosis is a general term for several disorders causing thickening, loss of elasticity, and hardening of the walls of the arteries with the most common form called atherosclerosis. [read more]

  • Arteriovenous malformation
    Arteriovenous malformation or commonly known as AVM is an inborn disorder distinguished with a multifaceted, twisted web of arteries and veins. The hereditary spreading guide of AVM (if any) are unidentified, and AVM is not usually considered to be an inborn disorder--unless in the framework of a particular genetic disease. AVM may be evident at birth it may appear as a blemish that resembles a hemangioma. Comparing to other areas of the skin the skin of the AVM is warmer to the touch. The blemish is dark red. Throbbing in the mass can be noticed from the fast moving among arteries and veins. [read more]

  • Arteritis
    Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of an artery. It usually results from a contamination or auto-immune reaction. Kinds a) Temporal arteritis - also called as giant cell arteritis. It is particularly arteritis of the vessels providing the head, eyes and optic nerves, mainly the temporal artery. This is common in old aged individuals. A swollen head artery results to headache. b) Takayasu's arteritis - distresses the aorta and its branches. A thrombo-obliterative procedure of the enormous vessels starting in the aortic arch, it takes place usually in young women. Radial and carotid pulses are usually destroyed. Due to the distressed movements it causes the skin to change. Other effects may be hair loss and deteriorated skin and deteriorate of the skin and its branches by primary muscle atrophy. c) Polyarteritis nodosa - distresses the medium-sized arteries, particularly those of renal, coronary, hepatic and skeletal muscle systems. Arteritis can be partly caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. [read more]

  • Arthritis
    Arthritis is a condition that usually involves damage on the joints of the body. For people older than fifty-five years, it is the leading cause of disability. Arthritis is a medicinal term, which mean any kind of joint swelling but the term is usually used to refer to age-related osteoarthritis that is the most usual kind. Though, there are other kinds of arthritis involving rheumatoid arthritis (second-most usual, involving younger adults and juveniles), and different kinds of minor arthritis which are caused by a primary condition: immediate arthritis caused by an infection, psoriatic arthritis from psoriasis, gonococcal arthritis from gonorrhea, and the like. Several probable circumstances with arthritis-like signs involve ankylosing spondylitis and gout. [read more]

  • Arthritis In Children
    Still's disease, is a kind of arthritis that occurs in children. Children with Still's disease often experience common arthritic symptoms adults suffer, and about 300,000 children in the United States are affected by the disease. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Juvenile
    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) previously identified as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most ordinary type of unrelenting arthritis in children. Occasionally it is called as juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) a term that is not exact as JIA does not include all types of persistent childhood arthritis. Arthritis causes the lining of the joint (synovium) to swell. JIA is a division of arthritis noticeable during childhood, which might be temporary and self-limited or persistent. It varies considerably from arthritis usually noticed in adults (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis), and other kinds of arthritis that can present in infancy which are persistent conditions. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Septic
    Arthritis, septic (septic arthritis) is an inflammation of a joint that results from a bacterial infection, or, in rare cases, from a viral or fungal infection. Also sometimes called infectious arthritis or bacterial arthritis, this disease is commonly acute but has the potential to become chronic. [read more]

  • Arthritis, Thumb
    Arthritis, thumb (or thumb arthritis) is characterized by inflammation of the joint of the wrist and the base of the thumb (basal or carpometacarpal joint). Thumb arthritis is also alternatively called basal joint arthritis. [read more]

  • Arthrogryposis
    Arthrogryposis also referred to as Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, an unusual hereditary disorder that results to multiple joint contractures and is distinguished by weakness of the muscle and fibrosis. It is a not a progressive disease. The ailment obtains its name from Greek, exactly meaning “bent or curved joints'. There are several identified subgroups of AMC, with varying signs, symptoms, causes and the like. In several cases, a small number of joints might be affected and the variety of movement might be just about normal. In the majority type of arthrogryposis, hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, feet and knees are affected. In the majority rigorous types, almost each joint is involved, as well as the jaw and back. Normally, the contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness that adds limitation to movement. AMC is normally balanced and entails each four extremities with a number of dissimilarity seen. [read more]

  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency
    Arylsulfatase A deficiency also referred to as Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is the very ordinary type of a family of hereditary ailments identified as the leukodystrophies, ailments that involves the enlargement and/or growth of myelin, the fatty layer which works as an insulator around nerve fibers all through the inner and marginal nervous systems. Arylsulfatase A results to a damaging swelling of fatty material in the body. [read more]

  • Asbestosis
    Asbestosis is a persistent seditious medical condition upsetting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It happens following a long-term, serious contact to asbestos like in mining, and is consequently viewed as a work-related lung ailment. Sufferers have rigorous dyspnea or shortness of breath and are at an augmented danger concerning numerous diverse kinds of lung cancer. As apparent details are not at all times stressed in non-technical writing, care must be taken to differentiate among several types of related ailments. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these can be defined as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma or usually a very unusual type of cancer, but growing in occurrence as people exposed to asbestos age. [read more]

  • Ascariasis
    Ascariasis is a human infection caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Maybe one quarter of the world's inhabitants is infected and ascariasis is mainly common in humid regions and in regions of poor hygiene. Additional types of the species Ascaris are parasitic and can cause infections in domestic animals. Disease happens during eating of food contaminated with feces having Ascaris eggs. The larvae hatch hideaway all the way through the intestine, arrive at the lungs, and lastly travel up the respiratory tract. Starting there they are then re-swallowed and grow up in the intestine, growing up to 30 cm (12 in.) in length and securing itself to the intestinal wall. Diseases are typically asymptomatic especially if the quantity of worms is little. They may nevertheless be associated with swelling, fever, and diarrhea, and serious harms may extend if the worms travel to other portions of the body. [read more]

  • Ascending Aorta Dissection
    Ascending aortic dissection is a cardiovascular disease in which the walls of the ascending aorta are split open due to pressure. [read more]

  • Ascites
    Ascites otherwise known as the Peritoneal Cavity Fluid or the Peritoneal Fluid Excess or the Hydroperitoneum or the Abdominal Dropsy, is the medical condition whereby there is an accumulation of fluid in the cavity located in the abdomen called Peritoneal. [read more]

  • ASD
    ASD (or atrial septal defect) is a congenital condition characterized by a hole in the wall between the left and right atria (the two upper chambers of the heart). [read more]

  • Aseptic meningitis
    Aseptic meningitis symptoms happens the same as meningitis without the location contributing organism. The disease causes the lining of the brain or meninges to swell and a pyogenic bacterial source is not present. History of distinguishing symptoms and certain examination findings is the basis to diagnose meningitis. Using lumbar puncture it should show an increase in the amount of leukocytes visible in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several cases of aseptic meningitis embody infection with viruses or mycobacteria that cannot be noticed with custom techniques. Although the start of polymerase chain effect has augmented the capability of clinicians to identify viruses for instance cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, and herpes virus in the CSF, several viruses can still escape detection. [read more]

  • Asherman's syndrome
    Asherman's syndrome also referred to as uterine synechiae presents a situation distinguished by the occurrence of marks inside the uterine opening. [read more]

  • Aspartylglycosaminuria
    An unusual genetic disorder resulted from a deficit of an enzyme glycoprotein (aspartylglucosaminidase). It is associated to a Finnish ailment heritage wherein a set of ailments results from a transformation in a single gene distinguished with elevated occurrence in Finland comparing to the rest of the world. [read more]

  • Asperger's Syndrome
    Asperger's Syndrome is a developmental disorder affecting a child's ability to socialize and communicative effectively with others. Most of the time children with this syndrome exhibit social awkwardness and centrally focused interest in specific topics. It is believed to be a milder end spectrum of other pervasive developmental disorders. [read more]

  • Aspergillosis
    The term is given to a broad diversity of ailments resulted from the genus of fungi Aspergillus. The usual types are pulmonary aspergilloma, invasive aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. [read more]

  • Asphyxia neonatorum
    A disorder that uses a newly born baby stops to breathe on its own the minute after birth. It is also referred to as deprivation of oxygen or hypoxia. This is usually caused by the mother's blood pressure dropping or complications during the delivery with blood flow to the infant's brain. The hypoxic injury can happen to most of an infant's organs like the heart, liver, lungs, gut and kidneys although damage in the brain is the usual concern and possibly the last to be healed. In worst cases, the baby survives but is left with brain damage this shows in developmental delay. [read more]

  • Astasia-abasia
    Astasia-abasia refers to the lack of ability to walk or stand normally. Individuals affected by this disease usually presents trouble in walking, tilting wildly in several directions and only falls when they a physician or family member is nearby. Patients cannot stand up straight except when assisted by someone. Although movements of the legs can be done normally while lying or sitting down. [read more]

  • Asthma
    Asthma is persistent condition affecting the respiratory system where in the airway seldom tightens, swells, and is lined with extreme amounts of mucus, usually in reaction to one or more triggers. The episodes may be set off by events such as contact to an environmental allergen or stimulant like cold air, moist air, warm air, excessive exercise or emotional stress. Common cold can set off the episodes on children. [read more]

  • Asthma, Childhood
    Asthma, childhood (childhood asthma), the most chronic illness affecting children, is characterized by continuous inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs. [read more]

  • Asthma, Exercise-Induced
    Asthma, exercise-induced (exercise-induced asthma) pertains to coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath during exercise or any vigorous physical activity. As with most other types of asthma, exercise-induced asthma results from the inflammation of the bronchial tubes of the lungs. [read more]

  • Astigmatism
    Astigmatism is characterized by a mild defect in the curvature of the eye which causes blurry vision. Astigmatism is an easily treatable condition. In astigmatic patients, the cornea or the lens of one eye has a slightly different curvature in one direction from the other. It comes in two forms: corneal astigmatism, characterized by a distorted cornea; and lenticular astigmatism, characterized by a distorted lens. [read more]

  • Astrocytoma
    Astrocytoma is a major intracranial lumps resulting from astrocyte cells of the brain. In the the cerebral hemispheres, in the optic nerve, in the posterior fossa and seldom in the spinal cord is where it may appear. The WHO provided a four point level basing in the histological grade of the lump. [read more]

  • Ataxia
    Ataxia means “lack of order” in Greek where the term originated. It consists of nasty in-coordination of muscle movements which is considered as a neurological sign and symptom. Ataxia is an exact medical sign entailing dysfunction of potions of the nervous system that manage movement for instance the cerebellum. Every September 25th of each year the "International Ataxia Awareness Day" is observed. [read more]

  • Ataxia telangiectasia
    Ataxia telangiectasia is a main immunodeficiency disorder that happens in an anticipated occurrence of 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 300,000 births. Other term for this disorder is Louis-Bar syndrome or Boder-Sedgwick syndrome. It is a congenital progressive multi-system ailment. Initially it starts as progressive cerebellar ataxia the followed by conjunctive and cutaneous telangiectasias, immune deficiencies, and recurrent sinopulmonary infections in later stages. There is also a related 100-fold augmented mortality danger. Cerebellar atrophy is most outstanding in the part of vermis as well as augmented neighboring cerebrospinal spaces and prominent folia using MRI. [read more]

  • Atelectasis
    Atelectasis is the term used for the medical state in which there is a partial or complete lung collapse. When the lung collapses, air distribution is affected and this is the when the alveoli become deflated (distinct from pulmonary consolidation). Infant respiratory distress syndrome includes a different kind of atelectasis. [read more]

  • Atelectasis
    Atelectasis is described as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated, as distinguished from pulmonary consolidation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome includes another type of atelectasis, and is distinguished and discussed in its own article. [read more]

  • Atelosteogenesis, type II
    Atelosteogenesis, type II is a rigorous disorder of the bone and cartilage growth. It is very unusual and baby with this disorder are usually stillborn, though some infant survive they die after caused by respiratory failure. [read more]

  • Atheroma
    Atheroma is the medical condition where the arteries are thickening or swelling because of the deposition of the plaque on the artery walls. [read more]

  • Atherosclerosis
    Atherosclerosis involves the arterial blood vessels. Because of the disposition of the lipoproteins, in the huge portion of the walls of the arteries severe inflammatory response happens. “Furring” or “hardening” of the arteries usually refers to atherosclerosis. Result from the development of several plaques in the arteries. Arteries' functions are carrying oxygen and blood to the heart, brain and other portions of the body. The major outcome of atherosclerosis is referred to as the cardiovascular ailments. [read more]

  • Athlete's foot
    Athlete's foot or Tinea pedis which is its other term is a parasitical fungal contamination of the epidermis of the human foot. It is usually caused by a mold that develops in the surface of the skin and then into the skin's living tissue. For severe cases it appears as a widespread “moccasin” pattern seen on the sides and bottom of the foot but usually it appears between the toes. This infection commonly affects male. After acne, athlete's foot is considered as the most common skin disease in the US. [read more]

  • Atopic Dermatitis
    Atopic Dermatitis involves the parts of the body which is not in direct contact with the allergen and it is considered as an allergic hypersensitivity. It is a skin disorder distinguished by constant swelling and pruritis. Usually it is congenital and related with allergic rhinitis and asthma. [read more]

  • Atrial Fibrillation
    Atrial Fibrillation is an abnormal rhythm of the heart characterized by quivering instead of normal beating. This decreases the efficiency of the heart to move blood increasing the incidence of stroke because of the formation of blood clots in the heart. [read more]

  • Atrial Flutter
    Atrial Flutter is the arrhythmia of the heart where there is a rapid beating in its upper chambers due to irregular signals causing an irregular heartbeat. [read more]

  • Atrial septal defect
    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormality or a hereditary heart defect in the interatrial septum of the heart because of the embryonic foramen to stop from closing normally. [read more]

  • Atrioventricular Canal Defect
    Atrioventricular canal defect is a condition that pertains to a number of congenital heart abnormalities, including the presence of a hole between the heart's chambers as well as valve anomalies involving blood flow regulation. [read more]

  • Atrioventricular septal defect
    Atrioventricular septal defect formerly known as "common atrioventricular canal" (CAVC) or "endocardial cushion defect" distinguished by a deficit of the heart's atrioventricular septum. It results from an abnormal or insufficient union of the lower and higher endocardial cushions with the middle part of the atrial septum and the muscular part of the ventricular septum. The Atrioventricular septal defect is divided into two forms which are “partial” and “complete” forms. In partial AVSD there is a partial defect in the primum or lower portion of the atrial septum but does not have straight intraventricular communication while in complete AVSD, there is a huge ventricular element underneath each or both the higher or lower bridging leaflets of the AV valve. [read more]

  • Atrophy
    Atrophy is a general physiological process, it is either the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body or a part of the body being useless. Size of a cell, tissue or organ can be wasted away with this disorder. [read more]

  • Attachment Disorder
    Attachment disorder pertains to a relatively rare but nonetheless serious mental problem characterized by the inability of infants and young children to form healthy bonds with parents and/or their primary caregivers. [read more]

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity is it classified as a neuro-behavioural developmental disorder which affects 5% of the world's population. It is usually acquired during childhood, and is distinguished by a constant pattern of distraction or hyperactivity and forgetfulness, poor inclination control or impulsivity, and being distracted and over the years it has been increasingly seen on adults. Children around 60% who have this disorder carries it as they grow. [read more]

  • Auditory Processing Disorder In Children
    Auditory processing disorder (APD) is a condition in which auditory information is not properly processed when it reaches the brain. It is a form of dyslexia that involves the central nervous system. People with this disorder have a difficulty recognizing the differences amongst sounds. [read more]

  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia it is a kind of hemolytic anemia where in the immune system of the body that attacks its own red blood cells (RBCs) which leads to the destruction of the red blood cell which is called as hemolysis. On the RBC's surface antibodies and related complement system components become permanent. With anti-globulin test the antibodies can be noticed also referred to as the direct Coombs test. Methyl-dopa and flaurabine drugs can induce AIHA. [read more]

  • Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I is a very unusual autoimmune disorder distinguished by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (APE), candidiasis (C) and ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Theh disorder is also called as candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism-Addison's disease-syndrome following its major features: * Mild immune deficiency that leads to mucosal and cutaneous infections alog with candida yeasts. The function of the spleen is also reduced or referred to as asplenism. * Parathyroid gland's autoimmune dysfunction that leads to hypocalcemia and the adrenal gland. Other ailments that are related: hypothyroidism hypogonadism and infertility vitiligo (depigmentation of the skin) alopecia (baldness) malabsorption pernicious anemia chronic active (autoimmune) hepatitis In contrast to type 2, this type takes over an autosomal recesive style and it is because of a defect in AIRE or autoimmune regulator a gene that is seen on the 21st chromosomes. A transcription factor, normal function AIRE exhibits to display immune lenience for antigens from endocrine organs. [read more]

  • Autonomic dysfunction (Autonomic nervous system diseases)
    Autonomic dysfunction it is a disease of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. It has components placed in the Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction can be related with hypothalamic ailments, spinal cord disorders, brain stem disorders, and peripheral nervous system. Signs can include destruction of the vegetative functions that includes the preservation of heart rate, blood pressure pupil function, reproductive and injury physiology, sweating and digestion. [read more]

  • Avascular Necrosis
    Avascular Necrosis otherwise known as the Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis and ischemic necrosis, is a disease which results to a temporary pr permanent loss of blood supply to the bones leading to bone death and collapse. [read more]

  • Avoidant personality Disorder
    Avoidant personality Disorder is a condition marked by extreme shyness, inadequate feelings, sensitivity of being rejected. Individuals with this disorder often feel inferior with others. They tend to avoid situations having potential for conflicts. They are often observed to be clingy, antisocial, dramatic or obsessive. [read more]

  • Axillary Hyperhidrosis
    Axillary hyperhidrosis refers to the extreme sweating of the armpits accompanied by foul odor. It is a common condition in men. [read more]

  • Babesiosis
    Babesiosis is an uncommon, vector-borne, malaria-like disease usually caused by ticks or parasites of the genius “Babesia”. In areas where babesia is common, such as North America, this disease can be transmitted through blood transfusion. [read more]

  • Baby Acne
    Baby acne pertains to a skin disease called acne vulgaris affecting newborn infants. Acne vulgaris (or acne) is characterized by inflammatory changes in the skin. Acne lesions are popularly known as pimples or zits, and are more common among adolescents. [read more]

  • Baby Bottle Tooth Decay
    Baby bottle tooth decay is a common condition among infants. It is where a child's milk teeth decays due to the food he or she consumes. It usually damages the front teeth. [read more]

  • Back Curves
    Back curves, or scoliosis is a skeletal deformity in which the back bone curves into an S or C shape. This is a common skeletal illness present among women, but can affect people regardless of age and gender. [read more]

  • Bacteremia
    Bacteremia is a medical condition whereby there is an invasion or spreading of bacteria in the bloodstream of a person thereafter spreading to the other parts of the body resulting into abscesses and inflammation of abdominal cavity. [read more]

  • Bacterial endocarditis
    Bacterial endocarditis it is the swelling and infection of the interior layers of the heart and usually the valves that resulted from bacteria. [read more]

  • Bacterial food poisoning
    Bacterial food poisoning also generally known as foodborne illness it is an illness that it is caused by ingesting a contaminated food. [read more]

  • Bacterial gastroenteritis
    Bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease caused by a bacterial toxin or bacterial infection, the most usual agent being salmonella, campylobacter and shigella. About 50% reposrted cases of gastroenteritis as food borne illness are because of norovirus and 20% are severe cases occurred in children because of rotavirus. The third major viral agent is the astrovirus. [read more]

  • Bacterial Meningitis
    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges – the protective membranes wrapping the central nervous system. This condition may develop as a result of viruses, bacteria and a number of infectious agents. However, it may also occur in people who recently experience physical injury, those with cancer and others who have a history of drug abuse. Most cases of meningitis resolve without treatment. However, this condition can become severe because the inflammation can damage the spinal cord and the brain, which are both in close proximity to the areas affected by meningitis. Since severe meningitis could cause serious neurological damage or death, immediate medical attention and diagnosis is needed. The most common type of meningitis – infectious meningitis – can be treated with antibiotics alone, but requires continues observation. Other types of meningitis can be prevented through scheduled immunization. [read more]

  • Bacterial Vaginosis
    Bacterial Vaginosis Is a type of vaginitis resulting to overgrowth of organisms present in the vagina, which upsets the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginitis can be present in many pregnant women without even knowing that they have it. Sometimes bacterial vaginitis in early stages is often asymptomatic. [read more]

  • Baillarger Syndrome
    Baillarger syndrome is a rare neurological food-related condition which can be acquired at birth. It is also known as Frey's syndrome. [read more]

  • Baldness
    Baldness refers to extreme hair loss from an individual's scalp, and may be either permanent or temporary. Baldness is known medically as Alopeicia. [read more]

  • Baldness
    Baldness refers to extreme hair loss from an individual's scalp, and may be either permanent or temporary. Baldness is known medically as Alopeicia. [read more]

  • Ballard syndrome
    Ballard syndrome is an uncommon condition of the liver and spleen that is enlarged it happens in parts of a weakened bone. The disorder is a congenital and commonly prevailing trait. It usually happens as an isolated dysmelia though it can also happen with other abnormalities as part of several hereditary syndromes. [read more]

  • Balloon Angioplasty Of The Heart
    Balloon angioplasty of the heart is an alternative procedure to bypass surgery in order to treat atherosclerosis. In this process the tip of a rubber balloon is threaded into the affected arteries and then inflated to crush atherosclerotic plaques that cause blockage. This procedure has been proven effective to treat coronary heart disease, but blockage may recur. [read more]

  • Ballooning Mitral Valve Syndrome
    Ballooning mitral valve syndrome is a relatively common heart defect characterized by the failure of the mitral valve between the left ventricle and the left atrium to close properly. It is also called mitral valve prolapse or MVP. [read more]

  • Bantu siderosis
    Bantu siderosis is the overload of iron primarily seen in South African people. It involves unusual iron deposits in the liver. It is said that several African people are liable to an augmented skill to absorb iron. Initially, this was said to be a cause of ungalvanised barrels utilized to keep home-made beer that led to augmented oxidation and augmented levels of iron in the beer. Additional researches show that only those individuals that drink this beer acquires an overload in iron and the same syndrome happened in the people of African descent. Because of this, researchers were led to discover the gene polymorphism in the gene for ferroportin that prompts several individuals of African descent to overload iron. [read more]

  • Barber's Itch
    Barber's itch is a skin condition characterized by the appearance of small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles, usually as a result of infections. Barber's itch is known medically as folliculitis. [read more]

  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1
    Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1 is an unusual hereditary or genetic disorder distinguished by mental retardation, polydactyly, obesity and pigmentation of the retina and other anomalies. Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1 results from the deficiency in chromosome 11q13. [read more]

  • Bare lymphocyte syndrome
    Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a hereditary immunodeficiency disorder distinguished by T- and B-cell dysfunction and these cells are important in aiding to fight the infection. The group of genes is referred as major histocompatibility compound class II or MHC class II is not articulated. The absence of treatment can cause death in infants because of infection. [read more]

  • Baritosis
    Baritosis a condition of the lung, that results from inhaling barium dust or barium that has compounds. It is a condition that is benign generally that does not result to symptoms except for irritation. On chest X-rays the particles of barium can be evident as an opaque shadow on individuals that has Baritosis. When contact to barium dust stops the abnormalities seen on chest X-rays slowly disappears. [read more]

  • Barium Enema
    A barium enema is another name for colon examination. This procedure is done to examine the small and large intestines to diagnose if there are any perforations, thickening or other abnormalities in the colon area. This procedure is done by inserting a well-lubricated enema tube with a barium medium into the colon to detect growths, inflammations and other problems.The diagnosis shows up in an X-ray fluoroscope screen. Barium enema helps a lot in detecting colon as well as colorectal cancers. It is one of the imaging procedures used by doctors to view the development of cancers in this part of the body. [read more]

  • Barlow's Syndrome
    Barlow's syndrome is a relatively common congenital heart disorder in which one or both of the mitral valve's leaflets abnormally protrude into the left atrium during systole. Barlow's syndrome is also known as mitral valve prolapse. [read more]

  • Barmah Forest Virus
    Barmah forest virus is a type of virus whose carrier is a mosquitoes thriving usually in Australia. [read more]

  • Barrett's Esophagus
    Barrett's Esophagus is a condition marked by the changes in color and composition of the cells lining the lower esophagus due to repeated stomach acid exposure often due to long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [read more]

  • Barrett's Syndrome
    Barrett's syndrome, also known as “Barrett's esophagus”, “CELLO” or simply “Barrett's” is a condition wherein patients experience an abnormal change in the cells of the lower part of the esophagus. Named after Dr. Norman Barrett, a British surgeon from St. Thomas Hospital that described the condition in 1957, Barrett's syndrome is believed to be caused by reflux esophagitis or damage from exposure to chronic acid. Barrett's syndrome occurs in 10% of patients seeking medical attention for heartburn. In addition, Barrett's is considered a premalignant condition, which is associated with a great risk of esophageal cancer. [read more]

  • Barth syndrome
    Barth syndrome also recognized as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type II and Cardiomyopathy-neutropenia syndrome it is an unusual hereditary disorder categorized by a lot of signs and symptoms and also includes motor skills being delayed, metabolism distortion, stamina deficiency, chronic fatigue, cardiomyopathy, delayed growth, and compromised immune system. The research or study of Dr. Peter Barth in the Netherlands and discovery in 1983 was the reason why the syndrome was named after him. He designed a pedigree chart where in it shows that the disease is an inborn behavior. [read more]

  • Bartonella infections
    Bartonella infections previously known as Rochalimaea it is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Bartonella species may contaminate healthy people though are considered particularly essential as opportunistic pathogens. Bartonella is spread by insect vectors like fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. It is known that eight Bartonella species or subspecies are recognized to infect humans. Bartonella rochalimae was the sixth species discovered in June 2007 that is recognized to infect humans and also the ninth species and subspecies generally recognized to infect humans. [read more]

  • Bartter syndrome, classic form
    Bartter syndrome, classic form is an unusual hereditary abnormality in the thick ascending limb of the ring of Henle. It is distinguished by decreased potassium levels, low acidity of blood (alkalosis), and regular to decreased blood pressure. 2 types of Barter syndrome: Neonatal Bartter syndrome Classic Bartter syndrome It is closely related to Gitelman syndrome which is milder comparing it to both Bartter syndrome subtypes. [read more]

  • Basal Cell Cancer
    Basal cell cancer is a frequently occurring type of skin cancer. However, it is also the most easy to treat and has the least likelihood of spreading. In general, basal cell cancer is seldom fatal; however, if untreated, it can cause widespread damage to surrounding bones and tissues. [read more]

  • Basal cell carcinoma
    Basal cell carcinoma most usual form of skin cancer and it can be damaging and disfiguring. The danger of growing BCC is elevated for persons with a family history of the illness and with an elevated increasing contact to UV light by means of sunlight or were uncovered to carcinogenic chemicals, particularly arsenic in the past. [read more]

  • Basal Joint Arthritis
    Basal joint arthritis pertains to an inflammatory condition affecting the joint of the wrist and the basal or carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. It is also alternatively known as thumb arthritis. [read more]

  • Basilar artery migraines
    Basilar artery migraines an unusual condition distinguished by headache related with a range of neurological symptoms. The state is a result of a trouble of the basilar artery that is seen in the brainstem. [read more]

  • Bassen Kornzweig Syndrome
    Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, also known as abetalipoproteinemia, is a rare disorder that is caused by the irregular fat absorption during digestion. Patients in this condition usually lack important vitamins such as A, D, E and K. [read more]

  • Batten disease
    Batten disease is an unusual, deadly, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which starts in early days of a person. The disease is also referred to as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease it is the most usual type of a group of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (or NCLs). History The disease is named after the British pediatrician Frederick Batten who initially explained about the Batten disease in 1903. It is the most usual form of a collection of disorders referred to as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Though Batten disease is commonly observed as the juvenile type of NCL several physicians refer to Batten disease to all types of NCL or ceroid lipofuscinosis. [read more]

  • BDD
    BDD or body dysmorphic disorder is a condition wherein the affected individual is excessively fixated or preoccupied with real or imagined defects in his/her physical appearance. [read more]

  • Beals Syndrome
    Beals Syndrome, also known as Congenital contractural arachnodactyly or CCA, is a heritable disorder involving the connective tissue of the skeleton. It is related to, but distinct from, Marfan Syndrome. [read more]

  • Beau's Lines
    Grooves across the fingernails or transverse lines are called Beau's lines. These nail abnormalities refer to shape, texture, abnormal color or thickness of the toenails or fingernails. With normal nail growth, the lines progress distally and eventually disappear at the free edge. [read more]

  • Becker's Muscular Dystrophy
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), also known as benign pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked inherited disorder that involves the slowly and progressive weakness of the muscle in the legs and pelvis. It is a type of dystrophinopathy, which includes a range of muscle diseaseswhere there is insufficient dystrophin produced in the muscle cells, resulting in instability in the muscle cell membrane's structure. [read more]

  • Becker's Nevus
    Becker's nevus is a skin disorder that predominantly affects males. The nevus mostly first appears as an irregular pigmentation (hyperpigmentation) on the torso or upper arm (though other areas of the body can be affected), and gradually enlarges in an irregular shape, becoming thickened and often developing abnormal hair growth (hypertrichosis). It is also known as Becker's pigmented hairy nevus, Becker nevus, Becker pigmented hairy nevus, Becker melanosis and pigmented hairy epidermal nevus. [read more]

  • Bed-Wetting
    Bed-wetting is a developmental phase wherein an infant or child is unable to retain bladder control at nighttime. It is also sometimes called nocturnal enuresis or nighttime incontinence. [read more]

  • Bedbug Bites
    Bedbug Bites are little red bumps on the skin caused by bites of a bedbug. A bedbug is a small, flat, reddish bug that can be found in every home. [read more]

  • Bedsores
    also known as pressure sores, decubitus ulcers or pressure ulcers areas of damaged skin and tissue develops when sustained pressure cuts off circulation causes the tissue of the vulnerable parts of the body to die. Prone areas include the skin on the hips, buttocks, and heels. [read more]

  • Bee And Wasp Stings
    Bee And Wasp Stings are insect stings brought about by bites of bees and wasps. Bees are fuzzy insects that feed on flowers while wasps are non-fuzzy insects closely related to bees but can also feed on animal food and other insects. The two insects may l [read more]

  • Behcet's Syndrome
    Beh?et's (pronounced ‘BAY-sets') disease is a disease that causes symptoms in various parts of the body. It produces a group of symptoms that affect different body systems, including gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and the central nervous system. These symptoms include mouth or genital ulcers, skin lesions, and inflammation of the uvea which is an area around the pupil of the eye. Common symptoms include sores found in the mouth and on the genitals. More serious symptoms can include inflammation (combined with swelling, heat, redness, and pain) in the eyes and other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Bejel
    Bejel, which was previously called endemic syphilis, is a nonsexually transmitted infection caused by treponemal spirochetes closely related to Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. Bejel, yaws, and pinta are diseases closely related to syphilis. They mainly occur in the tropics and subtropics. Unlike syphilis, they are transmitted through skin contact, mostly between children living in poor hygienic conditions. Like syphilis, these diseases start with skin sores and have a latent period that is followed by more a destructive disease. Bejel occurs mainly in the warm arid countries like the eastern Mediterranean region and West Africa. Yaws occurs in equatorial countries. Pinta is most common among the Indians of Mexico, Central America, and South America. Although the bacteria that causes bejel, Treponema pallidum endemicum, is morphologically and serologically indistinguishable from Treponema pallidum pallidum, transmission of bejel is not venereal in nature, generally resulting from mouth-to-mouth contact, skin-to-skin contact, or sharing of domestic utensils, and the courses of the two diseases are vary somewhat. [read more]

  • Bell's Palsy
    Bell's Palsy is a paralysis of the facial nerve which results to an inability to control facial muscles in the affected side. There are several conditions that can cause facial paralysis: brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be traced to the paralysis, the condition is called Bell's Palsy. It is named after the Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it. Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy, or diseases involving only one nerve, and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis. Bell's Palsy is defined as an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis, and is usually self-limiting. Its trademark is the rapid onset of partial or complete palsy, usually in a single day. [read more]

  • Benign Astrocytoma
    Benign astrocytoma (or astrocytoma Grade I, astrocytoma Grade II, intracranial neoplasm, intracranial tumor) is categorized into two types: Diffuse (Adults, cerebral hermisphere and brainstem) and circumscribed (Children, characteristic location/morphology). They are benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity of the astrocytoma depends on its location and size. [read more]

  • Benign Essential Tremor Syndrome
    Benign essential tremor (ET) is a movement disorder affecting the neurological system. It is characterized by involuntary fine rhythmic tremor of a body part or different parts, mostly the hands and arms (upper limbs). In many individuals affected by this, upper limb tremor may occur as an isolated finding. In others, however, tremors may gradually involve other regions of the anatomy, such as the head, voice, tongue, or palate (roof of the mouth), leading to dysarthria, or difficulty articulating speech. Less common are tremors that affect muscles of the torso or legs. It is also known as Presenile Tremor Syndrome, familial essential tremor, or hereditary benign tremor. [read more]

  • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), also known as benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV), is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. [read more]

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is the non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland; the male organ that produces semen. Enlargement of the prostate can put pressure to the urethra causing difficulty in urination. [read more]

  • Bereavement
    Bereavement is a psychological state in which a person succumbs to depression due to a loss of a loved one. This is typical among people who have lost their loved ones due to a traumatic or sudden event. [read more]

  • Berger's Disease
    Berger's Disease (also known as primary IgA nephropathy, glomerulonephritis with IgA and IgG deposits and IgA mesangial nephropathy), has a wide pattern of distribution and is thought to be the most common form of primary glomerular disease throughout the world. Although highly prevalent, geographic variations occur, which could be due to genetic as well as enviromental influences on the patient. This is a kind of glomerulonephritis resulting from the deposition of circulating IgA antibody in the kidney tissues. Inflammation of the glomerulus (glomerulonephritis) is the result of this and may present as acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. This renal disorder more commonly affects males in the 16-40 age range. [read more]

  • Beriberi
    Beriberi is an ailment affecting the nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1). The etymology of the word is from a Sinhalese phrase meaning literally, "I cannot, I cannot", the word being repeated for emphasis. [read more]

  • Berlin Breakage Syndrome
    Berlin breakage syndrome, also known as Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and Seemanova syndrome, is a rare syndrome that is characterized by chromosomal instability, maybe as a result of a defect in the Double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism. It is a very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, lowered immunity and heightened risk of cancer. The features of this condition are basically indistinguishable from the Nigmegen Breakage syndrome. The name comes from the Dutch city Nijmegen where the condition was first discovered. Most people with NBS originate from West Slavic regions. The largest number of them is Polish. [read more]

  • Bernard Soulier Disease
    Bernard-Soulier disease is condition usually present in newborn infants, wherein the blood platelets are not able to stick to the ruptured walls of the blood vessel. This may cause problems in blood clotting and becomes a result of profuse abnormal bleeding. [read more]

  • Berylliosis
    Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disorder (CBD), is an occupational lung disease. It is a chronic allergic-type lung response and chronic lung disease that results from exposure to beryllium and its compounds. Berylliosis is incurable but its symptoms can be treated. [read more]

  • Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann Disease
    Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, also known as sarcoidosis, is a disease which can affect different organs inside the body. It causes the development of microscopic granulomas on the organs. These are masses resembling little tumors or look like grains of sugar or sand. They are made up of groups of cells from the immune system. These tiny granulomas can increase in size and number and clump together, making many large and small groups of lumps. If numerous granulomas form in an organ, they can affect how the organ functions. This can cause symptoms of Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease. [read more]

  • Beta Thalassemia
    Beta thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. [read more]

  • Bilateral Renal Agenesis
    Bilateral renal agenesis is uncommon and is a serious condition, related to Potter's Syndrome. Bilateral renal agenesis is the lack of both kidneys at birth. It is a genetic disorder characterized by a failure of the kidneys to develop as a fetus inside the womb. This absence of kidneys results to a deficiency of amniotic fluid (or oligohydramnios) in a pregnant woman. Normally, the amniotic fluid serves as a cushion for the developing fetus. When there is not enough amount of this fluid, compression of the fetus may occur resulting in further malformations of the baby. It is the consequence of failure of differentiation of the metanephric blastema during the 25–28th day of development and both ureters and kidneys and renal arteries are missing. This disorder is more commonly found in infants born of a parent who has a kidney malformation, particularly the absence of one kidney (or unilateral renal agenesis). Studies have proven that unilateral renal agenesis and bilateral renal agenesis are genetically related to eachother. 1 out of 3 infants with this congenital defect are not born alive. Most infants that are born alive do not live beyond the coarse of four hours. [read more]

  • Bile Reflux
    Bile reflux is a condition characterized by bile flowing upward from the small intestine into the stomach and esophagus. Bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver, can inflame and then damage the esophageal lining and stomach. [read more]

  • Biliary Atresia
    Biliary atresia is a rare condition found in newborn infants in which the common bile duct between the liver and the small intestine is blocked or missing. If it goes unrecognized, the condition leads to liver failure but not to kernicterus. This is due to the liver still able to conjugate bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The only effective treatments for biliary atresia are certain surgeries, or liver transplantation. [read more]

  • Biliary Cirrhosis
    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a disease in which the bile ducts in the liver are slowly and steadily destroyed. The body has an intricate system of ducts designed specifically to transport bile, which is a fluid produced in the liver. Bile is needed for the proper digestion of fats and helps rid the body of worn-out red blood cells, cholesterol and potentially toxic metals. In primary biliary cirrhosis, the destruction of bile ducts can cause dangerous substances to build up in the liver and sometimes lead to irreversible scarring of liver tissue (or cirrhosis). Many experts consider primary biliary cirrhosis an autoimmune disease in which the body turns against its own cells, although it's possible that genetic and environmental factors also play a part. Primary biliary cirrhosis develops somewhat slowly. Medication can slow the progression of the disease, especially if treatment starts early. [read more]

  • Binge-Eating Disorder
    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by a compulsion to frequently overeat. In people with binge-eating disorder, the gorging becomes a regular ritual, shrouded in shame, secrecy, and feelings of self-loathing. Bing-eating is also alternatively known as compulsive overeating. [read more]

  • Binswanger's Disease
    Binswanger's Disease, also known as subcortical dementia, is a rare form of dementia characterized by cerebrovascular lesions in the deep white-matter of the brain, mood changes, and loss of memory and cognition. Patients often show signs of abnormal blood pressure, blood abnormalities, stroke, disease of the large blood vessels in the neck, and disease of the heart valves. Other prominent features of the disease include urinary incontinence, clumsiness, difficulty walking, speech difficulty, slowness of conduct, and lack of facial expression. These symptoms, which tend to start after the age of 60, are not present in all patients and may sometimes appear only as a passing phase. [read more]

  • Biotin Deficiency
    Biotin Deficiency otherwise known as the Vitamin H deficiency is a nutritional disorder where a person is deficient in taking biotin or the water-soluble B vitamin. [read more]

  • Biotinidase Deficiency
    Biotinidase Deficiency (BIOT) is the result of the lack of an enzyme called biotinidase. Without treatment, this disorder can cause seizures, developmental delay, eczema, and hearing loss. [read more]

  • Bipolar Disorder
    Bipolar disorder is not just a single disorder, but a group of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. People who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or combined episodes which present with features of both mania and depression. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate with eachother, known as rapid cycling. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia and is based on the type and severity of mood episodes experienced. [read more]

  • Bird Flu
    Bird flu is a disease commonly affecting wild and domestic birds that, when transmitted to humans, can be potentially fatal. [read more]

  • Birt-Hogg-Dub Syndrome
    Birt-Hogg-Dub syndrome is a rare disorder that affects the skin and lungs and heightens the risk of certain types of tumors. The condition is characterized by multiple noncancerous (or benign) skin tumors, particularly on the face, neck, and upper chest of the person. These growths typically first appear during a person's twenties or thirties and become larger in size and more numerous over time. Affected individuals also have a higher chance of developing cysts in their lungs and an abnormal accumulation of air in the chest cavity (pneumothorax) that may lead to the collapse of a lung. Additionally, people with Birt-Hogg-Dub? syndrome have a greater risk of developing cancerous or noncancerous kidney tumors and possibly tumors in other organs and tissues. [read more]

  • Birthmarks
    Areas of discolored skin that can be raised or flat usually present at birth or shortly after birth. Few types of birthmarks fade as the child grow while most types are permanent. Most birthmarks are harmless and may fade in time but there are also some that are associated with certain health conditions. [read more]

  • Black Death
    Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, was a pandemic disease that nearly wiped out Britain's population during the 14th century. It was thought to be caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but recent studies attribute the plague to other diseases. [read more]

  • Black Lung
    Black Lung or black lung disease is a common name for coal worker's pneumoconiosis, a lung disease of long-time workers in the coal industry. Cause is linked to accumulated inhalation of small amounts of coal dust. It has been termed black lung because accumulated inhalation of coal dust made the lung turned black in color instead of the regular pink color. [read more]

  • Blackheads
    Blackheads pertain to common skin breakouts characterized by small darkish spots on the skin, usually as a result of obstruction in the opening of the pores. [read more]

  • Bladder Calculi
    Bladder calculi are small masses of minerals that form in the bladder, usually as a result of concentrated urine sitting in the bladder for extended periods. Bladder calculi are also known as bladder stones. [read more]

  • Bladder Neoplasm
    Bladder neoplasm (or bladder cancer) is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply and grow in number without control in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine and is located in the pelvis. The most common type of bladder cancer starts in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called urothelial cell or transitional cell carcinoma (UCC or TCC). [read more]

  • Bladder Stones
    Bladder stones pertain to small mineral masses that develop in the bladder, usually as a consequence of concentrated urine stagnating in the bladder. Alternative names for bladder stones are bladder calculi and urinary tract stones. [read more]

  • Blastocystis Hominis Infection
    Blastocystis hominis infection is an infection caused by a microscopic parasite known as B. hominis, which is commonly found in human stools. [read more]

  • Blastomycosis
    Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis organism. Blastomycosis causes clinical symptoms that have similarites to histoplasmosis. The organism causing blastomycosis is endemic to portions of North America. [read more]

  • Bleeding Varices
    Bleeding varices are a result of dilated blood vessels usually located in the stomach or esophagus. This bleeding is characterized by the increased pressure in the portal vein within the gastro-esophageal tract. When not immediately diagnosed, the condition may lead to serious complications such as liver failure. [read more]

  • Blepharitis
    Blepharitis is the inflammation of the one's eyelids. It is characterized by inflammation of the margins of the eyelid. Blepharitis generally causes redness of the eyes and itching and irritation of the eyelids in both eyes. Its appearance is often confused with conjunctivitis (pinkeye) and due to its recurring nature it is the most common cause of "recurrent conjunctivitis" in aging people. It is also often treated as 'dry eye' by patients due to the gritty and sandy sensation it may give the eyes - although lubricating drops do little to improve the condition. The two types of blepharitis are anterior blepharitis and posterior blepharitis. In the former, the blepharitis affects the front of the eyelids near the eyelashes. The causes are seborrheic dermatitis (which similar to dandruff) and occasional infection by the bacteria Staphylococcus. The latter affects the back of the eyelids, the part that has contact with the eyes. This is caused by the oil glands that are situated in this region. It is the most common type of blepharitis. [read more]

  • Blepharophimosis
    Blepharophimosis is a condition where the individual has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size. The the patient's nasal bridge is flat and there is hypoplastic orbital rim. Both the vertical and horizontal palpebral fissures (or eyelid opening) are reduced in length. Vignes probably first described this entity as a dysplasia of the eyelids. Aside from small palpebral fissures, features include epicanthus inversus (folds curving in the mediolateral direction, inferior to the inner canthus), low nasal bridge, and ptosis of the eyelids. Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome, either accompanied with premature ovarian failure (BPES type I) or without (BPES type II), is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene. [read more]

  • Blepharospasm
    A blepharospasm is any abnormal tic or twitch of the eyelid. It generally refers to Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEP), a focal dystonia, in which a neurological movement disorder affects involuntary and sustained muscle contractions of the muscles around the eyes. Benign means that the condition is not life threatening and essential indicates that the cause of the condition is unknown. Fatigue, stress, or an irritant are possible contributing factors of the condition. Symptoms may sometimes last for a few days then disappear without treatment, but in most of the cases the twitching is chronic and persistent, causing lifelong challenges. The symptoms are often acute enough to result in functional blindness. The person's eyelids feel like they are clamping shut and will not open without much effort. Patients have normal eyes, but for periods of time are basically blind due to their inability to open their eyelids. [read more]

  • Blood Poisoning
    Bacteremia, or blood poisoning, is a medical condition in which bacteria has already contaminated the blood. This is a dangerous state since the bacteria carried by the blood can make damages to the body organs in which it is brought to. [read more]

  • Blood Pressure, Low
    Blood pressure, low (or low blood pressure) is the opposite of high blood pressure. Also known as hypotension, low blood pressure may not necessarily pose a health risk unless it is caused be an underlying medical condition. [read more]

  • Bloom Syndrome
    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectases and photosensitivity, deficiency in growth of prenatal onset, variable degrees of immunodeficiency, and increased susceptibility to neoplasms of many sites and types. The dermatologist David Bloom first described the syndrome in 1954. [read more]

  • Blount's Disease
    Blount's disease is a growth disorder involving the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg. [read more]

  • Blue Cone Monochromatism
    Blue cone monochromatism, also known as S-cone monochromacy, is a recessive disorder that is linked to the X-chromosome. The affected person's green and red cones are missing while the blue cone mechanism is dominant and functioning properly. Cases like these have been called incomplete achromatopsia, wherein color vision is only impaired and not wholly absent. [read more]

  • Blue Diaper Syndrome
    Blue diaper syndrome, also known as Drummond's Syndrome or Tryptophan Malabsorption, is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized in infants by bluish urine-stained diapers. It is a defect in the body's tryptophan absorption in which the urine contains abnormal indoles, giving it a blue color. It is inherited as an autosomal or most certainly recessive trait but could also be linked to the X-chromosome. [read more]

  • Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome
    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a syndrome characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with internal venous lesions, most commonly affecting the bowel. BRBNS is an important syndrome because of it has the potential to result in serious or fatal bleeding. [read more]

  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder that involves a distorted body image. It is generally diagnosed in those who are extremely critical of their self-image, despite the fact that there may be no noticeable disfigurement or defect on their physique. It is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with a real or imagined defect in one's physical appearance. People with this disorder have a distorted or exaggerated view of their physical appearance and are obsessed with actual external characteristics or perceived flaws, such as certain facial features or imperfections of their skin. They often think of themselves as disfigured or ugly. People with body dysmorphic disorder often have difficulties controlling negative thoughts concerning their appearance, even when others reassure them that they look fine and that the small or perceived flaws aren't excessive or obvious. [read more]

  • Body Lice
    Body lice, or rickets, are parasitic insects that thrive in the human body and eventually cause typhus. This was once a dreaded disease during World War I. [read more]

  • Body Odor and Sweating
    Body odor and sweating pertain to excessive perspiration that produces a foul-smelling smell emanating from the body. [read more]

  • Boil
    Boil (or furuncle) is a skin disease brought about by the inflammation of hair follicles, resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissue. Individual boils can group together and form an interconnected network of boils called carbuncles. In severe cases, boils may develop to form in what is known as abscesses. [read more]

  • Bone Cancer
    Bone Cancer is cancer originating in the bone and believed to be one of the rare types of cancer due to few reported incidence. There are different forms of bone cancer namely: osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma. Chondrosarcoma arise in the cartilage. Osteosarcoma occurs in growing bone tissue and Ewing's sarcoma starts in immature tissue of the bone marrow; occurring mostly in children and young individuals. [read more]

  • Bone Neoplasm
    Bone neoplasm, or bone cancer, is when new abnormal bone tissue grows due to excessive cellular division and proliferation. The bone tissue develops more rapidly than normal and continues to grow even after the stimuli that initiated it stops. This includes tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific bones. [read more]

  • Bone Spurs
    Bone spurs pertain to bony protrusions or projections around the edges of the bones. Also called osteophytes, bone spurs are not necessarily painful on their own but may rub against surrounding nerves and bones, thus causing pain. [read more]

  • Borderline Personality Disorder
    Borderline Personality Disorder is a devastating mental condition characterized by instability about personal perception in combination to difficulty in maintaining stable relationship usually manifested by unpredictable moods, extreme “black and white” thinking, fear of abandonment, and impulsive often self-injurious behavior. This condition results to troubles in relationships, long-range planning and self-identity. [read more]

  • Bordetella Pertussis
    Bordetella pertussis belongs to the genus Bordetella. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus which the main agent that causes whooping cough. [read more]

  • Borreliosis
    Borreliosis, also known as Lyme disease, is an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria from the genus Borrelia. The vector of infection is usually the bite of an infected black-legged or deer tick, but other carriers (including other ticks in the genus Ixodes) have been implicated. Borrelia burgdorferi is the leading cause of Lyme disease in the U.S. and Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are found in Europe. The disease presentation varies greatly, and may include a rash and flu-like symptoms in its initial stage, then musculoskeletal, neurologic, arthritic, psychiatric and cardiac manifestations. In a most of the cases, symptoms can be eliminated with antibiotics, especially if treatment begins early in the course of illness. Late or inadequate treatment often results to "late stage" Lyme disease that is disabling and difficult to treat. Controversy over diagnosis, testing and treatment has resulted to two different standards of care. [read more]

  • Bothriocephalosis
    Bothriocephalosis (also known as Diphyllobothriasis) is an infection with an intestinal parasite. The parasite is a fish tapeworm known as Diphyllobothrium latum. Human infection is caused by eating undercooked fish contaminated with the bacteria. Adult tapeworms may infect humans, felines, canids, pinnipeds, bears, and mustelids, though the accuracy of the records for some of the nonhuman species is disputed. Immature eggs are passed in the feces of the mammal host (the definitive host, where the worms reproduce). [read more]

  • Botulism
    Botulism (from the Latin word, botulus, meaning "sausage") is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulinic toxin is one of the most powerful known toxins: about one microgram is deadly to humans. It acts by blocking nerve function and leads to respiratory and musculoskeletal paralysis to the individual. [read more]

  • Bourneville's Disease
    Bourneville's disease (also known as Tuberous sclerosis) is characterized by facial lesions with tuberous sclerosis, first reported as adenoma sebaceum, but now recognised as angiofibromas. It produces tuberous sclerosis occurring in association with adenoma sebaceum. It is syndrome of epilepsy, severe mental retardation associated with adenoma sebaceum (overgrowth of the sebaceous glands) of the face, hamartomatous tumours of the heart and kidney, and cerebral cortical tubers (hence the name "tuberous sclerosis"). It is heredofamilial and usually shows itself early in life. Females are more often affected by this disease than males. Incomplete forms of the syndrome can manifest. Bourneville's disease is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity. [read more]

  • Bovine Tuberculosis
    Bovine TB is a disease that primarily attacks animals that can also be transmitted to humans through aerosols and intake of raw milk. This disease is common in under developed countries. [read more]

  • Bowen's Disease
    Bowen's disease (BD) is a skin disease induced by sunlight, considered either as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. [read more]

  • Brachial Plexus Injury
    Results when nerves connecting the arm and spinal cord get stretched and torn when the shoulder is pressed down forcefully while the head is pushed up away from the shoulder. [read more]

  • Brachydactyly
    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to shortening of the fingers or toes that results from the underdevelopment of the bones in the hands or feet. Brachydactyly is a medical term is literally meaning "shortness of the fingers and toes". The shortness is relative to the length of the individual's other long bones and other parts of the body. Brachydactyly is an inherited trait, usually dominat.. It most frequently occurs as an isolated dysmelia, but can also occur with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes. Brachydactyly is a general term that refers to disproportionately shortened fingers and toes. It can arise as an isolated finding, or be associated with a pattern of medical findings, called a syndrome. To date, many different forms of brachydactyly have been categorized. As a group, they always include extremely shortened tubular bones in the hands and feet. Some forms also lead to short stature, while others do not. The majority of types of isolated brachydactyly are passed on as autosomal dominant conditions. Radiographic studies (X-rays) can aid physicians differentiate between the different types of brachydactyly. [read more]

  • Bradykinesia
    In medicine (neurology), bradykinesia means "slow movement". Its etymology is brady = slow, kinesia = movement. It is a feature of several of diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the basal ganglia. Rather than being a slowness in initiation (related to hypokinesia) bradykinesia describes a slowness in the execution of movement. [read more]

  • Brain Aneurysm
    A brain aneurysm is characterized by the bulge in a brain's artery. The most One of the most common types of brain aneurysm resembles a round berry that is attached to the artery. Such aneurisms can usually go undetected since it has no symptoms for years and as long as it does not rupture, it poses no real threats. [read more]

  • Brain Aneurysm
    Brain aneurysm is characterized by a bulge forming in an artery of the brain, which may be tiny or large enough to put pressure on surrounding brain tissue. [read more]

  • Brain Attack
    Brain attack is a type of stroke that occurs from a drastic shortage of blood supply in the brain. Brain cells will commonly die in a matter of minutes. A brain attack is more commonly referred to as a stroke. [read more]

  • Brain Neoplasms
    Brain neoplasms are tumors of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are further divided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are categorized into benign and malignant forms. Generally, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain. [read more]

  • Brain Tumor
    Brain Tumor is an abnormal growth of harmful cells in the brain; classified as either primary or secondary. Primary brain tumors originate in the brain can be benign or malignant. Secondary brain tumor originated in any are of the body and spread to the brain. [read more]

  • Branchiootorenal Syndrome
    Branchiootorenal (BOR) syndrome is marked by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment; branchial fistulae and cysts; and renal malformations, ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. The presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality may be different from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family. Some individuals develop to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. The name branciootorenal syndrome describes the body systems most frequently affected by this genetic disorder. The term "branchio" refers to the abnormalities of the neck found in people affected with this syndrome. Cysts (lump or swelling that can be filled with fluid) and fistulas (abnormal passage from the throat to the skin) in the neck appear frequently. The term "oto" refers to the ear disorders that are associated with the syndrome. For example, the outer ear can be abnormal in appearance. Hearing loss is also commonly associated to the syndrome. Finally, the term "renal" stands for the kidney problems commonly found in patients with this condition. [read more]

  • Breakbone Fever
    Breakbone fever, also known as dengue fever, is an epidemic disease that causes internal hemorrhage. It has become a widespread epidemic in countries in Asia. [read more]

  • Breast Cancer
    Breast Cancer is a malignant tumor that originated from the cells of the breast and the disease, most women fear most. [read more]

  • Breast Infection
    Breast infection is an infection affecting the breast tissue of nursing mothers characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the breast. It is also alternatively known as mastitis. [read more]

  • Bright's Disease
    Bright's disease (also known as nephritis) is a historical classification of kidney diseases that is described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. The term is no longer in use, as diseases are now classified according to their more fully understood etiologies. It is typically characterized by the presence of serum albumin (blood plasma) in the urine, and frequently accompanied by edema (tissue particulate). Many people believe that too much protein consumption can lead to Bright's disease, but this is a spurious statement and is nothing but a myth. [read more]

  • Brittle Bone Disease
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, or sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. People with this disease are born without the proper protein (collagen), or the ability to make it, usually because of a deficiency of Type-I collagen. People with OI either have lesser collagen than normal or the quality is poorer than normal. As collagen is an important protein in bone structure, this impairment can result to those with the condition to have weak or fragile bones. As a genetic disorder, brittle bone disease is an autosomal dominant defect. Most people with OI inherit it from a parent but it can also be an individual (as in de novo or "sporadic") mutation. [read more]

  • Broken Hip
    A broken hip pertains to fractures in the hip bones usually occurring in older adults aged 65 and above. A broken hip is a potentially serious injury with life-threatening complications. [read more]

  • Broken Leg
    A broken leg is defined as a fracture or a crack in one of the leg bones. It is also alternatively known as a leg fracture. [read more]

  • Broken Nose
    A broken nose is characterized by a break, fracture, or crack in one or more bones found in the nose. The most commonly broken bone is the bone over the nose bridge. [read more]

  • Bronchial Asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a pulmonary inflammation wherein the air passages become narrow, causing incessant coughing, shortness of breath and wheezing. Severe asthma attacks can be fatal. [read more]

  • Bronchiectasis
    Bronchiectasis is a disease that results to localized, irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree. Involved bronchi are dilated, inflamed, and easily collapsible, leading to airflow obstruction and impaired clearance of secretions. Bronchiectasis is associated with a wide range of disorders, but it usually arises from necrotizing bacterial infections, such as infections caused by the Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species or Bordetella pertussis. [read more]

  • Bronchiolitis
    Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the small airways of the lungs, usually occurring in young children between three to six months of age. [read more]

  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (or BOOP) is the inflammation of the bronchioles and surrounding tissue in the lungs. BOOP is often the result of a pre-existing chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis. BOOP can also be a side effect of certain medicinal drugs, such as amiodarone. In cases where no cause is detected, the disease is called cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The clinical characteristics and radiological imaging resemble infectious pneumonia. However, diagnosis is suspected after there is no response to multiple antibiotics, and blood and sputum cultures are found to be negative for organisms. [read more]

  • Bronchitis
    Bronchitis is a condition that occurs when the inner walls lining the main airways of the lungs become inflamed; usually happening after a previous respiration infection like colds. [read more]

  • Bronchitis, Chronic
    Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation, or irritation, of the airways in the lungs. Airways are the tubes in the lungs where air passes through. They are also known as bronchial tubes. When the airways are irritated, thick mucus forms inside of them. The mucus plugs up the airways and makes it hard for the person to get air into your lungs. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a cough that produces mucus (sometimes called sputum), breathing difficulties, and a feeling of tightness in the chest. [read more]

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia involves the abnormal development of lung tissue. It is marked by inflammation and scarring in the lungs. It occurs most often in premature babies, who are born with underdeveloped lungs. "Broncho" is the name of the airways (the bronchial tubes) through which the oxygen we breathe travels into the lungs. "Pulmonary" refers to the lungs' tiny air sacs (alveoli), where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. "Dysplasia" means abnormal changes in the organization or structure of a group of cells. The cell changes in BPD occur in the smaller airways and lung alveoli, making breathing difficult and causing problems with lung function. [read more]

  • Bronze Diabetes
    Bronze diabetes, or hemachromatosis, is a kind of diabetes caused by an overload of iron deposits in the body tissues. Without treatment, iron overload may cause complications and eventually lead to organ failure. [read more]

  • Brown Syndrome
    Brown Syndrome is a rare eye disorder marked by defects in eye movements. This disorder may be present at birth (congenital) or may occur as the due to another underlying disorder (acquired). Muscles control eye movements and activities. Some of these muscles turn the eyeball up and down, move the eyeball from side to side, or let the eyeball to rotate slightly in its socket. The superior oblique tendon sheath of the superior oblique is the muscle that surrounds the eyeball. The symptoms of Brown Syndrome are due to abnormalities of this tendon sheath including shortening, thickening, or inflammation. This leads to the inability to move the affected eye upward. [read more]

  • Brown-Squard Syndrome
    Brown-S?quard syndrome, also known as Brown-S?quard's hemiplegia and Brown-S?quard's paralysis, is a loss of motricity (paralysis and ataxia) and sensation as a result of the lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. Other names for the syndrome are crossed hemiplegia, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis and spinal hemiparaplegia. It is an incomplete spinal cord lesion characterized by a clinical picture reflecting hemisection of the spinal cord, often in the cervical cord region. It was initially described in the 1840s after Dr. Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard sectioned one half of the spinal cord. It is a rare syndrome, made up of ipsilateral hemiplegia with contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits because of the crossing of the fibers of the spinothalamic tract. [read more]

  • Brucellosis
    Brucellosis, also known as undulant fever, undulating fever, or Malta fever, is a zoonosis (infectious disease transmitted from animals to humans) caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. It is generally a disease of domestic animals (goats, pigs, cattle, dogs, etc) and humans and has a worldwide distribution, mostly now in developing countries. [read more]

  • Brugada Syndrome
    The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is marked by abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. It is also known as Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome (SUDS), and is the most commonly found cause of sudden death in young men without known underlying cardiac disease in Thailand and Laos. Although the ECG findings of Brugada syndrome were first reported among survivors of cardiac arrest in 1989, it was only in 1992 that the Brugada brothers recognised it as a distinct clinical entity, causing sudden death by resulting to ventricular fibrillation (a lethal arrhythmia) in the heart. [read more]

  • Bruton Agammaglobulinemia
    Bruton agammaglobulinemia was the first immunodeficiency disease to be described. Colonel Ogden Bruton noted in 1952 the absence of immunoglobulins in a young male with a history of pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections. Bruton was also the first physician to furnish specific immunotherapy for this X-linked disorder by administering intramuscular injections of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The patient improved but died of chronic pulmonary disease in his fourth decade of life. This disorder is now formally known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and the gene defect has been mapped to the gene that codes for Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) at band Xq21.3. The BTK gene is big and consists of 19 exons that encode the 659 amino acids that form the Btk cytosolic tyrosine kinase. Mutations can happen in any area of the gene. Btk is needed for the proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes. In the absence of working Btk, mature B cells that express surface immunoglobulin and the marker CD19 are few to absent. The lack of CD19 is readily detected with fluorocytometric assays, and this finding usually easily confirms the diagnosis of XLA in a male. As Bruton originally described, XLA shows itself as pneumonias and other bacterial sinopulmonary infections in 80% of cases. Such infections that start in male infants as maternal IgG antibodies, acquired transplacentally, are lost. Thus, XLA is most often diagnosed when unusually severe or recurrent sinopulmonary infections occur in a male infant younger than 1 year. [read more]

  • Bruxism
    Bruxism is the medical term used in referring to gnashing, grinding or clenching of teeth; usually affecting children and adults alike. Individuals with bruxism clench teeth at daytime usually when anxious or stressed. Long-term bruxism leads to unpleasant conditions such as jaw problems, damaged teeth, and headache. [read more]

  • Bubonic Plague
    The bubonic plague, also known as bubonic fever, is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). The epidemiological use of the term “plague” is currently applied to bacterial infections that cause buboes, although historically the medical use this term has been applied to pandemic infections in general. [read more]

  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome
    In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture resulted from occlusion of the hepatic vein or inferior vena cava. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly. Some examples of occlusion include thrombosis of hepatic veins and membranous webs in the inferior vena cava. The syndrome can be acute, fulminant, chronic, or asymptomatic. It takes place in 1 out of 100,000 individuals and is more common in females. Some 10-20% also have a sort of obstruction of the portal vein. [read more]

  • Buerger's Disease
    Buerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a rare disease of the arteries and veins in the arms and legs. Buerger's disease is marked by a combination of inflammation and clots in the blood vessels, which impairs blood flow. This eventually causes damage or destroys tissues and may lead to infection and gangrene. Buerger's disease typically begins in the hands and feet and may progress to affect larger areas of the limbs. Buerger's disease is uncommon in the United States, but is more common in the Middle East and Far East. Buerger's disease most commonly affects males between ages 20 and 40, though it's becoming more common in women. Basically everyone diagnosed with Buerger's disease smokes cigarettes or uses other forms of tobacco. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger's disease from developing. For those who don't quit, amputation of all or part of a limb may ultimately be required. [read more]

  • Bulging Disks
    A bulging disk is a medical condition in which the lower back area suffers intense pain when a disk enters a crevice in the spine. Disks are the soft tissues that serve as cushions of the spine. [read more]

  • Bundle Branch Block
    Bundle branch block pertains to an obstruction or delay in the electrical impulse pathway that causes the heart to beat. [read more]

  • Bunions
    Bunions pertain to abnormal bony bumps that grow on the joint at the base of the big toe, causing the latter to enlarge. [read more]

  • Bunyavirus
    Bunyavirus is a type of virus which causes infection that results damage to the various organs of the person due to a viral infection carried by the Bunyaviridae which may be passed by mosquito bites. [read more]

  • Bursitis
    Bursitis pertains to a painful inflammation of the bursae (small, fluid-filled sacs that lubricate pressure points) that often results from repetitive stress on the body's joints. [read more]

  • Bursitis Of The Hip
    Bursitis of the hip is the inflammation of the bursas in the hip bone or femur. Bursas are sacs that act as cushions to prevent friction among joints. Bursitis is commonly experienced in the shoulders as well as other joint areas. [read more]

  • Bursitis of the Knee
    Bursitis of the knee is a condition characterized by inflammation of a bursa (tiny fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between moving parts of the knee) located near the knee joint. [read more]

  • BURSITIS, CALCIFIC
    Calcific bursitis is the extreme inflammation of the joints due to calcification of the bones. Among the commonly affected areas are shoulders, hips, and calves. Tendons in these areas are likewise prone to damages. [read more]

  • Byssinosis
    Byssinosis is more popularly as “brown lung", which is categorized as an occupational lung disease mainly caused by direct exposure and inhalation of cotton dust in some inadequately ventilated production site and working environment. Byssinosis is more common among factory workers employed in fabric and yarn manufacturing companies. This condition results to the narrowing of the lung's trachea and possible destruction of the lung tissue that can ultimately lead to respiratory failure. [read more]

  • C Syndrome
    C syndrome is also known by another medical term opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, which is categorized as a very rare disorder typically transmitted as a result of a "gonadal mosaicism". This condition is present in people with different cells in its genetic makeup, usually with the number of chromosomes. The affected people are usually corn with some malformation of the head that typically displays a triangular shape which is largely due to the premature union of bones of the skull. Learning and developmental disabilities are also common in people with C syndrome. [read more]

  • CADASIL
    CADASIL, which stands for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortial artifacts and leukoencephalopathy, is a type of inherited stroke disorder, usually attacks persons aged 30-50 years old. The disease is fatal, as patients usually die around 12 years after symptoms show. The disease affects the brain's small blood vessels. CADASIL also causes an abnormality in the muscle cells around the small blood vessels, called the vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to the destruction of the blood vessel cells. Patients typically have one parent who has CADASIL; as one copy of the gene is enough to cause the condition. [read more]

  • Cafe au lait spots
    Cafe au lait spots are generally birthmarks that are characterized by some brown cutaneous macules which are usually evident at birth and may strongly suggest possibility of Albright's syndrome or neurofibromatosis. The color of the birthmark may vary from dark to light brown with some irregular or smooth borders. Sizes of the spot can also vary and may possibly enlarge as the child grows. [read more]

  • Caffey's Disease
    Caffey's Disease is also known as infantile cortical hyperostosis, which is a very rare form of disease that is characterized by the abnormal thickening of certain bones in the body such as the long bone shafts and mandible. [read more]

  • Calcification
    Calcification is a condition where there is a building up of calcium in the soft tissue causing said tissue to harden [read more]

  • Calcinosis
    Calcinosis is a medical condition whereby there is a formation of calcium phosphates deposits in any soft tissue of the body. [read more]

  • Calciphylaxis
    Calciphylaxis is a highly morbid syndrome of vascular calcification and skin necrosis that is poorly understood. Mostly seen exclusively in patients with end stage renal disease, Caciphylaxis results in chronic non-healing wounds and requires parathyroidectomy and hyperbaric therapy. Considered as a rare but serious disease, calciphylaxis is a type of extraskeletal calcification that is similar to those observed among patients with hypercalcaemic states such as those with milk alkali syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and hypervitamino sis D. [read more]

  • Campylobacter Infection
    Campylobacteriosis is an infection caused by the bacteria campylobacter or most commonly known as C. jejuni. Considered as among the most common human bacterial infections, it can be transmitted in several ways such as fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact and ingestion of contaminated food or water. When infected with the bacteria, an inflammatory and sometimes bloody diarrhea or dysentery syndrome may be experienced. It may include cramps, fever and pain. Campyolabacteriosis is usually self-limiting. [read more]

  • Canavan leukodystrophy
    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that is the most common cerebral degenerative disease of infancy. The disease causes progressive damage to the brain's nerve cells. It is also a gene-linked, neurological birth disorder, wherein the white matter of the brain disintegrate into spongy tissue puzzled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. The disease belongs to a group of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies, which are characterized by the degeneration of myelin. Myelin is an electrically insulating dielectric covering the phospholipids layer of neuron insulating the axon. Canavan disease hinders the body's normal production of myelin. Called the central nervous system's “white matter,” this fatty membrane ensures that nerve impulses are properly transmitted. [read more]

  • Candidiasis
    Commonly called yeast infection or thrush, candidiasis is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species. The most common Candida specie is Candida albicans. Candidiasis includes infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. The latter belongs to a category called candidemia are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons. These include persons with cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients. [read more]

  • Canine distempers
    Canine distempers are a highly contagious disease that primarily affects dogs and other types of carnivores. This medical condition is still considered reasonably common despite decades of vaccinations. The severity of this disease can vary from mild to seriously fatal. [read more]

  • Canker Sores
    Canker Sores are small, superficial and painful lesions, which usually develop on the soft tissues of the mouth (under the tongue, inside cheeks or lips, and at the base of the gums). Canker sores are presented as either round or oval with a white border and white or yellow center. [read more]

  • Caplan's syndrome
    It is also referred to as Caplan's disease it is a combined disease of rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis which shows as intrapulmonary nodules that appear homogenous and visible with the use of chest X-ray. Patients suffering from this disease have a scar and swelled lungs and they might have also been exposed to coal dust. [read more]

  • Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome
    It is a medical condition that is an unusual genetic metabolic disorder where in the where malfunctioning carbohydrate compounds are connected to glycoproteins and results to damaged glycoprotein function. Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome involves a defect in the phosphomannomutase enzyme and involves most body systems in particular the nervous system and the function of the liver. [read more]

  • Carcinoid syndrome
    Carcinoid syndrome points to the collection of symptoms that happen next to carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid tumors happen together along with gastrointestinal tract (GI) that are distinct, colored yellow and well-circumscribed tumors. The tumors usually affect the ileum, appendix and rectum and it is usually distinctive and endocrine in nature. The tumors produce hormones into the blood stream that go through to the end organs and operates then by proper receptors. Though it fairly unusual, out of 15 cases per 1,000,000 population carcinoid tumors report for 75% of GI endocrine tumors. [read more]

  • Carcinoid Tumors
    Carcinoid tumors pertain to rare growths of potentially cancerous masses in several areas of the body. They most commonly occur in the lungs and in the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and colon. [read more]

  • Carcinoma, squamous cell
    Carcinoma, squamous cell is a type of cancer of the carcinoma that may happen in several diverse organs which includes the skin, mouth, lips, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostrate, lungs and cervix. It is a nasty squamous epithelium, epithelium that presents differentiation in squamous cell. [read more]

  • Cardiac amyloidosis
    Cardiac amyloidosis is a medical condition that is a type of amyloidosis the reason of which is because of the deposits of an amyloid protein in the heart tissue that results to the reduced function of the heart. [read more]

  • Cardiac arrest
    Cardiac arrest is also recognized as cardiorespiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest and it is the sudden stop of normal flow of the blood because of the failure of the heart to contract efficiently during systole. Cardiac arrest varies from a heart attack or myocardial infarction where in the flow of blood to the still-beating heart is sporadic. The prevention of oxygen to be supplied to all parts of the body is referred to as "Arrested" blood circulation. [read more]

  • Cardiac tamponade
    Cardiac tamponade, is also known by another medical term as pericardial tamponade, which is characterized as an emergency condition where fluid accumulates in the sac that encloses the heart. The accumulation of the fluid can significantly elevate the heart's pressure and can ultimately lead to shock and possible death if without any medical intervention. [read more]

  • Carnitine Transporter Deficiency
    Carnitine transporter deficiency is a hereditary carnitine deficiency, which is a result of defective proteins. These proteins are called carnitine transporters. These transporters are responsible for carrying carnitine to wherever it's needed in the body, and prevents it from being excreted. With the deficiency, carnitine is released through urine. Illness or fasting may trigger severe attack. [read more]

  • Carnitine-Acylcarnitine Translocase Deficiency
    Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency is an uncommon fatty-acid oxidation disorder, which stops the body from transforming essential fatty acids to energy. Carnitine is generally acquired through one's diet, and is utilized by body cells in processing fats and producing energy. Individuals with this kind of deficiency have defective enzyme, preventing the transportation of fatty acids into the mitochondria's innermost part for processing. [read more]

  • Caroli Disease
    Caroli disease is categorized as an uncommon congenital disease that involves the cystic dilatation of the liver's intrahepatic bile ducts. It has two types, known as Simple Caroli disease and Complex Caroli disease. The first type is characterized by ectasia or dilatation of bile ducts, while the latter includes the presence of portal hypertension and hepatic fibrosis besides ectasia. [read more]

  • Carotenemia
    Carotenemia is a condition of excess beta-carotene in one's blood. It's common and generally harmless in infants, usually appearing when they start eating solids. Ingestion of too much beta-carotene containing foods, deposits the carotene in one's skin adding yellow color to it. While the condition is not dangerous, it may lead to mistaken analysis of jaundice. [read more]

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition wherein the carpal tunnel's median nerve is pinched or entrapped due to swelling tendons or nerve or both. Carpal tunnel safeguards the major nerve to the hand, as well as the nine tendons responsible for bending the fingers. When pressure is placed on this major nerve, it causes pain, muscle weakness, and paresthesias in the hand and forearm. [read more]

  • Carpenter Syndrome
    Carpenter syndrome is classified as a very rare or uncommon genetic disorder, distinguished through premature closure of skull bones, growth retardation, heart defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and other health disorders. It is usually manifests at/or shortly following birth. [read more]

  • Castleman's Disease
    Castleman's disease is considered an uncommon illness affecting the lymph nodes and the body's immune-cell structures. The disease is categorized as lymphoproliferative disorder; meaning it involves overgrowth or proliferation of the lymphatic cells. While it's similar to lymphatic system cancers in many ways, Castleman's disease is non-cancerous. It has two types: Unicentric that involves one site of tissue growths, and Multicentric involving multiple sites of growths. [read more]

  • Cat Eye Syndrome
    Cat Eye syndrome is a very uncommon chromosomal disorder relating to chromosome 22 genetic abnormalities. The syndrome affects the eyes' appearance, and can be apparent at birth. Its name is derived from the distinctive eye abnormality present in affected individuals. This characteristic consists of the partial lack of coloboma or ocular tissue, which often affects both eyes. [read more]

  • Catatonic Schizophrenia
    Catatonic schizophrenia is a subtype of chronic mental illness known as schizophrenia, which is characterized by altered perception of reality, behavior, and thinking. Patients with catatonic schizophrenia are typically extremely inactive or display minimal movements that seem disconnected from their surroundings. These episodes, known as catatonic episodes, may last for mere minutes or as long as a few hours. [read more]

  • CATCH 22 Syndrome
    CATCH 22 syndrome comprises an extensive range of developmental defects linked to microdeletions of chromosomal area 22q11.2. More known examples of CATCH 22 phenotype are Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, and Opitz GBBB syndrome. The acronym CATCH 22 summarizes the major medical features of the 22q11.2 deletions. [read more]

  • Catel Manzke Syndrome
    Catel Manzke syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder combining glossoptosis, cleft palate, and micrognathia with an abnormality of the index fingers. Apart from the major features, there are also several related malformations described, particularly growth retardation and cardiac defect. [read more]

  • Causalgia
    Causalgia is defined as a chronic pain disease that typically affects the leg or arm. It is characterized by reduced motion range of the hand and shoulder of an affected arm. In rare cases, it can involve other parts of the body. [read more]

  • Cavernous Hemangioma
    Cavernous hemangioma is a harmless propagation of the blood vessels, wherein there is a formation of a tumor-like mass of blood vessels in the internal organs or the skin. This vascular tumor is composed of huge quantity of blood. The usual “superficial” lesions have dark to bright red color; lesions that are deep are blue in color. This condition extends more intensely than capillary hemangioma, so spontaneous regression is less likely. [read more]

  • Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a condition wherein there is formation of blood clot made up of fibrin and platelets in the brain's cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus is found at the brain's base and contains several nerves, other structures, and a vein. This vein transports deoxygenated blood from face and brain then back to the heart. Associated conditions are craniocerebral trauma, thrombophilia, and infections of paranasal sinuses and contiguous structures. [read more]

  • Celiac Disease
    Celiac disease pertains to a digestive disorder set off by consumption of gluten, a type of protein that can be found in pasta, bread, pizza crust, cookies, and other food products that contain barley, wheat or rye. [read more]

  • Celiac sprue
    Genetics plays a significant role when it comes to the diseases we get or do not get in our lifetime. Among those that are determined by genetics, is celiac sprue, which affects the autoimmunity of the small bowel. Research has shown that an estimated 1% of patients come from Indo-European origins, although the disease still remains to be largely underdiagnosed. [read more]

  • Cellulite
    Cellulite is unsightly fat visible on the skin. Cellulite is dimpled in appearance and can be typically seen on the hips, thighs, and buttocks of women. [read more]

  • Cenani Lenz Syndactylism
    Cenani Lenz syndactylism is a hereditary malformation syndrome that involves both the lower and upper extremity. It's an uncommon birth defect that's characterized by a variety of bone abnormalities. The syndrome was named after two medical geneticists; Turkish geneticist Asim Cenani, and German geneticist Widukind Lenz. [read more]

  • Central diabetes insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is one of the two types of diabetes. The disease causes those afflicted to have extremely diluted urine, a result of a hormone deficiency vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone. The condition disables the function of the kidneys to produce concentrated urine. Because of the excessive excretion of urine, people with central diabetes insipidus also show symptoms of extreme thirst for cold water. Dehydration is also a common symptom, since the body is unable to store water. The urine of patients also do not contain any glucose. In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus also causes blurred vision. Adults should be able to drink enough water to make up for the loss during extreme urination in order to keep healthy and live with the disease. Children who suffer from central diabetes insipidus show more drastic symptoms, such as diarrhea, fever, and vomiting. The disease also affects the child's growth, appetite, and eating functions. The disease may also occur gestationally, when women get pregnant but it disappears after labor. For one to be diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus, a number of tests are done concerning the blood glucose, calcium, and bicarbonate levels are conducted. Urinalysis is also conducted to determine the levels of electrolytes and urine osmolality, in which a person positive with central diabetes insipidus would have low results for both. An important tool in determining the cause of central diabetes insipidus is the fluid deprivation test. The disease can be caused by one of three factors: excessive liquid consumption, a disability in the production of the antidiuretic hormone, or if the cause lies in the kidney's reaction to the antidiuretic hormone. The test also makes use of a desmopressin stimulation to help in determining the main cause for the patient's condition. Should the patient be suspected of having central diabetes insipidus, further hormone testing of the pituitary is done. A magnetic resonance imagine, or MRI, is also conducted to determine what process is influencing the functions of the pituitary. Patients, including those with gestational cases, who are tested positive of central diabetes insipidus are treated with desmopressin. Those who develop gestational diabetes may also acquire the disease in their other pregnancies. For those who are diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the desmopressin treatment will not be effective. [read more]

  • Central Diabetes Insipidus
    Central diabetes insipidus is the body's deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, causing too much production of extremely dilute urine. It is uncommon, and involves intense thirst and over urination. The condition indicates the kidney's inability to balance urine concentration. [read more]

  • Central Pontine Myelinolysis
    Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurological condition caused by damages incurred by the pons, the myelin sheath wherein the nerve cells in the brainstem are located. [read more]

  • Central serous chorioretinopathy
    Central serous chorioretinopathy is a condition of the eye wherein the central macula leaks fluid from the choriocapillaris, resulting in blurry vision. The word serous means serum, which is thin and watery-like in texture. The blurry vision is called metamorphopsia. Sometimes the patients see gray or blind spots, as well as occurring photopsia, or flashes of light. [read more]

  • Central Sleep Apnea
    Central sleep apnea is a condition characterized by breathing disturbances in sleep, often as a result of respirator weakness. [read more]

  • Centronuclear myopathy
    Centronuclear myopathy belongs to a group of rare diseases called congenital myopathies. Congenital myopathies are conditions wherein the cell's nuclei is located within the skeletal muscle cells, an abnormal condition. Normally, the nuclei would be positioned in the periphery of the cell, but with centronuclear myopathy the nuclei is in the center, hence the name. [read more]

  • Ceramidase deficiency
    Ceramidase deficiency, also known as Farber's Disease, is a group of genetically predisposed metabolic diseases named lipid storage diseases. The diseases characterize a condition wherein excessive amounts of lipids, such as fatty acids, oils, and other related substances, accumulate to harmful levels in the central nervous system, tissues, and joints. This may also affect the liver, heart, and kidneys. Ceramidase deficiency occurs in children when both parents have the protein-regulating gene sphingomyelin. Their children have a 25% chance of acquiring the disease, and a 50% chance of bearing the gene. [read more]

  • Cercarial Dermatitis
    Cercarial dermatitis is a skin condition characterized by an itchy rash caused by certain parasites. It is also commonly referred to as “swimmer' itch”. [read more]

  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition that affects the small blood vessels of the brain, wherein the amyloid protein associated with the Alzheimer's disease is deposited in the vessel walls. This may result in brain diseases such as dementia, brain hemorrhage, and stroke. Patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy are usually older than 65 years old, although it may also occur in those who are around 45 years of age. The disease prevalence increases with age, and equally affects both men and women. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is responsible for 5-20% of brain hemorrhage occurrences, and 30% of lobar hemorrhage. [read more]

  • Cerebral aneurism
    A cerebral aneurism occurs when the cerebral artery's wall weakens, causing the blood vessel to balloon abnormally and be filled with blood. This aneurism may put pressure on the tissue surrounding the brain, or the nearby nerves; it can also result in a rupture, called a brain hemorrhage. These can occur anywhere in the brain, but usually in the under part of the brain by the skull's base known as the Circle of Willis. When cerebral aneurisms are very small, they can go on without causing any problems. [read more]

  • Cerebral hypoxia
    Cerebral hypoxia occurs when the brain cannot get sufficient oxygen supply. Four classifications divide the other forms of cerebral hypoxia. A milder form of the disease is known as diffuse cerebral hypoxia, wherein brain impairment occurs due to low blood oxygen levels. Focal cerebral ischema is a localized reduction in the transport of oxygen from the blood to the brain. Mild strokes may occur, and the neuron damage in this case is irreversible. Cerebral infarction occurs when the oxygen flow from blood to a part of the brain is completely stopped, causing significant and irreversible brain damage. Global cerebral ischema is the last category, wherein the blood completely stops flowing to the brain. [read more]

  • Cerebral palsy
    Cerebral palsy is a group of diseases that are non-progressive and non-contagious. The word cerebral refers to the cerebrum, and palsy means disorder of movement. Cerebral palsy is characterized by damaged motor control centers in the brains of young children. The brain damage that occurs does not worsen over time, although orthopedic difficulties may accompany the condition. There are 4 common classifications of cerebral palsy according to the damaged area of the brain. These are spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, ataxic, and mixed. Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type, and this type of cerebral palsy affects the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, or pyramidal tract, which leads to neuromuscular conditions. Patients with this type of CP also are hypertonic. Athetoid or dyskinetic type of CP have mixed muscle tone, and have either hypertonia or hypotonia. Ataxia, the least most common type of cerebral palsy, is characterized by tremors, hypotonia, and possibly some difficulties with motor skills. [read more]

  • Cerebrohepatorenal Syndrome
    Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by the lack of peroxisomes, the cell structures that remove toxic substances from the body. Peroxisomes are found in the kidneys, liver and brain. [read more]

  • Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis
    Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare metabolic disease that affects the body's lipid storage system. [read more]

  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal
    Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal is also known as Batten Disease and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. The name constitutes a family of 8 or more different neurodegenerative disorders which occur when lipopigments called lipofuscin, accumulate in the body's tissues. Fats and proteins make up the lipopigments, and they can accumulate in cells of body parts including the brain, eyes, muscle, and skin. The disease is quite rare, although they can occur in more than one member in a family if they possess the defective gene. The disorder is autosomal recessive in nature; meaning that if a child acquires the disease, both his parents have the defective gene. Parents who carry one defective gene result in each child having a one in four chance of inheriting the disease. Each of them also has a one in two chance of inheriting a copy of the gene. In adults, the CLN may be autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant form of the disease. [read more]

  • Cerumen Impaction
    Cerumen impaction pertains to an abnormal accumulation of earwax in the external ear canal. The earwax becomes too tightly packed to the point of causing an obstruction in the said canal. [read more]

  • Cervical Dystonia
    Cervical dystonia pertains to a painful condition characterized by involuntary contraction of neck muscles, which cause the head to twist or turn to one side. Cervical dystonia is also referred to as torticollis or spasmodic torticollis. [read more]

  • Cervical Osteoarthritis
    Cervical osteoarthritis also known as cervical spondylosis is the deterioration of the bones and cartilage of the backbone and neck. The condition sometimes leads to the formation of bone spurs or irregular bony outgrowths. [read more]

  • Cervicitis
    It is an inflammation of the cervix. [read more]

  • Chaotic Atrial Tachycardia
    Chaotic Atrial Tachycardia, also known as Multifocal Atrial Tachycaridia is a disorder characterized by abnormal rapid heart rate. The fast heart rate occurs when too much electrical impulses flow to the different chambers of the heart, making it function faster than normal. It is as well linked to other heart disorders such as atrial fibrillation. This heart disorder produces a rhythm of varying P-wave morphology at irregular PP intervals. The heart rate is usually between 100 and 140 beats per minute, but in a Chronic Atrial Tachycardia, multiple locations within the atria rev up and initiate electrical impulses. These impulses are sent to the ventricles, leading to a faster heart rate from 100 to 250 beats per minute. This very fast rate then increases the heart's workload. Chronic Atrial Tachycardia is common in elderly patients especially those with pre-existing health problems and COPD. [read more]

  • Charcot Disease
    Charcot's Disease, or more commonly known as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the gradual death of motor neurons which control muscle movement. This illness usually causes muscle weakness and progressive atrophy, making the person lose his ablity to make voluntary movements in all parts of his body except for his eyes. Eventually the disease can lead to dementia and death. [read more]

  • Charcot Marie Tooth Disease
    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited heterogeneous disease characterized by the death of muscle tissue and loss of touch sensation. It usually attacks the legs and feet but also triggers the arms and hands as the disease progresses. It is also known as Peroneal Muscular Atrophy or Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy, and is incurable at present. The disease is named after scientists who took the effort to do research on it, Jean-Martin Charcot and his student Pierre Marie, as well as Howard Henry Tooth. [read more]

  • CHARGE Syndrome
    CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder which consists of a set of congenital defects on newborn babies. It was first discovered in 1979 and the acronym was coined in 1981. The acronym CHARGE stands for Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the nasal choanae, Retardation of growth, Genital abnormalities and Ear problems. [read more]

  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an inherited disease that attacks the nervous and immune systems which results to pale-colored eyes, hair and skin. [read more]

  • Chemophobia
    Chemophobia literally means a fear of chemicals. It is a fully-developed psychological fear of chemical substances due to pre-existing beliefs and hearsays about the negative effects of chemicals to one's body. However, some experts do not consider chemophobia as a psychological condition, but rather a term marketing analysts and advertisers coined in order to widen the market of the products they are selling. [read more]

  • Chen Kung Ho McAlister Syndrome
    The Chen Kung Ho Kaufman McAlister Syndrome is a congenital defect where children are born with micrognathia, Wormian bones, cleft palate, congenital heart disease, dislocated hips, preaxial polydactyly of the feet, bowed fibulae, missing tibia and abormal skin patterns. It is a rare disease with an unknown etiology. The syndrome was first described in 1975 by Chen-Kung Ho, RL Kaufman and WH McAlister at the Washington University. [read more]

  • Cherubism
    Cherubism is a genetic defect which consists of the protruding bone tissue at the lower part of the face, particularly at the jaws. At the beginning of one's childhood, his upper and lower jaw grow at an abnormal rate and will soon be replaced by cyst-like bones. Because of this sudden enlargement of the jaws, the person's cheeks become swollen and rounded just like that of a cherubim, and will soon face problems with tooth growth. The condition varies among people; some cases of cherubism are quite mild and in fact unnoticeable, but in others the defect is so severe they even encounter difficulties in chewing, talking and seeing. However, these growths become replaced by normal bones as the children enter adulthood, and they will soon have a normal appearance as they reach maturity. [read more]

  • Chest Pain
    It is a sudden feeling of pain in the chest. [read more]

  • Chest Wall Pain
    Chest wall pain is also referred to as costosternal syndrome, costosternal chondrodynia, or costochondritis. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Chiari Malformation
    Chiari malformation is the displacement of brain tissue into the spinal canal. [read more]

  • Chikungunya
    Chikungunya is a rare viral fever spread by mosquitoes that contain an alphavirus. Its name comes from a Makonde word that literally means 'that which bends up', as the arthritic symptoms of the disease result to a stooped posture on the patient. It was first discovered in 1955 after 1952 outbreak along the Makonde Plateau, which is located in between Tanganyika and Mozambique. [read more]

  • Childhood disintegrative disorder
    Childhood disintegrative disorder or CDD is a condition that consists of a child's delayed development in social function, motor skills and language. It is also known as disintegrative psychosis or Heller's syndrome. It is similar to autism, but normal development is first seen before a sudden regression occurs. It is not easy to detect CDD on children during its early stages; the disorder would only be obvious when the child starts to lose his language skills. Some children seem to react to seizures and hallucinations, much to the surprise of their parents. This is often described as a devastating condition, since it affects the family's future. Child disintegrative disorder was first described by Thomas Heller in 1908. [read more]

  • Childhood Leukemia
    Childhood leukemia is one of the most common cancers that affect children. In this cancer, white blood cells dominate the bone marrow, wherein the red blood cells are produced. The lack of red blood cells in the body is life-threatening since it is the main factor that makes up the blood. This is a well-known cause of death when the disease is not treated. [read more]

  • Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome
    Childhood nephrotic syndrome is an illness characterized by the kidney's loss of protein in the urine. The condition then causes the blood protein to decrease allowing water movement into the tissues of the body resulting to edema or swelling usually around the eyes, belly, and legs. Children doen't go to the bathroom and gain weight because of the swelling. [read more]

  • Chinese Restaurant Syndrome
    The Chinese restaurant syndrome is a collection of ailments experienced by a person due to the lack of Vitamin B6. Some of these ailments include flushing, sweating, headache and pressure on the face or mouth. Most people believe that this syndrome is caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG), but scientific research has found no link between the two. [read more]

  • Chlamydia
    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria. A common STD, Chlamydia can cause serious complications which may lead to damages in the female reproductive organs. It can also bring forth permanent problems such as infertility in both males and females. This disease is regarded to be a “silent killer” because around 75% of infected people notice no symptoms. If the signs do surface, these are usually noticed a few weeks after the disease is acquired. [read more]

  • Cholangiocarcinoma
    Cholangiocarcinoma is a kind of cancer affecting the bile ducts. It is a rare form of cancer linked with other diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, congenital liver dysfunction, and infection with liver flukes. [read more]

  • Cholecystitis
    Cholecystitis is a disease characterized by the inflammation of the gall bladder. It is mainly caused by gallstones or choleliths which block the cystic duct. The blocking of the bile ducts leads to complications such as bile stasis, inspissation of the bile, and infection done by gut organisms. The disease takes place when the gall bladder's wall becomes swollen. Sometimes this inflammation may develop into necrosis and damage other structures such as the bowel and diaphragm. [read more]

  • Cholelithiasis
    Cholelithiasis is the process of forming gallstones or choleliths in the body through accretion of bile components. They can develop anywhere in the biliary area such as a gallbladder and the bile duct. Once the bile duct becomes affected by this process it can cause choledocholithiasis, while obstruction of the biliary tree can lead to jaundice. The gallstones can also reach the pancreas, thus resulting to pancreatitis. [read more]

  • Cholera
    Cholera is a contagious kind of gastroenteritis caused by a bacterium named Vibrio cholerae. It is transmitted to humans via contaminated food or water. The cholera-causing bacterium produces an enterotoxin that obstructs the small intestine leading to diarrhea. Cholera is one of most fatal diseases in history, and it can transform a healthy person into a hypotensive one in a matter of hours. When not treated immediately, patients may die from the disease within three hours after diagnosis. [read more]

  • Chondrocalcinosis
    Chondrocalcinosis is a kind of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is rheumatologic condition due to the development of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the tissues. [read more]

  • Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis
    A painful inflammatory condition affecting the ear is called chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis (CNH) or it is sometimes called Winkler disease. Often seen in middle-aged or elderly men but may also affect women and younger adults, CNH results in a benign tender lump in the cartilaginous portion of the ear. [read more]

  • Chondrodystrophy
    Chondrodystrophy is a skeletal disorder caused by several genetic mutations that affect cartilage formation. It is characterized by a normal-sized body trunk but with shortened extremeties and limbs. People in this condition are often referred to as dwarves, and almost 1 out of 25,000 children is born with this disorder. In a normal cartilage development, hyaline cartilage covers the long bones as well as the spinal cord, and the limbs grow at the end of the long bones. The cartilage then develops into bone joints, but for a person with chondrodystrophy, this process would not happen and would lead to skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Chondroectodermal dysplasia
    Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a kind of skeletal dysplasia caused by a genetic disorder. [read more]

  • Chondromalacia Patella
    Chondromalacia patella is a condition indicating damage to the cartilage under the kneecap. It is also referred to as patellofemoral pain. [read more]

  • Chondrosarcoma
    Chondrosarcoma is a kind of bone cancer that comes from the cartilage tissue. It affects mostly the pelvic area, femur, arm, humerus, ribs and spine. [read more]

  • Chordoma
    Chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm originating from the cellular sheddings of the notochord. The tumor thrives along the neuroaxis, and is commonly found at clivus and sacrum areas. It has three histological variants namely, classical, dedifferentiated, and chondroid. [read more]

  • Chorea
    Chorea refers to an involuntary movement abnormality, a neurological disorder under the group dyskinesias. It is characterized by the sudden movements of the hands or feet without being controlled. [read more]

  • Choriocarcinoma
    Choriocarcinoma is a kind of malignant cancer under the group of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). This cancer targets the placenta, and commonly attacks women, rather than men. [read more]

  • Chorioretinitis
    Choriorentinitis is an inflammatory illness involving the eye's retinal vessels. It is caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infections. When not treated, choriorentinitis may completely damage the retina and cause poor visions for the person with the said disease. [read more]

  • Chromhidrosis
    Chromhidrosis is a chemical condition in which a person secretes colored sweat. There are two kinds of sweat glands, the eccrine glands which produce clear fluid and works to control body temperature; and apocrine glands thich secrete milky sweat that becomes the cause of body odor. [read more]

  • Chromosome 15q trisomy
    Chromosome 15q trisomy is genetic disorder wherein the end of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q) appears thrice instead of only twice in the body cells. This results to growth delays either before or after birth as well as mental retardation and malformations in the head and face. Other abnormalities are a short neck, disfigured fingers or toes, scoliosis and other skeletal malformations. Males with this condition suffer from genital problems, and cardiac illnesses. In most cases, Chromosome 15q trisomy is a result of a translocation of chromosome balance in one of the parents. [read more]

  • Chromosome 22 microdeletion 22q11
    Chromosome 22, microdeletion q11 syndrome, also known as Di George Syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome and Strong syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small part in chromosome 22 and occurs near the midsection of the chromosome located at q11.2. [read more]

  • Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency
    Adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease or hypocortisolism, is a disorder resulting from the adrenal glands' insufficient production of certain hormones. [read more]

  • Chronic berylliosis
    Chronic Berylliosis is the inflammation of the lungs due to inhaling fumes or dust contaning the element beryllium. This metal can be found in coal, soil and volcanic dust and is used in manufacturing and aerospace industries. This disease may appear even after 20 years after exposure to the said element. [read more]

  • Chronic Cough
    A chronic cough is a cough that lasts for eight weeks or longer. It physically drains the affected individual and may have major repercussions. [read more]

  • Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome
    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that results from too much exercise or overusing the muscles resulting to pain, swelling, and sometimes disability in the affected leg and arm muscles. The condition is also called chronic compartment syndrome or exercise-induced compartment syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic granulomatous disease
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of hereditary illnesses wherein some cells in the immune system have a difficulty producing reactive oxygen compounds the body uses to kill ingested pathogens. This dyfunction leads to the presence of granulomata in the different organs of the body. [read more]

  • Chronic hiccup
    A chronic hiccup is a condition where a person experiences hiccups for an abnormally long period of time. A hiccup is an involuntary spasm made by diaphragm. It may occur several times a minute, but it resolves by itself after some time. It is caused by the sudden rush of air to the epiglottis, causing it to close. Hiccups may occur due to some activities like laughing too hard, drinking too much alcohol and eating spicy food. They are usually treated by drinking a glass of water until the spasm subsides. Chronic hiccups meanwhile last from weeks to months and even years for some cases. [read more]

  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that attacks the peripheral nervous system but as well involves the central nervous system. It is sometimes known as chronic relapsing polyneuropathy and is related to Guillain-Barre syndrome. [read more]

  • Chronic Kidney Failure
    Chronic kidney failure is a form of kidney failure which develops gradually with few signs and symptoms in the early stages. Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to filter fluid and waste resulting in their accumulation to dangerous levels in the body. [read more]

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of leukemia which attacks a particular lymphocyte called the B cell, which can be found in the bone marrow, whose task is to fight infections. A person with CLL has a damaged B cell, thus it cannot fight infections and rather eats up other blood cells that are able to fight infection. [read more]

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis
    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that results when the body's immune system inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland. This causes damage to your thyroid cells and upsets the balance of chemical reactions in the body. The condition is also known as hashimoto's disease [read more]

  • Chronic mountain sickness
    Chronic mountain sickness is a dsease developed during a long period of stay in high altitudes. It is also known as Monge's disease. It can develop several years after living at a high place, and high places are defined to be at over 2500 meters above sea level. [read more]

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    Chronic myelogenous leukemia or CML is a rare kind of blood cell cancer. It is considered as chronic leukemia due to its slow progression pattern, sometimes over a period of years. CML isn't solid tumor that may be removed surgically. Fortunately, prognosis for individuals with CML might be improving due to new medications for treatment of the condition. [read more]

  • Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is an illness wherein cells that normally develop into monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils become cancerous. This is a slow-progressing kind of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative illness where countless white blood cells called myelomonocytes are present in one's bone marrow, and crowds out the normal blood cells. [read more]

  • Chronic Necrotizing Vasculitis
    Chronic necrotizing vasculitis is the destruction and inflammation of “blood vessel walls”, leading to termination of the related tissue. [read more]

  • Chronic Neutropenia
    Chronic neutropenia is a disorder of the blood wherein there is a decreased number of the neutrophils, which has an effect on the ability of the body to battle infection. Neutrophils act as the body's major defense against particular fungal infections and acute bacterial. When their count goes under 1,000 cells for every blood microliter, the danger of infections somewhat increases. [read more]

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the continual obstruction of the brochial airflow, which is usually occurring with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or both. It leads to persistent decrease in airflow rate from one's lungs when they exhale. The disease is second to heart disease, and often affects men than women. [read more]

  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
    Chronic pelvic pain refers to any pain in the pelvic region lasting six months or more. It may be a symptom of another disease, or designated as a condition in its own right. [read more]

  • Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplagia
    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplagia is autosomal recessive mitochondrial defect characterized by mitochondrial DNA deletions found in the skeletal muscle. Persons with the disease usually show signs of ataxia, neuropathy, depression, hearing loss and weakness of the external eye muscles. [read more]

  • Chronic Renal Failure
    Chronic renal failure is the progressive and steady loss of the kidney's capability of excreting waste, concentrating urine, and conserving electrolytes. It's defined as permanent decrease in Glormerular Filtration Rate or GFR. This decrease in GFR is adequate enough to produce noticeable alterations in organ function and well-being. The condition is also known as Chronic Kidney Failure. [read more]

  • Chronic Sinusitis
    Chronic sinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes in the sinuses causing fluid buildup that plugs the sinus cavity and prevents normal mucus drainage. The condition recurs or stays longer than 12 consecutive weeks. [read more]

  • Chronic Vulvar Pain
    Chronic vulvar pain or Vulvodynia is a pain in the area around the vagina opening that lasts for months. [read more]

  • Churg-Strauss Syndrome
    Churg-Strauss syndrome is among the several types of vasculitis, wherein there's an abnormal over-activation of an asthmatic person's immune system. The syndrome occurs in people having an allergy or asthma history. There is a swelling of the blood vessels in one's lungs, abdomen, nerves, and skin. [read more]

  • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a type of marine toxin disease connected with eating a contaminated fish. The poisonous component is ciguatoxin. The poison is produced in small quantities by specific algae and other algae-like organisms known as dinoflagellates. Larger fish that are contaminated with ciguatoxin can build up poison to a hazardous level that can make a person sick if ingested. [read more]

  • Cinchonism
    Cinchonism is defined as a pathological disorder involving a prolonged or excessive use of a white-crystalline alkloid component called quinine, or its natural supplier -the cinchona bark. Quinine is primarily used for treating resistant malaria, night-time muscle cramps, as well as can act as an “abortifacient”. It can harmfully affect nearly all body system, the most common being cinchonism or quinine poisoning. [read more]

  • Cleft Lip
    Cleft lip is a type of birth defect that happens when a fetus' nose and upper jaw tissues don't attach as expected at the time of fetal development, which results in a cleft or split lip. Generally, cleft lip doesn't lead to health problems and it's treatable. In a few cases, some cleft lip infants have trouble feeding. [read more]

  • Cleft palate
    Cleft palate is a type of congenital defect that results from an abnormal facial development that occurred during the gestation period. It can occur together with a cleft lip. The cleft is defined as a division in the natural structure of the human body. The cleft palate occurs when the two plates of the skull that form the roof of the mouth are divided. The cleft palate can be a complete or incomplete occurrence. . [read more]

  • Cleidocranial Dysplasia
    Cleidocranial dysplasia is an inherited condition that mainly affects bone development. It is distinguished by an absence or incompletely developed collar bones, as well as facial and cranial abnormalities. [read more]

  • Click Murmur Syndrome
    Click-murmur syndrome, also known as Mitral valve prolapse, is a heart disorder in which the valve between the left upper chamber of the heart and its left lower chamber does not close properly. [read more]

  • Clinical Depression
    Clinical depression is a medical illness involving the mind and body, affecting how an individual thinks and behaves. The condition causes various emotional and physical problems and may hinder the individual's usual daily activities. [read more]

  • Cloacal exstrophy
    Cloacal exstrophy is a rare although severe birth defect where most of the abdominal organs, including the bladder and intestines, are exposed. The condition is named so, because the cloaca refers to the area in the embryo which eventually forms into the lower abdominal wall structures. When a child is born with cloacal exstrophy, a part of the large intestines is located outside of the body, and on one side lies the bladder in halves. In males, it occurs that the penis is short and flat, and sometimes cut in half; while with females, the clitoris is also cut in half. The condition may also result in two vaginal openings. [read more]

  • Clostridium Difficile Infection
    Clostridium difficile infection is a contagious disease present among closed spaces such as hospitals. This disease commonly affects the colon causing rectal and gastrointestinal complications. [read more]

  • Clubfoot
    Clubfoot is a congenital defect wherein the foot is inverted and down. It is a common defect, occurring in one in every 1,000 births. The condition more commonly afflicts males than females. When untreated, those who have clubfoot will seem like they are walking on their ankles. [read more]

  • Cluster Headache
    Cluster headache is defined as intense pain felt at one's temple or area surrounding the eye on any side of the head. The pain lasts moderately short, and usually happens in clusters for six- to eight-week period. This disorder is comparatively rare, and mostly affects men above thirty years old. [read more]

  • CMV Antenatal Infection
    CMV antenatal infection is an uncommon disorder wherein a fetus is infected with cytomegalovirus through its mother. Cytomegalovirus or CMV originates from a virus of the same name, belonging to herpes family. This infection can be passed on through human contact. [read more]

  • Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis
    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis or Black Lung Disease is an illness that affects the lungs, wherein coal dust deposits spread throughout the organ resulting from prolonged inhalation of coal dust. Coal dust can block airways. The disease develops into more serious illness called progressive massive fibrosis. [read more]

  • Coats Disease
    Coats disease is an uncommon eye condition that causes partial or full blindness. It is distinguished by an abnormal growth of blood vessels at the back of the retina, causing retinal detachment. [read more]

  • Coccidioidomycosis
    Coccidioidomycosis is an infectious condition brought about by fungus known as coccidioides immitis found in soil. The disease affects the skin and lungs, and is distinguished by too much nodules and sputum. It may occur as a severe or mild, progressive infections spreading all through one's body. Coccidioidomycosis' progressive form can often be fatal. [read more]

  • Coffin-Lowry Syndrome
    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is an uncommon genetic condition linked with delayed development and mental retardation. It is also distinguished by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. Males are typically more extremely affected compared to females. The syndrome is inherited in a pattern known as X-linked. [read more]

  • Coffin-Siris Syndrome
    Coffin-Siris syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder distinguished by absent or underdeveloped toenails and fifth finger, as well as coarse features of the face. [read more]

  • Cogan Syndrome
    Cogan syndrome is defined as a rheumatic disease that may lead to hearing loss, dizziness, and vision difficulty. The syndrome can also be linked to blood-vessel swelling in other parts of the body; this may cause damage of major organs and even death. [read more]

  • Cohen Syndrome
    Cohen syndrome is an uncommon genetic condition characterized by obesity, prominent frontal teeth, and decreased muscle tone. In some individuals, there is a low level of white blood cells. Its transmission is in an autosomal recessive manner with variable expression. [read more]

  • Cold Agglutinin Disease
    Cold agglutinin disease is a form of hemolytic anemia, wherein there is a decrease in the levels of red blood cells caused by malfunction of the body's immune system. The body mistakenly creates antibodies that destroy healthy red blood cells during cold temperatures. Red blood cells normally have a 120-day lifespan before being disposed by the body's spleen; however, in people with the disease, they are prematurely destroyed and production in bone marrow can't compensate for the loss. [read more]

  • Cold Contact Urticaria
    Cold contact urticaria is defined as a long-term or chronic condition in which the skin forms hives that become very itchy and red when exposed to cold. The hives are generated through rapid histamine release caused by eosinophils and IgE antibodies in response to cold stimulus. Rapid cooling from evaporation after an individual gets out from the swimming pool may trigger the condition even during warm days. [read more]

  • Cold Sores In Children
    Cold sores in children are blisters that appear on the corners of the mouth that result to painful lesions and irritating discomfort. These blisters are caused by the herpes virus. [read more]

  • Colibacillosis
    Colibacillosis is an infection brought about by the Escherichia coli, or E. coli bacteria. [read more]

  • Colic
    Colic is the condition wherein babies seem to cry and fuss a lot despite of the fact that they are perfectly healthy, well-fed and well taken care of; one of the most worrisome and difficult problems in infancy that is very disappointing for parents; usually common in both breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. [read more]

  • Colitis
    Colitis is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract primarily distinguished by colon inflammation. The disease causes sores and swellings, known as ulcers, in the large intestines' top layer lining. [read more]

  • Collapsed Lung
    It is a condition in which a lung or both lungs collapse due to air pressure that leaks into the chest cavity. [read more]

  • Coloboma, Ocular
    Coloboma, Ocular is an uncommon chromosomal disorder that involves Chromosome 22 abnormalities. The eye has a hole in one of its structures, such as in the lens, iris, eyelid, optic disc, retina, or choroids. The disorder is inborn, and may be due to a gap known as choroids fissure in between the eye's two structures. This gap exists early during development inside the uterus, failing to completely close before an infant is born. It can affect both or only one of the eyes. [read more]

  • Colon Polyps
    Colon polyps is a clump of cells on the colon lining. [read more]

  • Color blindness
    Color blindness or otherwise color vision deficiency is characterized as the ability of the individual to perceive and distinguish color differences. This medical condition is mostly genetic in nature, and can also be due to certain eye, brain and nerve damage as well as exposure to harmful chemicals. Some individuals with color blindness have normal vision but simply have difficulty in distinguishing color variance. [read more]

  • Coma
    Coma is a state in which an individual is unconscious for a prolonged length of time due to a variety of problems such as a stroke, traumatic head injury, brain tumor, or an underlying illness such as an infection or diabetes. [read more]

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a respiratory tract illness in which the alveoli in the lungs are filled with water, making the oxygen unable to enter the lungs for respiration. It is a common disease among the elderly, but it can affect people of all ages. [read more]

  • Complicated Grief
    Complicated grief is painful, complicate, and debilitating reaction to grief caused by distress and other emotional experiences. [read more]

  • Compulsive Gambling
    Compulsive gambling is an impulse-control disorder in which an individual cannot resist the temptation to perform a harmful act to oneself or another individual. [read more]

  • Compulsive Overeating
    Compulsive overeating is a condition in which an individual cannot resist the regular consumption of unusually large amounts of food. It is also called binge-eating disorder. [read more]

  • Compulsive Stealing
    Compulsive stealing or kleptomania is a serious mental disorder in which an individual cannot resist the urge to steal items often with little value. [read more]

  • Concussion
    Concussion is a condition that interferes with how the brain works affecting a person's memory, speech, judgment, balance, and coordination. [read more]

  • Condyloma
    Condyloma is more popularly known as genetal wart, categorized as a sexually transmitted disease that has external manifestations most particularly in the genitalia and anal area. Internal warts grow on the cervix and the upper vagina as well as in the male urethra. The lesions usually appear raised and pinkish in color but do not usually produce any other symptom. [read more]

  • Condyloma acuminatum
    Condyloma acuminatum is more popularly known as genital warts and is largely categorized as a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus. The estimated incubation period of this disease is approximately three months and is known to be highly contagious. The warts usually grow on the perianal and vulva areas, the cervix and vagina walls as well as the penis shaft for males. Lesions appear to be wart like and can be easily recognizable upon application of acetic acid or vinegar during examination. [read more]

  • Cone dystrophy
    Cone dystrophy is categorized as a genetic form of blindness which typically results in the impairment of the patient's photoreceptor cone cells, which is an essential part of the human vision. [read more]

  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is characterized by a number of genetic conditions that directly affects the adrenal glands. This medical condition can significantly interfere with normal development and growth among children. This includes the normal development of the patient's genitals, both affecting men and women. [read more]

  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome
    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, or CCHS, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The disease is characterized by an impairment or absence in the body's automatic control for breathing. The patient's body forgets to breathe, even during sleep. The symptoms for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can be mild or severe, but typical symptoms include abnormal pupils, which occur in 70% of cases; poor breathing functions especially during sleep, lack of spontaneous breathing, and bluish color in lips, nails, and skin due to breathing problems. Half of the patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can breathe almost normally when they are awake; however, it is during sleep when they encounter difficulty breathing. Other characteristics to watch out for when diagnosing one with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome are: no muscular or respiratory problems that may cause the breathing difficulty; no heart disease; consistent poor breathing during sleep, and that the symptoms are noticed when the child is less than a year old and continues. Early diagnosis of the disease is important, because when it goes undetected, this may result in death. Once it is determined that a patient has congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, they can seek treatment for the disease. Prior to treatment, the patient will undergo a variety of tests, among the first will determine the severity of the problem. Other tests will determine the respiratory aspects of the disease, as well as neurological and cardiac tests. During the course of treatment, the patient will use breathing support apparatus, such a respirator. Some children may need to use it for 24 hours of the day. In more severe cases, patients undergo surgery that will allow them to use a surgical implant that provides electrical stimulation to the diaphragm muscle to help improve breathing. Studies show that genetics plays a role in the occurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Research also shows that since 20% of the cases are accompanied by Hirschsprung disease, that there is an underlying connection that can be found in the genetics of the patients. Children born with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome can still lead normal and active lives; however, extra supervision is needed during certain activities such as swimming when the body can forget to breathe when in the water. [read more]

  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM) is categorized as a highly distinct entity, which was discovered way back in 1949. CAM is characterized as a developmental hamartomatous, an abnormality of the lung that comes with an adenomatoid abundance of cysts that resemble bronchioles. [read more]

  • Congenital deafness
    Congenital deafness may or may not be inherited or genetic in nature. It can also be dues to the exposure of the pregnant mother to infections such as the rubella virus. Roughly about 80% of the congenital deafness cases that are-syndromatic, which are highly heterogeneous but the mutations in the Connexin 26 molecules usually account to almost half of the patients. [read more]

  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is the medical term used to refer to a number of different congenital birth defects that usually involve the highly abnormal development of the child's diaphragm. Among the most common deformity in majority of the cases is malformation of the diaphragm. Newborns with CDH typically suffer from severe respiratory pain which is considered as a life-threatening case unless treatment is administered appropriately. [read more]

  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
    The congenital erythropoietic porphyria is categorized as an extremely rare case of autosomal recessive condition, and is more popularly known as Gunther's disease. This serious medical condition is a cause of various gene mutations in which the symptoms are known to development as early as the infancy stage. Congenital erythropoietic porphyries is often marked a cause of the patient's anemia among fetus even before birth. [read more]

  • Congenital heart disease
    Congenital heart disoder is a kind of heart ailment diagnosed in newborns, and usually includes some structural defects that often lead to arrhythmia as well as the possible malfunctioning of the heart muscles. This disease normally appears when the heart of the fetus is not able to function properly because of incomplete development or some irregular structure of the valves. [read more]

  • Congenital heart septum defect
    Congenital heart septum defects one of the most common types of heart disorders that involves the septum and diagnosed at birth. This defect is characterized by a hole in the wall of the infant's heart that divides the left and right chambers and allows the blood to freely flow through that hole. [read more]

  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis
    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an extremely rare form of hereditary disorder that is characterized by the detection of a periportal fibrosis with some marked unevenly shaped producing bile ducts, as well as esophageal varices and intrahepatic portal hypertension. Congenital hepatic fibrosis is often associated with renal function disorder that is typically due to an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. [read more]

  • Congenital herpes simplex
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the highly identified common infection carriers among humans of all ages. This type of virus usually occurs globally and produces a large variety of illnesses such as infections of the CNS, mucocutaneous infections, as well and sporadically infections affecting the visceral organs. [read more]

  • Congenital hypothyroidism
    Congenital hypothyroidism is also medically referred to as endemic cretinism which is characterized by the inadequate production of thyroid hormone among newborn infants. This typically occurs due to an anatomic defect in the infant's gland, which is categorized as an inborn defect of iodine deficiency or thyroid metabolism. [read more]

  • Congenital ichthyosis
    Congenital ichthyosis is primarily characterized by the deep thickening of an infant's keratin layer of the skin. Babies with this medical condition usually have massive, horny and plate-like scales with marked abnormalities of the ears, eyes, mouth, as well as appendages. This type of armor significantly limits the movement as well as compromises the protective barrier of the skin, and makes infants more susceptible to infection and metabolic abnormalities. [read more]

  • Congenital Myopathy
    Congenital myopathy is characterized by a muscle disorder that is already present at birth, and this includes a great number of highly distinct neuromuscular syndromes and disorders. In most cases, congenital myopathies do not display any evidence of progressive dystrophic progress or any inflammations. This comes with the marked muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone that significantly delays motor development of babies such as learning how to walk. [read more]

  • Congenital nephrotic syndrome
    Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the kidney and is characterized by the presence of protein in the urine. This is a rare form of disease that is usually seen among Finnish families. This condition is primarily caused by nephrin in the kidney. [read more]

  • Congenital Syphilis
    Congenital syphilis is an intense, disabling, and frequently life-threatening infection reported in infants. Syphilis may be spread through an infected pregnant woman's placenta and pass on to the unborn child. Almost fifty percent of the children infected with the disease at the time of development die shortly prior or after their birth. [read more]

  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
    Congenital toxoplasmosis is defined as a set of symptoms and traits caused by fetus infection with an organism called Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually mild for the mother, and might not even be evident. However, the infected fetus can be the cause of many problems. Early pregnancy infection results in serious health troubles compared to getting the disease later in pregnancy. [read more]

  • Congestive Heart Disease
    Congestive heart disease is a disorder that may result from any type of functional or structural disease, which impairs the heart's ability to pump or fill sufficient quantity of blood all through the body. The term “congestive” is taken from blood ‘backing up' or ‘congesting' into the abdomen, liver, lungs, and lower extremities. [read more]

  • Conjoined Twins
    Conjoined twins are identical twins that have failed to completely separate into two individuals usually joined at the chest, head, or pelvis. Some may even share one or more internal organs. [read more]

  • Conjunctivitis
    Conjunctivitis is an infection or inflammation of the eyelids' membrane lining known as conjunctiva. This tissue aids in maintaining the eyeball and eyelid moist. The disease is among the most treatable and widespread infections in adults and children. It is also frequently called “pink eye”. [read more]

  • Conn's Syndrome
    Conn's syndrome is an infection of the adrenal glands, wherein there is too much ‘aldosterone' hormone secretion. The hormone is responsible for regulation of chief bodily functions, for instance blood pressure, correct electrolyte balance, and secondary water retention. The excessive secretion increases potassium loss and raises sodium re-absorption. The condition is also known as primary hyperaldosteronism. [read more]

  • Constipation
    Constipation is one of the most common problems in the digestive system characterized by infrequent bowel movements, passing hard stools, and straining when moving a bowel resulting to feeling bloated, lethargic, and feelings of discomfort or pain. [read more]

  • Constitutional Growth Delay
    Constitutional growth delay or CGD is used to define the temporary delay in growth of the skeletal system, resulting to pubertal delay and short stature. Children with CGD have normal birth length and weight, but at one point of their growing years, there is a slow down in development. Some teens have normal growth rate as younger kids, but lag behind and do not begin pubertal development and growth spurt like most teens. Individuals with CGD are often referred to as “late bloomers”. [read more]

  • Contact Dermatitis
    Contact dermatitis is a skin condition showing a red, itchy rash resulting from direct contact with certain substances such as cosmetics, soap, jewelry, or weeds including poison ivy or poison oak. [read more]

  • Cooley's Anemia
    Cooley's anemia, also called Thassalemia, is a hereditary blood disorder distinguished by less number of red blood cells and less hemoglobin in the body. Due to the decreased amount of red blood cells, the condition leads to anemia. [read more]

  • Copper Transport Disease
    Copper transport disease is a hereditary disorder involving copper metabolism, passed on as X-linked trait. Copper builds up at unusually low levels in the brain and liver, but higher level than normal in the intestinal lining and kidney. [read more]

  • Coproporhyria
    Coproporhyria, also known as Porphria, is a term used to define a set of hereditary disorders arising from troubles in the body's manufacture of a substance identified as ‘heme'. Heme is present in each body tissue. The body utilizes enzymes to transform ‘porphyrins' into heme. When one of the enzymes has an inherited deficiency, the process of transformation is interrupted. This causes porphyrins to accumulate in one's body, which in turn leads to the symptoms of Coproporhyria. [read more]

  • Cor Pulmonale
    Cor pulmonale as defined, is a change in function and structure of the heart's right ventricle resulting from a respiratory system disorder. It is a condition wherein the heart's right side fails, caused by lengthened high blood pressure in right ventricle and pulmonary artery. [read more]

  • Corneal Erosion, Recurrent
    Recurrent corneal erosion is characterized by a disorder that affects the eyes. This condition is caused by the failure of the epithelial cells in the cornea to attach to the underlying basement membrane. Patients would usually feel frequent pain and loss of the cells that ultimately causes the exposure of the cornea. [read more]

  • Corneal Foreign Body
    A corneal foreign body typically occurs when the person's cornea has a certain piece of foreign matter that is lodged in it. Among the most common foreign bodies identified include paint chips, metal and wood debris, dust particles and plant materials. [read more]

  • Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a very uncommon disorder that involves delayed physical growth, as well as a variety of malformations of the face, limbs, and head. The traits of this condition vary expansively among affected people, and differ from fairly mild to serious. [read more]

  • Corns
    Corns are primarily characterized by the small and often very rough mounds of dead skin that usually forms between and on the toes. These are usually hard, firm and have a waxy core that bores down into the skin of the toes and pressing into the underlying nerves and tissues, causing extreme pain. [read more]

  • Coronary Artery Disease
    Coronary artery disease is the obstruction of blood flow through the coronary arteries. [read more]

  • Coronary Heart Disease
    Coronary heart disease is a condition in which the arteries responsible for supplying blood to the heart muscle, harden and narrow. This is the result of a plaque on its inner walls. This plaque leads to less blood flow throughout the arteries, which in turn causes the heart muscle to not get the oxygen it requires. The condition is also known as ‘Coronary Artery Disease'. [read more]

  • Corticobasal degeneration
    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is an incurable neurological disorder that manifests itself through muscle rigidity and speech problems. Symptoms usually begin surfacing when patients reach 60 years old, affecting one side of the body and eventually progressing to both sides in 6 to 8 years. It may affect speech first before interfering with muscle movement. [read more]

  • Costello Syndrome
    An extremely rare disease with only 200 to 300 cases reported worldwide, Costello Syndrome is a genetic abnormality that slows down development and causes mental retardation. Patients share the same facial features, with loose skin and flexible joints, and are more prone to develop certain diseases like heart abnormalities, non-cancerous and cancerous tumors, and cell carcinoma. Individuals affected by this condition are relatively short and may possess lesser levels of growth hormones. [read more]

  • Costochondritis
    Costochondritis (or Costal chondritis) is a mild inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. It is also called Tietze's syndrome after the German surgeon who first described the disorder, Alexander Tietze. Depending on the severity of the case, swelling may or may not be present in the cartilage. It causes sharp pain, not unlike that of a heart attack. [read more]

  • Costosternal Chondrodynia
    Costosternal chondrodynia is also referred to as costosternal syndrome, costochondritis, or chest wall pain. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Costosternal Syndrome
    Costosternal syndrome is also referred to as costosternal chondrodynia, costochondritis, or chest wall pain. The condition is the inflammation of a cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone. [read more]

  • Cot Death
    Cot death, also known as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is an unexplained death among infants ranging from 1 to 12 months old. This condition is common among infants with low birth weight. [read more]

  • Cote Adamopoulos Pantelakis syndrome
    Cote Adampoulos Pantelakis syndrome is a disease that develops before birth causing multiple joint contractures and characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis. It is a rare disorder affecting the jaw, spine, shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, hips, knees, ankles, feet and toes. These contractures are accompanied by muscle weakness, limiting movements further. [read more]

  • Cowden's disease
    The genetic disorder Cowden's disease causes the tumor-like growths called hamartomas to develop on one's skin or mucous membranes. Noncancerous and small, this may also grow in various areas of the body including the intestinal tract. Patients with Cowden syndrome are much more likely to contact uterus cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer. [read more]

  • Coxsackievirus Infection
    Coxsackievirus infection, also known as the Keshan disease, is an inflammation of the heart due to the Coxsackie virus. When not treated, the disease can be fatal. It is an illness endemic in some parts of rural China. Research studies have also shown that the disease is triggered by low selenium levels in the body. Selenium supplements are likewise administered to treat the disease. [read more]

  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia
    Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD or lionitis) is an uncommon hereditary autosomal recessive bone disorder characterized by deposits of calcium in the skull, causing the size of cranial foramina and the hole in the cervical spinal canal to shrink. This deforms facial features of the patients, who in most cases die at an early age. [read more]

  • Craniostenosis
    Craniostenosis is the disorder wherein an infant's or child's skull sutures close prematurely thereby interrupting normal skull growth and brain development. [read more]

  • Craniosynostosis
    Craniosynostosis is a condition that arises when one or more sutures that join the skull of an infant or child close(s) prematurely, resulting to complications in normal growth of the skull and brain. It can cause craniostenosis, a skull deformity, and increased intracranial pressure. It affects one in 1,800 to 2,200 infants. [read more]

  • CREST syndrome (Calcinosis Raynaud's Esophagus Sclerodactyly Telangiectasia)
    CREST syndrome (Calcinosis Raynaud's Esophagus Sclerodactyly Telangiectasia) is a disorder caused by a glitch in our connective tissues, the substance found outside our cells that hold the tissues and organs of our bodies together. It can be a benign condition that won't affect our bodily functions, yet in some cases it can be serious and fatal. A subset of sleroderma, it causes problems in the skin and blood vessels, and in extreme cases, lungs, digestive tract or heart. [read more]

  • Cretinism
    When not remedied, congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones causes cretinism, a disorder characterized by extremely stunted physical and mental growth. [read more]

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    The fatal and rare denerative brain disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by proteins called prions that multiply exponentially by refolding native proteins to infected state. Disrupting cell function, CJD results to cell death, rapid and progressive dementia, loss of memory, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Death can occur in as little as four months after the onset of the first symptoms. [read more]

  • Cri du chat
    Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic abnormality caused by the partial deletion of the chromosome number 5. Its name is French for cry or call of the cat in reference to the meowing sound the infant makes when crying, a manifestation of the infant's larynx and nervous system problems. [read more]

  • Crigler Najjar Syndrome
    Crigler Najjar Syndrome (CNS) is a serious disorder that interferes with the metabolism of bilirubin, a chemical formed from the breakdown of blood, usually afflicting new borns. This causes an inherited form of non-hemolytic jaundice, which may often result to brain damage in infants. [read more]

  • Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever
    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever It is the viral haemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group though it is mainly a zoonosis, erratic cases and outbreaks of CCHF can also affect humans. [read more]

  • Cronkhite-Canada disease
    The rare syndrome Cronkhite-Canada is a disorder prevalent among individuals 50 to 60 years old and characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in our digestive tract. The polyps affect the large intestine, stomach, small intestine and esophagus, causing gastrointestinal disturbances, malnutrition, malabsorption and even colorectal cancer. The polyps are hamartomas, growths which are often non-cancerous. [read more]

  • Croup
    Croup refers to diseases of the respiratory system which are caused by inflamed upper airway. Characterized by sneeze and barking cough, vomiting, nausea, fever and high pitch sound the child makes when inhaling, Croup is often a benign condition that is treatable at home. Croup diseases are spasmotic croup, laryngotracheobronchopneumitis, acute laryngotracheitis, laryngeal diptheria and laryngotracheobronchitis. Laryngotracheobronchopneumitis and laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by bacterial infection and often severe. [read more]

  • Crouzon Syndrome
    The hereditary disorder Crouzon syndrome arises when the bones of a baby's skull and face close early or are incapable of expanding. This abnormal bone development is caused by disturbances in the development of the branchial arches and leads to malformation of the skull and facial features. Typically, individuals with Crouzon syndrome have low-lying ears and malformed ear canals that cause hearing loss. [read more]

  • Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome
    Crouzondermoskeletal syndrome is a rare disorder not unlike Crouzon syndrome because it is caused by specific bones in our skull that join prematurely. It is distinguished from Crouzon syndrome by other disorders that also afflict patients with Crouzondermoskeletal, such as skin condition acanthosis nigricans, which is characterized by dark and thick skin in our body folds, changes in the vertebrae on x-rays, and the probable development of noncancerous cementomas during adulthood.. [read more]

  • Crow-Fukase Syndrome
    The rare medical condition called Crow-Fukase syndrome is also called POEMS syndrome after the clinical features that distinguish it from other diseases – Polyneuropathy (peripheral nerve damage), Organomegaly (abnormal enlargement of organs), Endocrinopathy (damage to hormone-producing glands)/Edema, M-protein (an abnormal antibody) and Skin abnormalities (including hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis). [read more]

  • Currarino's triad
    Currarino's triad is characterized as a complex malformation that typically consist of anorectal and sacral defects as well as the formation presacral mass. Imaging would often show some sacral bony malformations and may be associated to some urological abnormalities of the neurogenic bladder or vesicouretereric reflux. [read more]

  • Cushing's Syndrome
    Cushing's Syndrome is also known by other medical terms such as hyperadrenocorticism and hypercortisolism, which is characterized as an endocrine disorder that is primarily caused by the high levels of cortisol in the patient's blood. There are a number of underlying causes and medical conditions that triggers Cushing's Syndrome such as ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenal hyperplasia, and iatrogenic or use of steroid. This disease is also quite common among dogs and horses, often characterized as the deposition of fat in the body. [read more]

  • Cutaneous Horn
    A cutaneous horn, is also medically known as cornu cutaneum, which primarily refers to a partcular appearance of skin lesions that is manifested by a cone-shaped protuberance that arises on the skin. This is usually caused by an overgrowth of the superficial layer of skin or the epidermis. Although it may appear as a lesion, a cutaneous horn is actually the reaction to the pattern of the skin and may overlie skin cancer. [read more]

  • Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is categorized as a type of lupus that primarily involves the patient's skin but may also be a precursor to another systemic form of the disease. There are three different types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: chronic lupus erythematosus, subacute lupus erythematosus and e types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Dark skinned women individuals are more prone to Cutaneous lupus erythematosus especially between ages 20-60. [read more]

  • Cutis verticis gyrata
    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is considered as the medical descriptive term for a scalp condition that is characterized with furrows and convoluted folds that form from a thickened area of the scalp that resembles the cerebriform pattern. [read more]

  • Cyclic neutropenia
    Cyclic neutropenia is categorized as a rare blood disorder that is characterized by some recurrent episodes of abnormally low white blood cell levels called neutrophils. These are primarily responsible for warding off infections as well as in destroying bacteria that may invade the body. In most cases, people with cyclic neutropenia suffer from recurrent infections. [read more]

  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a chronic vomiting disorder having no identified cause. It is most common in children ages 3-7 years which they will outgrow in teenage years. But since it is recurring, it can occasionally happen in adults as well. [read more]

  • Cyclospora Infection
    Cyclospora infection is an infection of the intestine due to a one-celled parasite. [read more]

  • Cyclothymia
    Cyclothymia is also known by the medical term cyclothymic disorder. This disease is characterized by a mild type of bipolar disorder. Similar to bipolar disorder, cyclothymia is known as a chronic mood disorder that results to emotional highs and lows. Patients with this condition experience short periods of emotional ups believing they are on top of the world and followed by emotional downs that often leave them feeling suicidal and depressed. [read more]

  • Cyclothymic Disorder
    Cyclothymic disorder also called as cyclothymia, is a mild form of bipolar disorder; a chronic mood disorder causing emotional ups and downs. The condition is usually characterized by short episodes of emotional highs when feeling on top of the world followed by extremely low feeling that can possibly lead to hopelessness or suicide, if left uncontrolled. [read more]

  • Cystinosis
    Cystinosis is categorized as an inherited disorder that affects chromosome 17, under which the amino acid cystine is not properly transported out of the patient's body cells. This would cause organ and tissue all damage throughout the body and may begin to manifest at any age, affecting both male and female. This mutated gene CTNS is an autosomal recessive, which means both parents are carrier of this gene resulting to the child to inherit to defective gene copies. [read more]

  • Cystinuria
    Cystinuria is an type inherited metabolic disorder, where the natural reabsorption and filtration of amino acid, cystine, lysine and aginine by the patient's kidney are defective. This would cause the urine to contain elevated levels of cystine that causes the formation of kidney stones. This medical condition account to about 1% of kidney stones and usually occurs to 1 per every 7,000 people and are more common among Jews. [read more]

  • Cystocele
    A cystocele, sometimes called prolapsed bladder is characterized when the wall between a woman's bladder and the vagina stretches and weakens, letting the bladder bulge into the vagina. [read more]

  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease
    Cytomegalic inclusion disease is an infection or condition resulting from a form of herpes virus called ‘cytomegalovirus'. This virus leads to cell enlargement of a number of organs, as well as the growth of ‘inclusion bodies' in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells. A trademark of this infection is the episodic recurrence of symptoms all through life, due to its virus cycles of latency periods and active virus. [read more]

  • Cytomegalovirus
    Cytomegalovirus is a disease infecting cells and causing them to be enlarged. Individuals are typically infected when they're two years old or through teenage years. A lot of people become infected with CMV and do not even realize they have it. The disease doesn't cause chronic problems, but they do cause troubles in newborns if their mothers become infected during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Dandruff
    Marked by itching and excessive flaking of the scalp, many people have this chronic scalp disorder called dandruff. It may be embarrassing to have dandruff which is surprisingly persistent, it is not contagious and is rarely serious. [read more]

  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome
    Dandy-Walker syndrome is defined as a brain deformity that involves the ‘cerebellum' and the fluid that fills the space surrounding it. The malformation happens before birth; thus, it's submitted as a ‘congenital malformation'. The syndrome is characterized by enlargement of the brain's fourth ventricle, complete or partial absence of cerebellar vermis, and a formation of cyst near the skull's internal base. There is also increased fluid size and pressure increase in the fluid spaces around the brain. [read more]

  • Darier's Disease
    Darier's disease is defined as a genetic disease or inherited dermatitis characterized by ‘dark crusty patches' on skin, which sometimes contain pus. These patches are known as keratosis follicularis or keratotic papules. Although complications are uncommon, the disease can cause bacterial sepsis, as well as Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. [read more]

  • De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
    De Quervain's tenosynovitis is characterized by the abnormal pain experience on the hand and wrist area. The pain is generally caused by the swelling of the sheath of tendons located on the thumb side of the wrist. This causes the pain and discomfort for every turn of the wrist, clenching the fist and grasping anything. [read more]

  • De Sanctis-Cacchione Syndrome
    De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome is a very uncommon disorder distinguished by eye and skin manifestations of XP or xeroderma pigmentosum, occurring in involvement with mental retardation, neurological abnormalities, underdeveloped ovaries or testes, and abnormally short stature or dwarfism. [read more]

  • Deep Skin Infection
    Deep skin infection, or cellulites, is the inflammation of the connective tissues underneath the skin. It is a bacterial infection brought about by exogenous bacteria due to previous wounds, bites, sores or lacerations. This infection, when not treated, may lead to necrotizing fasciitis, wherein the bacteria eats away the affected tissue resulting to amputation. [read more]

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
    Deep vein thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by blood clot formation in any deep veins of the body; usually occurring on the leg. The condition is considered as a serious condition because there is a possibility that it may lead to pulmonary embolism caused by a blood clot that had travelled and reached the lung. [read more]

  • Degenerative Joint Disease
    Degenerative joint disease, also known as osteoarthritis, is the inflammation of the joints. It affects various joints such as the back, neck, knees, fingers, and hips. The disease occurs mostly people over the age of 45. [read more]

  • Degos Disease
    Degos disease is an uncommon systematic disease that involves the medium and small sized arteries, wherein these arteries become blocked. The disease typically progresses into two stages. The first stage is characterized by the appearance of distinguishing skin lesions that may stay for some time, ranging from a few weeks to several years. Lesions inside the small intestines often mark the second stage, and other organs can also be affected. [read more]

  • Dejerine-Sottas Disease
    Dejerine-Sottas disease is an uncommon genetic motor and sensory polyneuropathy that manifests progressive effects on mobility. The peripheral nerves thicken and enlarge, leading to weakness of the muscle. The progress of this disease is irregular, as well as frequently accompanied by numbness, pain, weakness, and a burning, prickling, or tingling sensations in one's legs. [read more]

  • Delirium
    The word "delirium" typically hints a state of feverish ecstasy that is believed to fuel some sort of artistic creation or some form of spiritual awakening, it can actually be clearly defined as a form of medical condition. Delirium is basically characterized a decline in attention, mental clarity and awareness that is often known to be triggered by a serious illness. [read more]

  • Dementia Senilis
    Dementia senilis, or senile dementia, is a mental illness common among the elderly. It is characterized by loss of attention span and short-term memory. It is considered an effect of Alzheimer's disease. [read more]

  • Demyelinating Disease
    Demyelinating disease is defined as any type of nervous system condition wherein the neurons' protective covering, called myelin sheath, is damaged. This causes impairment in the transmission of signals within affected nerves, which in turn results to damage in movement, cognition, sensation, or other bodily functions, depending on the nerves involved. Some common demyelinating disease includes multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, devic disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. [read more]

  • Dengue Fever
    Dengue fever is defined as a disease involving four connected viruses being multiplied by a specific mosquito species. The fever ranges from severe to mild; mild dengue results to rash, joint and muscle pain, and high fever. Its severe forms can additionally result to sudden blood pressure drop, severe bleeding, and death. [read more]

  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a severe and even potentially deadly form of infection that is spread by certain types of mosquitoes. [read more]

  • Dent's Disease
    Dent's disease, also known as Dent Disease, is a rare X-linked recessive condition that is hereditary. It affects the Kidney and is one of the many causes of Fanconi syndrome. It is characterized by hypercalciuria, tubular proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, chronic renal failure and calcium nephrolithiasis. Because it it only associated with the X-chromosome, this disease is most common to males. Studies show that more men (9 out of 15) suffer from this disease compared to women (1 out of ten) at an average age of 47 [read more]

  • Dental Fluorosis
    Dental Fluorosis is a condition that affects the teeth caused by excessive intake of flouride. It is characterized by yellowish color of the teeth, presence of white spots, and discolorations like brown spots. It can also cause pitting and is often affects young teeth that has not yet erupted into the oral cavity. [read more]

  • Dental Plaque
    Dental plaque is the hardened yellowish coating on the teeth caused by the food people eat. Dental plaque contains bacteria, which can cause tooth decay. The plaque can be removed by constant oral hygiene and regular cleaning done by a dentist. [read more]

  • Depression In Children
    Depression in children is a form of emotional disorder that affects the child's psychological, emotional and social behaviors. This kind of depression sets the pace towards the child's outlook in life, and can be the cause of his erratic behavior upon reaching adulthood. [read more]

  • Dermatitis herpetiformis
    Dermal herpetiformis is a disorder of the skin, chronic in nature and is characterized as extremely itchy rash. Otherwise known as Duhring's disease, this condition is associated to a person's sensitivity to gluten in cereals specifically the intestine. The rashes is consist of papules and a fluid-filled blister or vesicle. It usually is common on men and women in their twenties. It is also often connected to celiac disease which is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel. [read more]

  • Dermatitis Statis
    Hugely affecting your legs that may appear to have red and often itchy rash on the lower part of your body is a disorder called statis dermatitis. It often occurs after a long-term swelling of the legs that could be caused by poor blood circulation. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Nummular
    Nummular dermatitis is categorized as a particular form of eczema, or what is known as a type of atopic dermatitis, which is characterized by seemingly coin-shaped and raised bumps on the surface of the skin. These growths are often scaly. [read more]

  • Dermatitis, Perioral
    Perioral dermatitis is characterized as a type of facial rash that usually tends to occur just around the mouth region. Most skin condition manifests as red and often slightly bumpy or scaly in texture. It can gradually spread up around the nose area, and even move up to the eyes. [read more]

  • Dermatofibroma
    Dermatofibroma is a lesion or a dermal tumor, mostly benign, laid ot by fibroblasts. It is characterized by hard papules in different colors ranging from brown to tan. In some cases, Dermatofibroma can become itchy and tender. It is also believed to be a reaction of the skin to previous injuries. Some are rare malignant fibrohistocytic tumors whuch are usually deep penetrating. [read more]

  • Dermatographia
    Lightly scratching your skin that may cause red lines on the area where you've scratched is a condition called dermatographia. It can be uncomfortable though it's not serious. Upon scratching, the skin cells are overly sensitive to minor injury with this kind of disorder. [read more]

  • Dermatomyositis
    Dermatomyosis is a disease of the connective tissues associated with muscles and skin inflammation. Juvenile dermatomyositis affects young children often associated with pink patches in the knuckles, abnormal and painful erection of the penis that can last for a long period of time, and groton's papules. It is one type of autoimmune disease of the connective tissue which is related to polymyositis characterized by many inflammations of the muscles, and the related disease that attacks the arm and leg muscles called Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis. [read more]

  • Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
    Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is a congenital disorder most common in women. It is a rare type ectodermal dysplasia disorder. Although most cases are reported in Europe, there is not enough evidence to say that the disease is associated with any race. [read more]

  • Dermatophytids
    Dermatophytids are skin lesions and erruptions that is occurs as an allergic reaction to the ringworm infections. These lesions, however are free of fungal forms and are generally vesicular, and papular in some cases. Dermatophytes often occur in the feet and hands. It also resembles erythema nodosum [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis is a skin disorder caused by a parasitic fungus called Dermatphyte. Dermatophyte feeds on keratin that usually found in the ectoderm or the outer layer of the skin, nails and hair. [read more]

  • Dermatophytosis
    Dermatophytosis, similarly known as athlete's foot is a common fungal infection among many people. It usually affects spaces in between your toes but it can spread to your soles, toenails and the sides of your feet. [read more]

  • Desmoid tumor
    Desmoid tumor is a tendon-like benign fibrous neoplasms. It originates from the musculoaponeurotic structures found in the entire body. It appears as firm overgrowths of tissues, usually fibrous, locally aggressive, well differentiated and infiltrative. Other terms used for this disorder are deep fibromatosis, nonmentastasizing fibrosarcoma or aggressive fibromatosis. It mostly grows from the abdomen and rectus muscle after giving birth or in scars from cuts during abdominal surgery. These tumors may also grow in bone muscles. [read more]

  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor
    Also known as DSRCT, it is a very aggressive tumor that occurs rarely, a type of cancer that always grows in the abdomen and spreads locally to the lymph nodes. It can also spread to other parts of the body like the lungs, bones, and liver, chest walls, spinal cord, large and small intestine, skull, bladder, brain, ovaries, pelvis and testicles. This is most common in males especially in the young adolescent stage. This is a life threatening disease. This tumor is also called desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor, desmoplastic cancer, intraabdominal desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor or desmoplastic sarcoma. [read more]

  • Diabetes insipidus
    Diabetest insipidus is a condition wherein a patient losses a lot of water through the diluted urine. It cause severe dehydration and a patient may feel the urge to drink lots of water due to the very large volume of liquid that is urinated. This disease is rare and may occur in young children. [read more]

  • Diabetes mellitus
    Diabetes mellitus, popularly known as "diabetes" is a chronic disease. It is associated with very high levels of the glucose sugar present in our blood. There are two mechanisms for diabetes, patients may experience either of the two to suffer from this disease. The first is that there is not enough production of insulin produced by the pancreas as a result, blood glucose level are lowered or type 1. The second is that the cells is not sensitive enough to the action of insulin or type 2. [read more]

  • Diabetes, insulin dependent
    Diabetis insulin dependent is also known as diabetes mellitus type 1. This is a chronic disorder of our system's failure to produce inadequate amount of insulin. Characteristics of this disease is loss of the beta cells which are responsible for producing insulin. These cells are found in the islets of Langerhans in our pancreas. This loss leads to insulin deficiency. There is no known measure to prevent this disease. Affected people mostly are healthy when this disease occurs. The cells sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are not abnormal. This type of diabetes can affect both children or adults, although it was previously called "juvenile diabetes" as it usually affects children. [read more]

  • Diabetic angiopathy
    Angiopathy refers to any disease associated with the blood vessels or the lymph vessels. When angiopathy is caused by diabetes, it is called diabetic angiopathy. Similar to most complications brought about by diabetes, diabetic angiopathy is primarily due to hyperglycemia or the high levels of blood sugar known to us as glucose. This disease can occur in any part of the body where the effect of high glucose level resulted to clogged up due to build up of plaque in the inner walls of the vessels. There are two types of this disease, macroangiopathy or microangiopathy. [read more]

  • Diabetic Coma
    Having a dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) when you have diabetes can lead to a diabetic coma which is a life-threatening diabetes complication and when left untreated can be fatal. [read more]

  • Diabetic Dermopathy
    Diabetic dermopathy is also commonly known as shin spots or the pigmented pretibial patches. This is a skin condition that is usually found to develop on the lower legs of people who have diabetes. This medical condition is often the result of changes in the small blood vessel, which are primarily responsible in supplying the skin blood products. [read more]

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    A serious complication of diabetes develops when you have too little insulin in your body, and is called diabetic ketoacidosis, for without enough insulin, glucose can't enter your cells for energy. Your body begins to break down fat for energy and your blood sugar level will rise, and if left untreated may let you lose consciousness. [read more]

  • Diabetic nephropathy
    Diabetic nephropathy or nephropatia diabetica is also called Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome. Another term is intercapillary glomerulonephritis. It is a kidney disease, which is progressive in nature and is caused by angiopathy of the capillaries in kidney glomeruli. It occurs because of diabetes mellitus that has been in the patient for a long period of time already. [read more]

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    A complication resulting from damage to the blood vessels of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina) is called diabetic retinopathy, which at first my cause only mild vision problems or no symptoms at all. [read more]

  • Diamond blackfan disease
    Diamond-Blackfan Disease (DBA) is also called congenital erythroid aplasia that is present in infancy. That is caused by low red blood cell counts or anemia. [read more]

  • Diaper Rash
    After solid foods are added to your baby's diet, when your baby is taking antibiotics or when breast-feeding mothers eat certain foods are the common factors for babies to have diaper rash – a common form of inflamed skin (dermatitis). [read more]

  • Diaphragmatic hernia, congenita
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a collective term for different birth defects brought about by congenital factors which involves the abnormal development of the baby's diaphragm. [read more]

  • Diastrophic dysplasia
    Diastrophic dysplasia or DD is considered to be an uncommon kind of dwarfism. Occuring only once out of 500,000 births (in the U.S.), it is the top three among all types of dwarfism. [read more]

  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis
    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is the hardening of the bony ligaments that are attached to one's spine. [read more]

  • Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD)
    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) also known as Interstitial lung disease, is refers to obstructive airway diseases of the lungs. It affects the alveolar epithelial lining, pulmonary capillary epithelium and its basement mambrane. [read more]

  • DiGeorge Syndrome
    DiGeorge Syndrome also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Strong Syndrome is a disorder known by total or partial absence or defective chromosome 22. [read more]

  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) also known as congestive cardiomyopathy, is refer to enlargment and weakening of the heart that leads to decrease cardiac output and affects other body organs. DCM is one of the cause of congestive heart failure (CHF). This condition also occurs in yound adults and children. [read more]

  • Diptheria
    Diptheria is a communicable disease of upper respiratory tract it is caused by an anaerobic Gram- positive bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. it is spread through direct contact. Vaccine of this bacteria is recommended for children after four weeks of birth, it has 3 dosage with 3 weeks interva. It also recommended to travellers. Incubation period of Diphtheria is from 2 to 5 days. [read more]

  • Discitis
    Discitis is the term used to describe the infection of the invertebral disc space causing severe back pain. Symptoms of the infection include stiffness and immobility of the spine to move. The exact causes for the disease are unknown, but studies show that it is linked with hematogenous seeding of certain harmful organisms. Discitis is treated with antibiotics and cast support for the back. it can as well be diagnosed by X-rays, CT scan and MRI. [read more]

  • Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
    Discoid Lupus Erythematosus or Systemic Lupus Erythamatosus is a systemic disorder cause by autoimmune response of the body. The immune system fights against own body cells that leads to inflammation of the tissues that affects different parts of the body. It occurs in unexpected times, this period is called "flares". [read more]

  • Disintegrative Psychosis
    A condition in which young children develop normally until age 3 or 4 but then demonstrate a severe loss of communication, social and other skills is called a childhood disintegrative disorder. It is also known as Heller's syndrome. [read more]

  • Dislocated Shoulder
    Your shoulders are prone to injury as they have the ability to move in any directions and they are your body's most mobile joints. An injury in which your upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket that's part of your shoulder blade is called a dislocated shoulder. [read more]

  • Dissecting Aneurysm
    Dissecting aneurysm is also called an aortic dissection, characterized as a serious condition in which a tear develops in the inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel branching off the heart. [read more]

  • Distal myopathy
    Distal Myopathy are also known as distal muscular dysrtophy is a hereditary disease that causes weakness of muscuskeletal system at the distal area, it includes the hands and the feet .There are Different types of distal myopathy: the miyoshi myopathy, limp-girdle muscular dystrophy, welander distal myopathy and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset. [read more]

  • Dizziness in children
    Dizziness is common sensation characterized by unsteadiness and a moving vision of one's surroundings. Children, like adults, may experience dizziness every once in a while. [read more]

  • Dominant Ichthyosis vulgaris
    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a disorder tha occurs in the skin causing it to be dry, with scaly appearance. It is considered to be the most common form of skin disorder (ichthyosis) that affects one in every 250 people. Because of this, it is also called common ichthyosis. Some refer to it as fish skin disease because of its scaly characteristics. Usually, it is an autosomal inherited disease and often dominant. Often times, it is also associated with filaggrin. Although there is another version of this disease which is non-heritable but does not occur often. It is called acquired ichthyosis vulgaris. [read more]

  • Double outlet right ventricle
    Double Outlet Right Ventricle or DORV often coincides with a defect in the ventricular septal area (VSD), which is characterized by an opening in the heart septum which is not normally there. This allows the blood to pass in between the right and the left ventricles. In DORV, a VSD is helpful since it allows the blood carrying the oxygen from the left ventricle to pass to the right ventricle to other parts of the body but these blood mix with other blood poor in oxygen. As effect, the heart must work very hard in order to maintain proper and adequate circulation. [read more]

  • Double Uterus
    Double uterus or uterus didelphys is a condition characterized when the tubes (which start out as two small tubes in a female fetus) don't join completely to create one hollow organ which is the uterus, but instead each one develops into a separate cavity as the fetus develops. [read more]

  • Downs syndrome
    Down syndrome otherwise known as trisomy 21 is a disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. This disorder was termed as chromosome 21 trisomy in 1959 by J?r?me Lejeune. It is characterized by major and minor structural differences. Down syndrome is always associated with impairments of the cognitive ability and the physical growth. Facial appearance also is different. This disorder can be known even during pregnancy or right at birth. [read more]

  • Dracunculiasis
    Dracunculiasis also more commonly called and known by people as Guinea worm disease (GWD), is a kind of infection that is caused by the parasitic organism Dracunculus medinensis. It is also alternately known as "Guinea worm" or "Medina worm" or "fiery serpent" in English. The name reflects the word, which is Latin, Dracunculus. This means "little dragon". [read more]

  • Dressler's Syndrome
    Dressler's syndrome is the medical term that refers to the health complication that typically occurs after a heart surgery or heart attack. This is characterized by the inflammation of the pericardium or the sac that surrounds the heart. This is primarily caused by the reaction of the immune system after weeks or several days of contracting heart injury. [read more]

  • Drug Eruption
    Drug eruption is characterized by an adverse reaction to medication. This is known as the undesirable and unintended reaction to certain drugs, causing side effects. In such cases, the skin is the most common affected area of the body and often forms rashes and other visible skin conditions. [read more]

  • Drug Induced Liver Disease
    Drug-induced liver disease is the term used to describe liver illnesses brought about by certain prescribed medications, vitamins, hormones and recreational drugs. [read more]

  • Dry Skin
    Dry skin is also known by a medical term xerosis, which is ordinarily not considered to be a serious problem. However, in most cases it can be rather unsightly or uncomfortable as it is known to shrivel plump skin cells creating wrinkles and fine lines. [read more]

  • Dry Socket
    Dry socket is a form of dental condition that usually occurs when the site of the tooth extraction has dislodged the blood clot, thereby exposing the nerves and bones. This causes a more intensified pain. This dental complication is quite common after tooth extraction. [read more]

  • Duane syndrome
    Duane syndrome or DS is a very rare, congenital disorder that affects the eye movement. It is ofte times characterized by the eye's inability to turn out. It is named after Alexander Duane who made a very comprehensive discussion of the disorder back in 1905. Other terms referring to this condition also include Congenital retraction syndrome, Eye Retraction Syndrome, Duane's Retraction Syndrome or DR syndrome, Retraction Syndrome, and Stilling-Turk-Duane Syndrome. [read more]

  • Dubin-Johnson syndrome
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a disorder usually autosomal and recessive. This condition causes an increase of bilirubin without elevation of the liver enzymes ALT and AST. This condition is often associated with the inability of hepatocytes to secrete produced conjugated bilirubin to the bile in the liver. It can be diagnosed in early infancy. Building up of biliburin in the bloodstrean cause yellowish color of the eye and skin. [read more]

  • Dubowitz syndrome
    Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder. It is often characterized by microcephaly, slow to very retarded growth and a rather unusual facial appearance like having small or round or even triangular shaped with a pointed chin with either a broad or wide-tipped nose, and eyes which are usually wide-set and drooping eyelids. It was first described by English physician Victor Dubowitz in 1965. Majority of cases are from the Russia, United States, and Germany. It also appears to have an equal affect to different ethnicities and even genders. [read more]

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    is a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by decreasing muscle mass and progressive loss of muscle function in male children [read more]

  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterized by the abnormal multiplication of cells and the gradual formation of a growth within a milk duct of the breast. This medical condition may be difficult to detect. However, this is normally not a fatal condition since it is not a form of cancer but would still require a form of treatment. [read more]

  • Dumping Syndrome
    Dumping syndrome is characterized by a group of symptoms that are known to likely develop following a surgery that removes a certain part of the stomach. This is also known as the rapid emptying of the undigested contents in the stomach. [read more]

  • Duodenal Atresia
    is the congenital deficiency or complete closure of a part of the lumen of the duodenum. [read more]

  • Dust Mite Allergy
    Dust mites are microscopic organism that is somehow related to spiders and are usually found in most homes. These organisms are too small to see, and thrive in warm and humid environments. They feed on dead skin cells and nests in fabrics, beddings, furnishings and other dust-collecting objects. As the dust mites leave their residue such as decaying bodies and feces, it freely floats in the air and become an allergen. While not all people are allergic to dust mites, it can be a serious bother to people who are allergic to it. [read more]

  • Dwarfism
    Dwarfism is a medical condition that refers to a condition of extremely small stature of an effected animal or even plant. Any known type of the marked human smallness is typically regarded as dwarfism in the much older, popular as well as the medical usage. The term as actually related to human beings that are often used to refer specifically to such forms of extreme shortness that is characterized by disproportionate body parts, which is believed to be typically due to a genetic disorder of the bone or cartilage development. [read more]

  • Dysautonomia
    is any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This typically includes the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome orPOTS, neurocardiogenic syncope, pure autonomic failure as well as autonomic instability and several number of a much lesser-known disorders. Other type of disorders, such as the multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome) as well as the chronic fatigue syndrome, both have dysautonomia as one of the many system malfunctions. [read more]

  • Dysbarism
    Refers to a medical condition that is often a result from the series of changes in environment's pressure. There are various strenuous activities that are associated with pressure changes such as scuba diving, which is said to be the most frequently cited example, but pressure changes would also affect people who are working in pressurized environments such as the line workers that are assigned in the decompression areas along with people who move between different altitudes like in mountain climbing. [read more]

  • Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica
    Dysencephalia splachnocyxtica is not an ordinary ailment and is characterized by a severe genetic disorder that primarily affects the kidney along with some related cystic dysplasia, that causes the malfunctioning of the central nervous system and can eventaully create several hepatic developmental defects. [read more]

  • Dysfibrinogenemia, familial
    Dysfibrinogenemia, familial is a type of familial medication condition that is not common. It is associated with an abnormal fibrinogen. Dysfibrinogenemia, familial involves several types and subtypes including Detroit, Wiesbaden, and Amsterdam dysfibrinogenemia. [read more]

  • Dysgerminoma
    Dysgerminoma is considered to be the most common classification of malignant form of germ cell ovarian cancer. Dysgerminoma usually occurs in adolescence and early adult life; about 5% occur in pre-pubertal children. Dysgerminoma is known to be an extremely rare medical condition that usually occurs after age 50. Dysgerminoma occurs in both sections of the ovaries in more than 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor found to have developed in the other ovary. [read more]

  • Dysgraphia
    Dysgraphia generally refers to extreme difficulty in handwriting. The condition is defined as a learning disability as a result of difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. [read more]

  • Dyshidrosis
    Dyshidrosis, is also known by another medical term called dyshidrotic eczema or pompholyx. This is characterized by a skin condition where there is a development of small, fluid-filled blisters that usually occur on the palms of the hands or the soles the feet, or even both. [read more]

  • Dyskeratosis congenita
    Dyskeratosis congenita is also referred to as Zinsser-Engman-Cole Syndrome. It is a type of rare disease that is characterized by a gradual failure of the bone marrow. [read more]

  • Dyskinesia, drug induced
    Dyskinesia, drug induced generally refers to the symptom that is caused by the high-dose or long term usage of the drug calleddopamine antagonists, which are usually used as antipsychotics medications and antiemetic metoclopramide. Such neuroleptic drugs are generally used to be prescribed to treat a number of different types of psychiatric disorders. Other forms of dopamine antagonists that are known to cause tardive dyskinesia are drugs used for the treat cases of gastrointestinal disorders along with some neurological disorders. Majority of the drugs that are not actually intended to affect the dopamine, such as the antidepressants, may be also the main cause of tardive dyskinesia. While there are newer atypical antipsychotics available in the market today such as olanzapine and risperidone that may initially appear to have lesser dystonic ill-effects, only clozapine has been proven to have a signioficantly lower risk of complications such as tardive dyskinesia in comparison to the older antipsychotics. [read more]

  • Dyslexia
    Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that primarily involves reading and writing characterized by trouble in word-sounds processing and difficulty in short-term verbal memory; evidences are visible in spoken and written language. The condition is an impairment of the ability of the brain to translate written images received by the eyes into meaningful language. [read more]

  • Dyslexia In Children
    Dyslexia is a learning disability that affects children in various ways. The major areas covered by dyslexia are reading, spelling and writing problems. [read more]

  • Dysmenorrhea
    Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for menstrual cramps, referring to dull and throbbing pain felt in the lower abdomen just before or during menstrual periods. [read more]

  • Dysostosis
    Dysostosis is the disorder that has something to do with the bone's development. In definition, it is defective formation of the bone, whether individual bones or collective ones. [read more]

  • Dysphagia
    Dysphagia is the medical term that denotes persistent difficulty in swallowing usually occurring at any age but is most common to occur in older adults. [read more]

  • Dysplastic Nevi
    Dysplastic nevi also called Clark's nevi and atypical moles are moles that are regarded as precancerous moles and have the tendency to turn into melanoma instead of regular moles. They are generally larger, irregular and have differences in color that may range from pink to dark brown; flat with some areas elevated above the surface of the skin. [read more]

  • Dysthymic Disorder
    Dysthymic disorder or dysthymia is a chronic condition marked by symptoms of depression or lack of interest in activities that were thought to be enjoyable before; however the condition is less severe than a major depression. [read more]

  • Dystonia, Cervical
    Cervical dystonia is characterized by a painful condition wherein the muscles of the neck contract involuntarily. This causes the head to turn or twist to one side. Most often this condition causes the repetitive jerky motion of the head. [read more]

  • Eale's disease
    Eale's disease is categorized as an idiopathic obliterative vasculopathy that typically involves and affects the peripheral retina among young adults. The clinical findings for Eale's disease is primarily characterized by some avascular areas located in the retina periphery, the dilation of the capillary channels, as well as spontaneous chorioretinal scars. [read more]

  • Ear Infection, Middle Ear
    Ear infections are known to be among the common illnesses that occur during early childhood. In fact, statistics show that about 3 out of four children experienced ear infection by the age of three. [read more]

  • Eardrum, Ruptured
    A ruptured eardrum is usually characterized by a hole or tears in the eardrum, which interrupts the natural hearing process and cause impaired hearing. Aside from that the eardrum also acts a barrier against bacteria and foreign materials from entering the ear. Hence, a rupture eardrum can make a person highly susceptible to ear infections. [read more]

  • Early Menopause
    Early menopause refers to the loss of the normal function of the ovaries before a woman reaches the age of 40. This condition is brought about by the failure of the ovaries to produce enough number of estrogen hormones, which often leads to infertility. [read more]

  • Early Puberty
    Early puberty is characterized by the rapid growth of the muscles and bones as well as premature changes in the size and shape of the body. This condition is often more prevalent among girls than boys. [read more]

  • Earwax Blockage
    Earwax blockage is the obstruction of the ear canal with cerumen. Cerumen or popularly known as earwax is part of the body's natural defenses that protects the ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria. [read more]

  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever
    Ebola hemorrhagic fever has been identified to be among the most deadliest group of diseases that is categorized under viral hemorrhagic fevers. The severity of this condition range from some mild illnesses that can possibly development into something that is potentially fatal, causing complications in the kidney function, sever bleeding, chock and respiratory problems. [read more]

  • Ebstein's anomaly
    Ebstein's anomaly, or more popularly referred to as Ebstein's malformation, is characterized by a heart defect that primarily consists of the malformation of the tricuspid valve. This is a serious medical condition where 1 or 2 out of the 3 leaflets are found to be stuck on the heart's wall, hampering the natural movement of the heart. In most cases, there is a hole found in the atria wall, causing malfunctioning as well as leakage. [read more]

  • Ectrodactyly
    Ectrodactyly is categorized as a form of birth defect that causes malformations of the feet and/or hand. Majority of this condition, the middle toe or the middle finger is missing or may be fused together with other neighboring digits. Hand formations usually share the similar appearance of lobster hands. [read more]

  • Eczema
    Eczema also known as atopic dermatitis is a long lasting condition featuring an itchy eruption on the skin; usually accompanied by asthma or hay fever. The condition is often found in infants and children but can be a continual condition into adulthood. In some cases, the condition appears later on in life. [read more]

  • Eczema Dyshidrotic
    Dyshidrotic eczema or dyshidrosis or pompholyx, is a condition in which the skin, especially the hands and feet, develop small and itchy blisters. Said blisters last up to three weeks and cause intense itching. Cracks and grooves result when the blisters dry, which can be painful. [read more]

  • ED (Erectile Dysfunction)
    The inability of a man to maintain a firm erection long enough to have sex is called erectile dysfunction (ED). The condition is more common among older men but can occur at any age. Though the condition may not really be cause for concern from time to time, it can cause stress, relationship problems, and may affect self-esteem. [read more]

  • Edema
    Simply known as swelling, edema is the enlargement or organs, skin, or other body parts. The most common parts where swelling is observed are the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. [read more]

  • Egg Hypersensitivity
    Egg Hypersensitivity is defined as the development of allergic reactions after ingestion of egg or other food that contains egg. It is believed that the albumin is the culprit behind the allergic reactions which may trigger a number of symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to serious ailments. [read more]

  • Ehrlichiosis
    Ehrlichiosis was first discovered towards the end of the 19th century, which is a disease that is transmitted by ticks, otherwise known as tick-borne diseases. Among the very first victims identified were from Japan that was characterized by swollen lymph nodes and fever. In the South Central and Southeastern regions of United states, the lone s tar tick, known as Amblyomma americanum has been identified as the primary culprit of this medical condition. [read more]

  • Eight Day Measles
    Eight-day measles is one of the alternate names of measles, a contagious disease common among children. It is characterized by red spots that appear on the skin, runny nose and incessant coughing. When not treated measles can be very fatal, as the disease has been one of the main causes of death among infants and young children. [read more]

  • Eisenmenger's syndrome
    Eisenmenger's syndrome is categorized as a medical condition that involves the collection of symptoms such as cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension and erythrocytosis. This disease is usually found among young teenagers and adults that suffer from some form of congenital heart defect that may or may not have been repaired surgically. This may also be closely associated to pulmonary hypertension. [read more]

  • Elective mutism
    Elective mutism or selective mutism is an extremely rare disorder where the young kid chooses not to talk even when addressed to during social events even though it is an established fact that he/she can talk. [read more]

  • Elephantiasis
    Elephantiasis is a medical condition characterized by some gross enlargement of a certain area of the body, mostly affecting the limbs as well as the external genitalia. Elephantiasis is primarily caused by an obstruction of the patient's lymphatic system, which often results in the buildup of fluid known as lymph in the particular affected areas. As part of the immune system, the lymphatic system is designed to effectively protect the body against diseases and infections. This system consists of an intricate network of vessels, hence the obstruction of the tubular channels would naturally cause swelling and enlargement. [read more]

  • Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a type of an inherited disorder that primarily affects the bone growth that would eventually result in short stature or more popularly known as as dwarfism. People with medical condition typically have particularly short lower legs, forearms and short ribs. It is also associated malformations of the teeth and extra digits in hand and feet. [read more]

  • emetophobia
    Emetophobia is the irrational fear of vomiting & being near with those are vomiting. People who suffer with the said phobia tend to constantly avoid eating out as well as socializing and going out to parties. Emetophobics will go to extraordinary mile to avoid becoming violently sick. [read more]

  • emphysema
    Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), previously termed a chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). This is called an obstructive lung disease because the destruction of lung tissue around smaller airways, called bronchioles, makes these airways incapable to hold their shape properly when you exhale. [read more]

  • empty sella syndrome
    Empty sella syndrome refers to the medical disorder that primarily involves sella turcica, which is actually a bony structure that is located at the base of the brain that typically protects and surrounds the pituitary gland. Its is a condition that is often revealed during tests for pituitary disorders, when radiological imaging of the pituitary gland reveals a sella turcica that appears to be empty. Empty sella syndrome is found to be more common in women who have overweight issues or those who also have abnormally high blood pressure. [read more]

  • Empyema
    Empyema is a condition characterized by accumulation of pus in a body cavity usually in the cavity between the lung and the membrane surrounding the lung. [read more]

  • encephalitis
    Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, normally caused by a viral infection. It's a rare disease that only occurs in approximately 0.5 per 100,000 individuals - most commonly in children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. [read more]

  • encephalitis lethargica
    Encephalitis lethargica or otherwise known as von Economo disease is categorized as an atypical manifestation of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness" or as "sleeping sickness".EL is a dreadful illness that swept the world in the 1920s and then vanished as quickly as it had appeared. EL primarily attacks the brain, then leaving some of its victims in a rather statue-like condition, both motionless as well as speechless. [read more]

  • encephalocele
    Encephalocele, is a neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull. [read more]

  • encephalomyelitis
    Encephalomyelitis is a general term for inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, describing a number of disorders like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis , encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis; equine encephalomyelitis and myalgic encephalomyelitis [read more]

  • Encopresis
    Encopresis is the voluntary or involuntary passage of stools in children over age 4. This occurs when a child resists having bowel movements, causing impacted tool to collect in the colon and rectum. Liquid stool can leak around the impacted stool then out of the anus, which causes the soiling of the underwear. The condition is also called stool holding. [read more]

  • Endocardial Cushion Defect
    Endocardial cushion defect or also known as atrioventricular canal defect is a combination of several abnormalities in the heart that is congenital. In this condition, a hole between the chambers of the heart is present. There are also problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart. The condition is also called atriventicular septal defect. There are two common types of atrioventricular canal defect. The fist one is partial, which means that only the two upper chambers of the heart are involved. The other one is called the complete form, which allows the blood to travel freely among all chambers but also lets extra blood circulate to the lungs, causing the heart to enlarge. [read more]

  • Endocrinopathy
    Endocrinopathy is a disorder associated with an endocrine gland. It is also often known as a hormone imbalance. It is a collective term for diseases in the endocrine glands associated with hormones [read more]

  • Endometrial Cancer
    Endometrial cancer is a common type of cancer affecting most American women. Roughly forty thousand American women are diagnosed per year, making it the 4th most common female cancer. It begins in the lining of the uterus (called the endometrium), and may also affect other cells of the uterus. It is alternatively known as uterine cancer, and usually appears as the female's reproductive period ends, usually at ages 60-70. [read more]

  • Endometriosis
    Endometriosis is a very common condition of women characterized by a growth outside the uterus of the endometrium which is the tissue that lines the uterus. This disorder is known to have affected women who are around 30 to 40 years old and who have not experienced being pregnant. These women are of reproductive age all around the world. This disorder, however, can occur just rarely in women at their postmenopausal age. In Endometriosis, the endometrium, which is misplaced, is unable to get out of the body. Although the tissues will still detach from the wall and bleed, but the result is internal bleeding, the surrounding areas swell, pain, shedding of blood and tissue, and scar tissue formation. [read more]

  • Endomyocardial fibrosis
    Endomyocardial fibrosis otherwise known as EMF is a kind of disease, progressive, which is due to unknown origin or idiopathic that is known to affect the heart seriously. The most obvious feature of this disease is a great change in the lining of the heart cavities known as the endocardium in one or can be both of the chambers of the heart in the lower part. It may also involve the heart valves found between the four chambers of the heart including the tendon-like cords holding the valves to the ventricles. Endomyocardial fibrosis is also similar to Loeffler's disease. Some regard Loeffler's disease as an early stage of the EMF, however, this idea remains to be controversial. This is one form of the Hypereosinophilic syndrome [read more]

  • Enetophobia
    Enetophobia is described as "a persistent, unwarranted, and abnormal fear of pins." Every year this very common phobia or fear causes so many people distress of being needless. To make things worst for such very distressing condition, most therapies usually take months or even years which at times will even require the person frequent and countless exposure to his fear. It is believed that the procedure is not only unnecessary, it also often worsen the condition. It is really cruel the fear can be eliminated with just 24 hours of commitment provided the right method is done to the patient. [read more]

  • Enlarged Heart
    Enlarged heart or cardiomegaly is a sign of an underlying problem. [read more]

  • Enlarged Prostate
    Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as the age. When the prostate gland grows bigger, it can press on the urethra and cause urination and bladder problems. Prostate gland enlargement is also known for the medical term benign prostate hyperplasia. [read more]

  • Enlarged Spleen
    Also known as splenomegaly, enlargement of the spleen, as the name suggests, is the growing of the spleen beyond its normal size. [read more]

  • Enlarged Thyroid
    Goiter, or the enlargement of the thyroid gland, is a condition more common in women and older adults. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland weighing less than an ounce, located just below the Adam's apple. [read more]

  • Enteric Fever
    Enteric Fever It is commonly known as typhoid fever which is an uncommon illness in the developed countries but it is a serious illness in developing countries. Typhoid fever is transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with an infected individual. [read more]

  • Enterocele
    Enterocele is a condition among women in which the muscles and tissues that hold the small bowel in place stretch or weaken, causing the small bowel to drop from its original position and protrude through the vaginal wall, and creating a bulge. Vaginal hernia is the result of enterocele. [read more]

  • Entropion
    Entropion refers to a medical condition wherein the eyelids tend to fold inward. This situation can be very annoying since the eyelashes that rub against the cornea may cause friction and irritation. [read more]

  • Eosinophilia - myalgia syndrome
    Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome or EMS is an incurable neurogical condition. Sometimes this conditon is fatal to some patients. It is flu-like condition that is associated to be triggered by ingestion or consumption of L-tryptophan supplements which are poorly produced. Like the regular eosinophilia, it can cause increase in the eosinophil granulocytes present in the patient's blood. There are new developments though, another explanation for EMS claims that it is brought about by the consumption of large amount of tryptophan. It leads to the production of the metabolites, which can interfere with the normal degradation of histamine. Also too much activity of histamine has been associated and related to blood eosinophilia and myalgia. [read more]

  • Eosinophilic fasciitis
    Eosinophilic fasciitis also called EF, is a form of a fascia inflamation. It is different from scleroderma because most of the time the area affected is the fascia and not the dermis as in the case of scleroderma. Also, not like scleroderma when the patients manifests the Raynaud's phenomenon and the telangiectasia, patients are not observed to have those manifestations. This disease is more commonly observed in men and less likely in women. Some cases have also been reported to have occured after a strenuous exercise [read more]

  • Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis or EG is a heterogeneous condition which is usually rare and characterized by some patchy or diffuse infiltration of the gastrointestinal tissue. It is also classified into different clasifications like serosal, mucosal, and muscular types basing on the involvement depth. For this condition, any part of the gastrointestinal tract may be affected. Also an involvment of the isolated biliary tract was reported. Most of the time it is the stomach that is commonly affected, then the small intestine and then the colon [read more]

  • Epicondylitis
    Epicondylitis (lateral) otherwise known as tennis elbow, is a very common problem encountered by physicians in the orthopedic practice. It is an injury due to the overuse of the part which involves the extensor or the supinator muscles originating on the lateral part of the epicondylar region of the distal humerus. It has been noted to occur in at least 50% of tennis athletes. But this condition is not only limited to the tennis players, it also has been reported to occur due to any overuse of the specific parts to many activities. Lateral epicondylitis is also very common in today's very active society. [read more]

  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is also termed as Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia or Lutz-Lewandowsky epidermodysplasia verruciformis. This is a very rare skin disease which is characterized by growth of scaly macules and rashes or papules, especially on the patient's feet and hands. Epidermodysplasia usually begins in childhood stage without any known cure. In some cases though, high doses of vitamin A may help ameliorate the condition. [read more]

  • Epidermoid carcinoma
    Epidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma is a form of carcinoma type cancer which may occur in different numerous organs which includes the urinary bladder, skin, mouth, lips, esophagus, prostate, lungs, vagina, and also the cervix. It is often a malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium or the epithelium that presents squamous cell differentiation. [read more]

  • Epidermoid Cysts
    Often painless and slow-growing small bumps that develop just beneath the skin on the neck, face, trunk and sometimes in the genital area are called epidermoid cysts. These cysts don't usually cause problems or need treatment unless they become a cosmetic concern, or become infected or they rupture where they can just be removed surgically. [read more]

  • Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is also called bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. This condition is a relatively rare autosomal ichthyosis which is dominant. It was first described in 1902 by Brocq as bullous a ichthyotic erythroderma to distinguish it from the congenital ichthyotic erythroderma. The defect which causes the condition is found to be in the genes for keratin 1 and 10. [read more]

  • Epididymitis
    Epididymitis is a condition wherin the epididymis swell or becomes inflamed. This medical condition may entail mild to extremely pain. Adminsitration of antibiotics may also be needed to control infection. Epididymis is structure located along the posterior area of the testis. It is coiled and tubular in appearance. It is the structure that allows for the transport, storage, and maturation of the sperm cells and also connecting the efferent ducts to the vas deferens. Swelling of the epididymis can either be acute or chronic and is commonly caused by infection. [read more]

  • Epilepsy
    Epilepsy is a very common chronic neurological condition characterized by a recurrent seizure which is usally.The unprovoked seizures are transient signs or symptoms brought about by synchronous, abnormal, or excessive activities of the neurons in the patient's brain.There are about 50 million people around the world who suffer epilepsy at an any given time. Not all of epilepsy syndrome cases occur in a lifetime. Some forms of this disorder are only confined to some certain stages of childhood. Epilepsy, however, should not be considered or interpreted as a single disorder, rather occur as a group of syndromes with widely divergent symptoms which are all involving an episodic, abnormal electrical activity in the brain. [read more]

  • Epilepsy juvenile absence
    Epilepsy juvenile absence otherwise known as absence seizures are one of the many kinds of seizures. These seizures are also sometimes called petit mal seizures in an older term. In Epilepsy juvenile absence, the person can appear to be without jerking or could also appear to be staring into a blank wall or without twitching any eye muscle. These periods could last for seconds, or for a longer time of ten seconds. People experiencing absence seizures at times tends to move from one place to another without even a purpose. [read more]

  • Epstein barr virus mononucleosis
    Epstein barr virus mononucleosis is also known as infectious mononucleosis. It is also known by other terms like the kissing disease or the Pfeiffer's disease. It is also most commonly called as glandular fever. This condition occurs most frequently in young adolescents and at times to young adults. Infectious Mononucleosis or kissing fever entails only very mild illness in small children, and usually asymptomatic. [read more]

  • Equinophobia
    Equinophobia is a medical or mental condition defined as "a rather unwarranted, persistent, and abnormal fear of horses." [read more]

  • Erb-Duchenne palsy
    Erb-Duchenne Palsy is also referred to as Brachial plexus paralysis or simply Erb's Palsy. This is a condition which is mainly caused by birth trauma. It can affect one or can be all of the primary nerves supplying the feeling and movement of the arm. The Erb's palsy can be cured even without intervention or it may sometimes require correction by a surgical intervention. [read more]

  • Erysipelas
    Erysipelas also known as Saint Anthony's Fire, is a streptococcus bacterial infection of the skin that results inflammation. It occurs on any part of the body, including the face, arms, fingers, legs and toes. [read more]

  • Erysipeloid
    Erysipeloid is a cutaneous disease characerized by indolent cellulitis. This disease is common among meat and fish handlers. [read more]

  • Erythema Infectiosum
    Commonly called as the fifth of a group of once-common childhood diseases with small rashes where the other four are measles, rubella, scarlet fever and Dukes' disease, erythema infectiosum is what doctors refer today as parvovirus infection. It is still a common but mild infection in children because it generally requires little treatment. Some people often call it a slapped-cheek disease because of the face rash that develops resembling slap marks, but for some pregnant women, it can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. [read more]

  • Erythema Multiforme
    Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder that is idiopathic or has unknown cause. But some experts said that this disease is cause by malfunction of the immune system due to infection or drug exposure that affects the skin and oral mucous membrane. It is a self-limiting skin disease, it means that the disease will just relieve without treatment. It will complicate to Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a life threatening skin disorder cause by drug allergic reaction. [read more]

  • Erythema Nodosum
    Erythema nodosum is a kind of ‘skin inflammation', found in a specific part of the skin's fatty layer. The disorder results in painful, tender, reddish lumps that's most commonly found in front of one's legs on the lower part of the knees. These lumps vary in dimension, from one to five centimeters. The lumps can also occur for several weeks or months, and eventually go away. [read more]

  • Erythrasma
    A common skin condition affecting the skin folds and is called erythrasma. An infection by the bacterium Corynebacterium minutissimum is a result of the slowly enlarging patches of pink to brown dry skin. People affected by this condition are mostly overweight or have diabetes which are common in warm climates. [read more]

  • Erythroderma
    Erythroderma It is also known as erythrodermatitis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, and also called as red man syndrome. It is refer to as a generalized skin disorder that is caused by different types of skin diseases like psoriasis, and some skin allergies. [read more]

  • Erythromelalgia
    Erythromelalgia is also popularly known as Mitchell's disease. Other terms associated with Erythromelalgia are red neuralgia, or erythermalgia. This is a rather rare disorder characterized by the blood vessels located usually in the legs of the lower extremeties are blocked and becomes inflamed. The blocking then entails a severe pain and skin redness. Oftentimes, the attacks of Erythromelalgia comes in a periodic pattern and are mostly triggered by too much heat, drinking alcohol, or exertion. It can also occur as a primary or can be a secondary disorder. Oftentimes, econdary erythromelalgia could result from minute fiber peripheral neuropathy cause by any factors, poisoning from the mushroom or mercury, hypercholesterolemia, and some autoimmune disorders. [read more]

  • Erythroplakia
    Erythroplakia is a red patch which is usually flat or a swelling in the mouth area that cannot be associated to other pathology. There are many various conditions which appear similar. This conditions must be ruled out and distinguished from erythroplakia before a certained diagnosis of the condition can be made. There are times that a diagnosis is up to be delayed for long periods up to two weeks so that or to see if the swell or the lesion is spontaneously regressing or if there is another cause that can be found. Erythroplakia usually is associated to dysplasia. [read more]

  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria
    Erythropoietic protoporphyria is a rather mild type or form of a porphyria , although it is very painful. This condition arises because of a deficiency in the human ferrochelatase enzyme. The deficiency then leads to abnormal often very high levels of protoporphyrin present in the tissue. The extent of the condition significantly varies from one person to another. [read more]

  • Escherichia Coli Infection
    Escherichia coli infection is infection brought about by the Escherichia group of bacteria including numerous strains, causing severe stomach cramps and diarrhea and is more common during the summer months. [read more]

  • Esophageal atresia
    Esophageal atresia is also otherwise known as Oesophageal atresia. This condition is a medical birth defect condition, which usually affects the alimentary tract. It causes the esophagus to result in a blind-ended pouch impeding its function of normally connecting to the stomach. [read more]

  • Esophageal disorders
    Esophageal disorders refers to any disorder or abnormal conditions associated to the esophagus. It may include Achalas, Chagas disease, Caustic injury to the esophagus, Esophageal atresia and Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal web, Esophagitis, GERD, Hiatus hernia, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Neurogenic dysphagia, Schatzki's ring, Zenker's Diverticulum, and Boerhaave syndrome. [read more]

  • Esophageal Ulcer
    Sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach, upper small intestine or esophagus are called peptic ulcers. There are three different names for peptic ulcer depending on the location namely gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and esophageal ulcer. The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is pain. [read more]

  • essential hypertension
    Hypertension, HTN or HPN commonly called to as "high blood pressure”. It is a medical problem in which the blood pressure or BP of a person is elevated. A person is considered to be hypertensive if a person's systolic pressure is 140 mmhg and above while the diastolic pressure is 90 mmHg and above. There are two classification of hypertension , the essential or primary hypertension ,indicates that no specific medical factor that can explain the condition. The secondary hypertension indicates the condition of the patient is cause by another disorder. [read more]

  • essential thrombocytopenia
    Essential thrombocytopenia refers to low platelets level in blood. The normal platelet count in the blood ranges from 150,000 and 450,000 per mm3. While in thrombocytopenia it has less than 150,000 per mm. [read more]

  • Essential Tremor
    The word “essential” in essential tremor means that the disorder isn't linked to other disease and is a sign of a movement disorder characterized as dismissed trembling hands or shaking head also it is also part of a normal aging process. It is the most common of the many movement disorder. [read more]

  • Evans' Syndrome
    Evans' Syndrome is a disorder that refers to an autoimmune disease. It means that the patient's antibodies attack their own blood products like the red blood cells and platelet. It is commonly cause by the two autoimmune disorders, the Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (a condition in which the red blood cells are destroyed by an autoimmune process). And the immune thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition in which the platelets are destroyed by autoimmune process.) [read more]

  • Ewing's sarcoma
    Ewing's sarcoma is also known as primitive neuroectodermal tumor and bone cancer. It is a disease that the cancer cell is found in the bone. |It is commonly occurs in pelvisc bone, the femur bone, humerus bone, and the ribs. [read more]

  • Exogenous lipoid pneumonia
    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia Also known as Lipid pneumonia or lipoid pneumonia is a lung inflammation or what we called pneumonia. But the difference is the exogenous is the lipid has entered the bronchial tree or the lungs while in pneumonia the water enters the lungs. [read more]

  • Exploding head syndrome
    Exploding head syndrome is a medical disorder that the patient suffers from a very loud noise that comes from within his or her head. [read more]

  • Extrapontine Myelinolysis
    Extrapontine myelinolysis is a neurological disorder wherein the pons area, or myelin sheath in which the nerve cells are located, is damaged. [read more]

  • Eye Floaters
    Floaters are bits of cellular debris that come and go without treatment. They are often seen as floating specks in front of the eyes but they are not really on the surface but inside. Floater among other people may look like spots and to some they may look like tiny threads. [read more]

  • Eye Melanoma
    Melanoma that originates in your eye is termed a primary eye cancer. Eye melanoma is the most common type of primary eye cancer in adults, but it's rare. If the melanoma begins elsewhere and then spreads to your eye, it's called a secondary eye cancer; this also is rare. [read more]

  • Eye Melanoma Cancer
    Eye melanoma cancer is a disease affecting the cells in the eyes that produce melanin. It affects the frontal area of the uvea, particularly in the iris and ciliary body, as well as in the back portion of the uvea, particularly in the choroids layer. Melanoma is more commonly associated with skin cancer; however, it can also develop in an individual's eyes, as in the case of eye melanoma cancer. It may occur in the form of a primary eye cancer, which means that the melanoma originated in the eye; or as a secondary eye cancer, in which the melanoma has spread to the eye from some other part of the body. [read more]

  • Eyelid Inflammation
    Eye inflammation or also known as Blepharitis is a condition affecting the skin of the eyelids and usually involves the part of the eyelid where the eyelashes grow. [read more]

  • Fabry disease
    Fabry disease is basically caused by the faulty or lack of enzyme that are needed to efficiently metabolize lipids, which are fat-like substances that include waxes, oils and fatty acids. This enzyme is known as alpha-galactosidase-A or otherwise known as ceramide trihexosidase. [read more]

  • Faciocutaneoskeletal Syndrome
    Faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that takes place on the different organs of the body, causing multisystem disorder. [read more]

  • Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is also commonly known by another medical term as Landouzy-Dejerine. This is categorized as an autosomal dominant type of muscular dystrophy that primarily affects the patient's skeletal muscles of the scapula, face and upper arms. It is categorized as one of the most common genetic disorder that affects the skeletal muscle. The symptoms gradually develop and can become increasingly evident during the teenage years. [read more]

  • Factitious Disorder
    Also known as Munchausen syndrome, Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone pretends to be sick or deliberately causes illness of injury to fulfill his or her deep emotional needs. The disease is names after Baron von Munchausen. People with factitious disorder often make up symptoms, push for risky operations, or try to rig laboratory results in order to gain sympathy and concern. Munchausen syndrome [read more]

  • Factor II deficiency
    Factor II deficiency is categorized is an extremely rare disorder. To date, there are only about 26 reported cases of this medical condition and is said to only occur 1 in 2 million individuals. This is known as an autosomal recessive disorder that equally affects both women and men. This is also known as prothrombin deficiency, which is identified as a precursor to thrombin and manifests as an abnormality of the prothrombin structure. [read more]

  • Factor V Deficiency
    Factor V deficiency is a hereditary disorder in which there is an anomalous blood coagulation, resulting from a deficiency in a plasma protein called Factor V. Factor V functions as an enzyme cofactor; the deficiency will lead to a tendency for hemorrhage, while some mutations influence thrombosis. [read more]

  • Factor X Deficiency, Congenital
    Factor X Deficiency, Congenital -is an uncommon inherited disorder that involves the lack of a protein, known as Factor X, in one's blood. The deficiency in the protein leads to blood clotting problems, ranging from mild to serious. Women affected by the deficiency may experience extremely heavy menstrual flow, as well bleeding following delivery. [read more]

  • Factor XI Deficiency, Congenital
    Factor XI Deficiency, Congenital -is an uncommon hereditary bleeding disorder that involves a deficiency in blood protein Factor XI. This blood protein is required for the process of blood clotting. The disorder is typically mild, but its severity is variable. Factor XI deficiency may initially manifest as ‘incidental laboratory abnormality', which may show as early as circumcision or much later during possible surgery. [read more]

  • Factor XIII Deficiency, Congenital
    Factor XIII Deficiency, Congenital –is a very uncommon hereditary blood disorder that is characterized by anomalous blood clotting resulting in abnormal bleeding. Factor XIII is fundamentally a ‘plasma transglutaminase', which catalyzes the last step of coagulation cascade; it cross-links ‘loose fibrin polymer' into an extremely organized structure. Defect in Factor XIII results to the symptoms of the deficiency. [read more]

  • Fallen Arches
    Fallen arches or also known as Pes planovalgus, is a condition where the arch or instep of the foot collapses and comes in contact with the ground. This arch never develops in some individuals. [read more]

  • Fallen Bladder
    Fallen bladder is also called cystocele. This condition occurs when the wall in between the bladder and the vagina becomes weak allowing the bladder to fall into the vagina and causing problems emptying the bladder. A bladder that dropped off from the normal position may cause problems unwanted leakage of urine and the bladder emptied incompletely. A fallen bladder also stretches the opening of the urethra which cause urine to leak out when coughing, sneezing, laughing, or any movement putting pressure on the bladder. [read more]

  • Fallot Tetralogy
    Fallot tetralogy is a rare condition that involves defects inside the structures of the heart of young children and infants. Jointly, these defects lead to poor oxygen in blood flowing from the heart into the body. As a result, children and infants with this condition typically show blue-tinged skin. [read more]

  • Familial amyloid polyneuropathy
    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy, otherwise known as Corino de Andrade's Disease, is a deadly and untreatable health condition that was first identified in the 1950s. This disease is characterized by amyloidogenic transthyretin protein that aer systematically deposited particularly in the peripheral nervous system of the body. [read more]

  • Familial Mediterranean fever
    A genetic health condition, familial Mediterranean fever is characterized by the repeating occurrences of inflammation in the chest, abdomen, or joints. These episodes, which were found to be painful, typically happen along with fever, and at times, a rash. [read more]

  • Familial paroxysmal peritonitis
    Familial paroxysmal peritonitis or also known as Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited inflammatory disorder usually occurring among people with Mediterranean origin. A rare disorder, it is typically diagnosed during childhood. [read more]

  • familial periodic paralysis
    Familial periodic paralysis is an uncommon genetic disease that brings about weakness, or more severely, paralysis, but rarely causes death. While this is is passed on through the genes, not everyone in the family suffer the same degree of the condition. [read more]

  • familial polyposis
    Familial Polyposis is a genetic medical condition that attacks the patient's large intestine. Although this disease is considered rare, leaving it untreatedd can cause the onset of cancer. [read more]

  • Fanconi syndrome
    Fanconi syndrome is also known as Fanconi's syndrome is a disorder where in function of the proximal tubular of the kidney is damaged that results to reduced re-absorption of electrolytes and nutrients back into the bloodstream. Amino acids, glucose, phosphate, uric acid and bicarbonate are the compounds involved. This disorder should not be confused with Fanconi anemia which is another disease. [read more]

  • Fanconi syndrome, renal, with nephrocalcinosis and renal stones
    Fanconi Syndrome (also called Fanconi's syndrome) is a disorder in which the proximal tubular function of the kidney is impaired, leading to an decreased reabsorption of electrolytes and nutrients back into the bloodstream. Compounds involved include glucose, uric acid, amino acids, phosphate and bicarbonate. [read more]

  • Fanconi's anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (FA) is an inherited ailment that involves children and adults belonging to all ethnic backgrounds. FA is distinguished by skeletal abnormalities, short figure, elevated occurrence of solid tumors and leukemias, failure in bone marrow and cellular sensitivity destroying agents like mitomycin C. [read more]

  • Farber's disease
    Farber's disease is also referred to as Farber's lipogranulomatosis or ceramidase deficiency it illustrates a group of unusual autosomal recessive disorders that results from the build up of lipids in the joints, central nervous system and tissues. [read more]

  • farmer's lung
    Also known as hypersensitivity alveolitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, Farmer's Lung is defined as the occupational or environmental lung condition that is common among those who are constantly exposed to moldy crops like corn, grain, hay, and straw. [read more]

  • Farsightedness
    Farsightedness or hyperopia is a common vision condition in which an affected person can see objects in the distance clearly, but objects nearby may be blurry. The degree of farsightedness determines your focusing ability and for people with severe farsightedness, they can only clearly see objects at a great distance while those with mild farsightedness may clearly see objects that are closer. [read more]

  • Fascioliasis
    Fascioliasis is defined as a type of infection that is brought about by Trematoda, a certain class of flukes. Otherwise known as Fasciola Gigantica or sheep liver fluke, this condition is present worldwide, specifically in areas where cattle or sheep production is prevalent. [read more]

  • Fatal Familial Insomnia
    Fatal familial insomnia is a very rare and deadly disease that affects the central nervous system. It results to ‘spongiform degeneration' of the neurons inside the brain. It is characterized by extended incubation period, and it can be inherited, sporadic, or result from the intake of some contaminated food. [read more]

  • Fazio Londe Syndrome
    Fazio Londe syndrome is an uncommon hereditary ‘motor neuron' disorder found in young adults and children. The disease is distinguished by progressive weakness of the muscle that ultimately results to untimely death. Neuromuscular transmission in these muscles might be abnormal due to immature reinervation and rapid denervation. The disease can progress to an affected person's death in as short as nine months, or can have slow evolution. [read more]

  • Febrile seizure
    Febrile seizure usually happens in young kids and babies and it is because of high body temperature and fever. Luckily, when a child or a baby experiences febrile seizure it does not result to damage in the brain or any severe complications. Although, a baby that has febrile seizure should be attended immediately by a physician because the baby has a serious fever in this case. Even though the baby has a fever he need not be admitted but the physician must closely monitor the condition of the baby. [read more]

  • Feingold Syndrome
    Feingold syndrome is an extremely uncommon syndrome with several congenital anomalies. The syndrome is characterized largely by gastrointestinal abnormalities, toe and finger deformities, eye abnormities, and a small head. The features of the syndrome share considerable overlap with Vacterl and Vater connections, particularly patients that have esophageal/duodenal atresia. [read more]

  • Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy
    Feline spongiform encephalopathy is one of the three kinds of Prion diseases that greatly affect humans and animals. It is a contagious disease that triggers the brain's function, making patients exhibit unusual, uncontrollable behaviors. This can be a fatal disease when not immediately treated. Other forms of Prion diseases include mad cow disease, mink encephalopathy, and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy. It is also called “laughing disease”. [read more]

  • Felty's Syndrome
    Felty's syndrome is a result of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. It is characterized by the presence of rheumatoid arthritis, an enlarged spleen, and low white blood cell count. [read more]

  • Female Infertility
    Female infertility accounts for about 40-50 percent of all infertile couples. [read more]

  • Female Pseudo Turner Syndrome
    Female Pseudo-Turner Syndrome, also known as Noonan syndrome, is a rare hereditary disorder that is usually detected once the patient is born. [read more]

  • Female Pseudohermaphroditism
    Female pseudohermaphroditism is a type of pseudohermaphroditism wherein the affected person is an inherent and ‘gonadal' female having partial masculinization. Pseudohermaphroditism is a condition where the affected individual has gonads of one sex, but there's one or more existing contradictions in its morphologic sex criteria. In the case of female pseudohermaphroditism, a person has normal ovary development, internal reproductive tract, and XX karyotype, but they have virilized external or ambiguous genitalia. [read more]

  • Female Sexual Dysfunction
    Sexual dysfunction in women may involve a reduction in sex drive, a strong dislike of sexual activity, difficulty becoming aroused, inability to achieve orgasm, or pain with sexual activity or intercourse. [read more]

  • Fetal alcohol Syndrome
    A mother that drinks alcohol during her pregnancy may expose her fetus and may place her baby to a condition of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).Negative effects vary from one child to another; severe effects can include serious physical, mental and behavioral problems. [read more]

  • Fetal Face Syndrome
    Fetal face syndrome, also known as Robinow dwarfism, is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the infant's short stature due to postnatal growth retardation/ [read more]

  • Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
    Fetal hydantoin syndrome is an uncommon disorder that's caused by fetal exposure to an anticonvulsant medicine known as phenytoin or Dilantin. Dilantin is a drug commonly administered for treating epilepsy, and approximately one-third of the offspring of mothers who took the drug while pregnant developed minor limb and face defects. Some showed developmental delay, mental retardation, and growth problems. [read more]

  • Fetal Methyl Mercury Syndrome
    Fetal methyl mercury syndrome is a condition in which the fetus is exposed to methyl mercury, passed on from mother to fetus via the placenta. Methyl mercury is an ‘organometallic cation' and an environmental toxicant categorized as bioaccumulative. Fetal contact to methyl mercury is linked to mild developmental deficits, such as decreased memory function, attention deficit, and lesser IQ. [read more]

  • Fetal thalidomide syndrome
    Fetal thalidomide syndrome primarily results from the utero exposure to thalidomide. This medical condition is typically characterized the anomalies in the mental function and fetal growth, as well as other abnormalities that may include facial, cardiac, limb, kidney, anal, spinal and CNS. Preganant women who are exposed to thalidomide during the first trimester of pregnancy has 10-15% of risk of embryopathy. [read more]

  • Fetal warfarin syndrome
    Fetal warfarin syndrome is categorized as a very rare disorder tat primary caused by fetal exposure to an anticoagulant known as warfarin that would often result in neurological, physical and mental abnormalities. Patients usually develop nasal hypoplasia and cartilaginous calcification. [read more]

  • Fetishism
    Fetishism is a behavioral disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with a particular object of his desire. In some cultures fetishism is a form of religious practice in order to worship gods or deities. In individuals however, this behavior involves an extreme want for a certain item, which, the person deeply identifies him with. Fetishism can be a part of one's sexual fulfillment; others meanwhile regard this behavior as making their life complete. [read more]

  • Fever
    Also known as pyrexia is a symptom of disease that describes that there is an internal termporary increase in the body core temperature which is above the regular body's thermoregulatory set point usually about 1 – 2 0C. [read more]

  • Fever Blister
    Fever blisters or cold sores are the small and usually painful bumps or lesions on the skin of the lips, mouth, gum, or the lip area. These blisters occur when a person has Herpes labialis, an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. [read more]

  • Fg Syndrome
    FG syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes poor muscle tone, an abnormally large head, and recurring rectal problems. [read more]

  • Fibroma
    Fibroma is mainly a benign tumor which is made of fibrous connective tissues. This is a disease that is seen to be common among children and youngsters. This is found to occur to any part of the body. Generally, it can be categorized into Hard Fibroma or Soft Fibroma. Fibroma types include myxofibroma, pleomorphic fibroma, desmoplasmic fibroma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, cystic fibroma, ossifying fibroma, nonossifying fibroma and many more. [read more]

  • Fibromatosis
    The term fibromatosis specifically refers to the certain group of benign soft tissue tumors that presents particular characteristics that includes the absence of clinical malignant and cytologic features. The histology of fibromatosis is consistent with the proliferation of some well-differentiated fibroblasts, with filtrative growth patterns and rather aggressive clinical behavior. The mass usually be characterized by dense fibrocellular tissues that contain some mature fibrocytes and collagen that may be in various stages of maturation. These mass have atypical features and may have abnormal mitotic activity. [read more]

  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
    Fibromuscular dysplasia is categorized as a type of angiopathy that greatly affects medium-sized arteries and is observed to be predominant among women of childbearing age. This also affects renal arteries and can possibly cause refractory renovascular hypertension. Medical case reports have shown that Fibromuscular dysplasia also include coronary arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. [read more]

  • Fibromyomas
    Fibromyomas or uterine fibroids are non-cancerous tumors?that develop within or attach to the wall of the female reproductive organ called the uterus. [read more]

  • Fibrosis
    Fibrosis is a condition wherein there is a thickening of fibrous connective tissues - which is usually caused by an injury. A formation of a scar tissue occurs to replace damaged tissues. There are two main types of fibrosis - one is Pulmonary Fibrosis, while the other is Cystic Fibrosis. In pulmonary fibrosis, there will be an observed hardening or scarring of lung tissue. This is due to an excess in collagen. A variation of this is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis - with this however, the cause is unknown. In Cystic Fibrosis, it is a chronic disease of the body's mucus glands - where at times it could be fatal. [read more]

  • Fibrous dysplasia
    Fibrous dysplasia is characterized as a type of bone disorder in which case the scar-like tissue gradually develops in place of the bone. So as the bone gets bigger, the fibrous tissue correspondingly expands with it and thereby weakening the bones. This medical condition can result to deformed and brittle bones. [read more]

  • Fifth Disease
    Also commonly called as parvovirus infection or erythema infectiosum is a fifth of the common childhood diseases with similar rashes. Other four are measles, rubella, scarlet fever and duke's disease. With a compromised immune problem or with certain anemia's this disease can be also serious to people. [read more]

  • Filariasis
    Filariasis (Philariasis) is a type of an infectious and parasitic disease that is generallycaused by 3 thread-like parasitic filarial worms known as nematode worms, Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori, all of which can be transmitted by mosquitoes [read more]

  • Fish Tank Granuloma
    Fish tank granuloma is an infectious skin disease caused by the Mycobacterium marinum. In this disease, lesions grow on the skin and result to infections as well as tearing of the skin. The bacteria are commonly found in waters, particularly in swimming pools, and people exposed to salt or fresh water are more susceptible to the disease. Fish tank granuloma can be treated with antibiotics such as doxycyclin, and rifampin. [read more]

  • Fissured tongue
    Fissured tongue characterized as a benign medical condition that often referred to as plicated or scrotal tongue. It is distinguished as a tongue with deep or shallow furrows or grooves causing a rather wrinkled appearance of the tongue. This condition may be congenital and may gradually increase with age. [read more]

  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is characterized by pain that is typically felt on the right upper quadrant that is a result of an ascending infection of the pelvis and inflammation of the diaphragm or liver capsule. This medical condition is typically associated with another disease called acute salpingitis and usually mimics typical abdominal emergencies. Since there are a number of possibilities that may be associated with the symptoms of this disease, proper diagnosis is required to rule out other possibilities. [read more]

  • Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome
    Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome is considered as an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by a considerably slow progressive spastic paraplegia, along with skeletal anomalies of the feet and hand with brachydactyly type E. This also comes with cone-shaped epiphyses, sternal anomaly, abnormal metaphyseal–phalangeal pattern profile, mild intellectual deficit and dysarthria. To date, there are only three reported cases of this disease, two of which suffered from severe mental retardation. [read more]

  • Flaky Scalp
    A flaky scalp is usually a result of dandruff, a chronic condition wherein the skin on the scalp flakes off in unusually large amounts. A flaky scalp may be due to fungal development on the skin, or excess secretion from the scalp's sebaceous glands. Flaky scalps can be treated with a medicated shampoo. [read more]

  • Flatfeet
    Flatfeet or also known as Pes planovalgus, is a condition where the arch or instep of the foot collapses and comes in contact with the ground. This arch never develops in some individuals. [read more]

  • Flatulence
    Flatulence or flatus is passing of intestinal gas which generally everyone passes gas at least 12 times or more. Flatus usually isn't serious, but sometimes unexpelled gas can cause intense, intermittent pain in the abdominal region. [read more]

  • Flea Bites
    Flea bits are itchy spots that occur on the skin due to bites of parasitic insects called fleas. [read more]

  • Flesh eating bacteria
    Flesh eating bacteria is a very rare but very serious bacterial infection medically known as necrotizing fasciitis. This type of infection typically starts in the body tissues that are just below the skin and gradually spreads along the different layers of body tissues such as fat and muscle. This is considered as a highly dangerous infection and is usually found on the legs, arms and abdominal wall, making it a very fatal medical condition. [read more]

  • Floating Harbor Syndrome
    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare genetic disease that usually features a short stature among infants. Affected children suffer from delayed bone age, slow development of expressive language abilities, and a triangular shaped face. It is an autosomal dominant disorder that was first described in 1973. [read more]

  • Floppy Valve Syndrome
    Floppy valve syndrome or also known as Mitral valve prolapse is characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. MVP, in its nonclassis form, carries a low risk of complications. Severe cases of MVP though may include complications such as infective endocarditis, regurgitation and in rare circumstances, cardiac arrest that usually results to sudden death. The term for the disease was coined by J. Michael Criley in 1966. It gained acceptance over JB Barlow's ?billowing? of the mitral valve description. MVP has different subtypes namely classic, nonclassic, symmetric, asymmetric, flail or non-flail. The subtypes are based on the leaflet thickness, convacity and type of connection to the mitral annulus. [read more]

  • Flourosis
    Flourosis is actually not a medical disorder, not more of a cosmetic condition. Quite often, the condition is so mild, only professional dentists are able to detect it. This is largely brought about by the excessive fluoride in the body that can become a disruptive agent in enamel formation of the teeth. This can cause some minor discoloration or teeth surface irregularities. [read more]

  • Folate Deficiency Anemia
    Folate-deficiency anemia, classified under vitamin deficiency anemia, is the decrease in red blood cells caused by folate deficiency. [read more]

  • Folliculitis
    Infection of the hair follicles is called folliculitis. It is characterized by the appearance of the small, white headed pimples around one or more hair follicles which are superficial in most cases of infections. [read more]

  • Food Allergy
    While there are some people who have bad reactions to certain food, the real food allergy is actually triggered by the body's immune system and is known to be a rare condition. The hypersensitivity to food can cause a number of serious problem and can even lead to death. [read more]

  • Food Intolerance
    Food intolerance is an adverse reaction of the body to certain foods. A person may experience sudden reactions such as spasms, abdominal pain and weakness each time he consumes a certain kind of meal. This may be caused by an enzyme deficiency which should function to accommodate the food in the body's digestive tract. Food intolerance should not be confused with food allergy since it is not an autoimmune reaction. [read more]

  • Food Poisoning
    Food poisoning is an illness resulting from eating foods contaminated with viruses and bacteria. Depending on the kind of strain ingested by the victim, food poisoning can result to life-threatening diseases such as hepatitis A and dehydration. [read more]

  • Foodborne Illness
    Foodborne illnesses are any kind of illness associated with consumption of contaminated food. It is also known as food poisoning. [read more]

  • Forbes disease
    Forbes Disease occurs in 1 for every 100,000 live births. It is also called Cori's type III glycogenosis. It was Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori and Gilbert Burnett Forbes who developed an accurate description of this condition. This rare disease is due to a missing enzyme which causes abnormal glycogen levels to be absorbed by the body, namely the liver and the skeleton musculature. [read more]

  • Fordyce Spots
    Normal large, superficial sebaceous (oil-producing) glands seen on the moist tissue that lines some organs and body cavities (mucosal surfaces) are called Fordyce spots. Most commonly found at the border of the lips, the inner foreskin and on the head of the penis, the spots are asymptomatic. The lesions are also asymptomatic, but irritation or itching may happen if people treat the bumps inappropriately. [read more]

  • Forestier's Disease
    Also known as Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), Forestier's disease is the hardening of the tendons and ligaments that commonly affects the spine. Some people may experiences Forestier's disease beyond the spine since it can also affect tendons and ligaments in the heels, ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, elbows and hands. [read more]

  • Formaldehyde poisoning
    Formaldehyde is a highly toxic and flammable gas (when at room temperature). It has an irritating and penetrating odor that may or may not be easily detected. It is more commonly used for formalin solutions. Exposure to and contamination from harmful concentrations of this substance can cause Formaldehyde poisoning. [read more]

  • Fracture, Greenstick
    Greenstick fracture occurs when the bone cracks but does not break all the way through. This condition is common among children since a child's bones are more flexible and softer. [read more]

  • Fracture, Growth Plate
    Growth plates are the softer parts of a child's bones located at each end of the bone, where growth occurs. Growth plates are the weakest sections of the skeleton and since they are very fragile, an injury that would result in a joint sprain for an adult can cause a fracture in a child. [read more]

  • Fragile X syndrome
    Fragile X Syndrome is a defect in the X chromosome. This condition is the cause of mental retardation in people. People with defective X chromosomes exhibit various signs and symptoms. Those who have this body condition possess chromosomes which are fragile, prone to tear and break downs. Fragile X syndrome affects 1 in every 2,000 males. [read more]

  • Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome
    Francois Dyscephalic Syndrome is also known as the Hallermann-Streiff syndrome and the Oculomandibulofacial Syndrome. This is a disorder which greatly affects one's body stature, the head structure, and also hair growth. Patients who suffer from this kind of condition are often shorter than average people. They may be unable to develop facial hair and hair in other places such as the legs and the pubic areas. Many others have persisting problems with teeth development with some only developing one set in a lifetime. [read more]

  • Fraser syndrome
    Fraser Syndrome is also called Cryptophthalmos-syndactyly syndrome. It is a rare genetic disorder with abnormalities that include that of the head, the lungs, the kidneys, and the limbs. Malformations are a combination of acrofacial and urogenital ones which may be with cryptophthalmos or without. [read more]

  • FRAXA syndrome
    FRAXA Syndrome (also, Fragile X) is a cause of mental retardation most commonly inherited by males in the family. It is the most commonly observed cause of autism. [read more]

  • Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
    Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome is a multiple congenital contracture syndrome. It is the rarest of all MCC syndromes and is the most severe among forms of distal arthrogryposis. Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome is also called whistling-face syndrome and distal arthrogryposis type 2A (DA2A [read more]

  • Frey's syndrome
    Frey's syndrome is also known as Frey-Baillarger syndrome, Dupuy's syndrome, and Baillarger's syndrome. It is food related and can be congenital and also non-congenital. Some cases of this condition may persist for life. [read more]

  • Frigidity
    Frigidity, also known as inhibited sexual desire (ISD), is a manifestation of sexual aversion. It is a condition where a person no longer reacts responsively to sexual stimuli. Persons who are thought to be frigid show signs of indifference towards sexual intercourse. [read more]

  • Froelich's Syndrome
    Froelich's syndrome is an acquired medical condition involving endocrine abnormalities especially in the hypothalamus. Often associated with tumors in the hypothalamus, this syndrome commonly affects males only. It usually manifests during childhood, especially during puberty with occasional reports during the postadolescent period. Froelich's syndrome is also known by other synonyms such as Adiposogenital Dystrophy, Babinski-Froelich Syndrome, Dystrophia Adiposogenitalis, Frolich's Syndrome, Hypothalamic Infantilism-Obesity, Launois-Cleret Syndrome, and Sexual Infantilism. [read more]

  • Frostbite
    Frostbite, known in medicine as congelatio, is a condition characterized by damage to the skin and other tissue caused by exposure to extremely low temperatures, particularly temperatures below the freezing point. [read more]

  • Frozen Shoulder
    Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition marked by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. As the condition progresses, the shoulder's range of motion becomes markedly reduced. Frozen shoulder typically affects one shoulder at a time, although some people may eventually develop frozen shoulder in the opposite shoulder. [read more]

  • Fructose Intolerance
    Fructose intolerance is also known as fructose poisoning which is a condition that can be inherited. This disorder is marked by a liver enzymes deficiencies specifically those responsible to metabolize fructose. Another name for the disorder is hereditary fructosemia. [read more]

  • Fugue, Dissociative
    Dissociative fugue is a rare condition in which a person suddenly, without planning or warning, travels far from home or work and leaves behind his or her past life. Patients show signs of amnesia and have no conscious understanding or knowledge of the reason for their leave. The condition is usually linked with severe stress or trauma. Since persons cannot remember all or part of their past, at some point they become confused about their identity and the situations in which they find themselves. In rare cases, they may adopt on new identities. ` [read more]

  • Fulminant Liver Failure
    Acute liver failure (or fulminant liver failure) is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80-90% of liver cells). [read more]

  • Fungal Infection, Nail
    An infection of nail fungus develops when fungi infect one or more of the nails. A nail fungal infection may begin as a white or yellow spot under the tip of the fingernail or toenail. As the nail fungus spreads deeper into the nail, it may result to nail discoloration, thickening and developing of crumbling edges — an unsightly and potentially painful problem. [read more]

  • Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency
    Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency is also known as the first of three types of Galactosemia or otherwise called classic galactosemia. Since galactose is converted through the action of three enzymes, any deficiency in either of these enzymes would lead to galactosemia. Classic galactosemia or galactosemia type 1 is brought about by a deficiency in one of the three enzymes in the Leloir pathway known as Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase or GALT. GALT is responsible for converting galactose into usable glucose in the body. [read more]

  • Galactosemia
    Galactosemia is a rare congenital metabolic disorder which undermines the affected individual's ability to properly metabolize galactose, one of the sugars found in dairy products. The disorder was first described in 1917 by Goppert, and later fully identified in 1956 by a group led by Herman Kalckar. The incidence ratio of classic type galactosemia is 1 per 47,000 births. Glactosemia is often confused with lactose intolerance. However, galactosemia is a worse condition. Individuals with lactose intolerance have an inherited shortage of the enzyme lactase. These individuals experience abdominal pains after ingesting lactose products but don't have long term effects. In galactosemia, individuals who are afflicted with this disorder tend to have permanent damage to their bodies. [read more]

  • Gall Bladder Disease
    Gall bladder disease is characterized by the infection, inflammation, or obstruction of the gallbladder. Gall bladder disease is also alternatively known as gallbladder attack, biliary disease, or biliary colic. [read more]

  • Gangrene
    Complication of necrosis which is the ‘cell death' characterized by the decay of body tissues, which become black and malodorous. It caused by infection or ischemia, such as from thrombosis (blocked blood vessel). [read more]

  • Gas Pains
    These are air bubbles that can get trapped in the stomach and/or passed on to the intestine. [read more]

  • Gastric Erosion
    Gastric erosion is the inflammation of the stomach lining. It is a minor ulcer in the innermost part of the stomach. When left untreated, it becomes a gastric ulcer. [read more]

  • Gastroenteritis
    Also known as gastro, gastric flu, and stomach flu. It refers to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine resulting to acute diarrhea. [read more]

  • Gastroenteritis, Eosinophilic
    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a condition first documented in 1937 by Kaijser. It manifests as the diffuse eosinophilic infiltration in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, usually with chronic relapses. Any point of the gastrointestinal tract may contract this condition, and how it manifests depends on the extent of the involvement of the bowel wall. Common areas of the GI tract that are affected are the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon. [read more]

  • Gastrointestinal Bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a form of hemorrhage that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, reaching from the pharynx down to the rectum. The bleeding can be very life-threatening. [read more]

  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare, benign growths in the gastrointestinal tract. [read more]

  • gaucher disease type 1
    Gaucher disease is the disease of the lysosome, resulting from the deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase disease resulting in accumulation of its fatty substrate, glucocerebroside. This causes fat to accumulate in the brain, bone marrow, liver, lungs, kidneys, and spleen. People with Gaucher disease are prone to infection. Named after Philippe Gaucher, a French physician who originally described the disease in 1882, the disease is now known to be an autosomal recessive inheritance. Type I is most common (1 in 50,000 births), usually occurring among Ashkenazi Jewish people. Type II manifests beginning 6 months after birth, occurring in 1 in 100,000 live births. Type IIIbegins at any time in life, and occurs in 1 in 100,000 live births. [read more]

  • gaucher disease type 2
    Gaucher disease is a commonly found lysosomal storage disorder, resulting from the deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. The absence of this enzyme allows the collection of fatty material in organs like the brain, bone marrow, kidneys, spleen, lungs, and liver. The disease was originally described by French physician Philippe Gaucher in 1882. Type I, occurring in early life, occurs in 1 in 50, 000 live births and is most common among the Ashkenazi Jews. Type II, occurs in 1 in 100,000 live births, usually begins to manifest after 6 months of birth. Type III can begin at any time in life, and manifests in 1 in 100,000 live births. [read more]

  • gaucher disease type 3
    Gaucher disease was first described in 1882 by Philippe Gaucher. Today, this is the most common lysosomal storage diseases, resulting in deficiency in glucocerebrosidase. As a result, fatty material settles in the liver, lung, spleen, brain, bone marrow, and kidneys. Type I which occurs in 1 out of 50,000 live births is most common among Ashkenazi Jews and usually manifest early in life or in adulthood. Type II Gaucher disease occurs in 1 out of 100,000 live births manifests after 6 months of age. Type III manifests in 1 out of 100,000 people as well, and occurs at any point in a person's life. [read more]

  • gaucher disease type 4
    First described in 1882 by French physician Philippe Gaucher, Gaucher disease is one of today's most common lysosomal storage diseases. As a result of the lack of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, fatty materials accumulate in the brain, bone marrow, liver, lung, spleen and the kidneys. This disease is characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance, and as such, is equally likely to affect both male and female individuals. [read more]

  • Geleophysic Dwarfism
    Geleophysic dwarfism is known by other names, the more popular one being Acromicric dysplasia. This disease that results in a combination of bodily deformities is an extremely rare disorder that is hereditary and inheritable in nature. [read more]

  • gelineau disease
    Gelineau disease, otherwise called narcolepsy, is a neurological disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness or EDS. The patient may experience disturbed sleep, which might be mistaken for insomnia or other rapid-eye movement (REM) disorders. [read more]

  • Gender Identity Disorder
    Gender identity disorder is a mental illness in which a person shifts from his/her physiological gender identity to that of the opposite sex. [read more]

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is marked by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things, which is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals suffering GAD usually catastrophise, anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, family problems, friend problems or work difficulties. [read more]

  • Genital Warts
    Highly contagious sexually transmitted infection. Genital warts often occur in clusters and can be carry tiny or can spread into large masses in the genital or penis area. For women they occur on the outside and inside of the vagina on the opening (cervix) to the womb (uterus) or around anus. [read more]

  • Genu varum
    Genu varum is a physical deformity often called “bow-leggedness” as it manifests as an outward curving of the legs, with great resemblance to a bow. This is characterized by the deformity in both the femur and tibia. It is important to note that if the curvature is only found on the tibia and not on the femur, the deformity is Blount's disease and not Genu varum. All children are bow-legged to some extent at birth. However, over the first year, the knee joints join together and come closer to each other, and the femur begins to slope downward towards the joints. The tibia tends to straighten out as the foot soles face downwards. In the process, the bones ossify. By the time a child is ready to walk; the limbs are already formed and shaped to give the body weight sufficient support. [read more]

  • Genuphobia
    Genuphonia is an abnormal, persistent and irrational fear of knees or kneeling. Other names are fear or knee, fear of knees, knee fear, knee phobia, knees fear, knees phobia, phobia of knee and or phobia of knees. It is a persistent fear of knees that a person forces himself to avoid. [read more]

  • Geographical tongue
    Geographical tongue results when the layer of small bumps called papillae that cover the tongue are missing. If the papillae are missing, it creates smooth patches of red in the tongue; it can also show an appearance that like a map. [read more]

  • GERD
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease, known by the moniker GERD, is a disease characterized by damage resulting from an abnormal acid reflux into the esophagal track. This is usually a result of the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus changing. [read more]

  • Gerhardt Disease
    Gerhardt disease is a rare muscoskeletal condition characterized by intense pain and severe redness of the feet. It is also known as erythromelalgia. [read more]

  • German Measles
    German measles, commonly known as rubella, is a disease caused by Rubella virus. [read more]

  • German Measles (Rubella)
    It is medically known as Rubella. German measles is not the same as measles. German measles is not the same with measles because they are caused by different viruses. It is not contagious nor it is severe that is why it is also called the three-day measles. [read more]

  • German Syndrome
    German Syndrome is a rare disorder affected by fetal exposure to trimethadione or the anticonvulsant drug which results in different kinds of physical and developmental abnormalities. It is found among infants who were born to epileptic mothers that are being treated with trimethadione for seizures during their pregnancy period. This is also known as Fetal Trimethadione Syndrome. [read more]

  • Gerstmann Syndrome
    A neurological disorder differentiate by four symptoms: inability to write, inability to calculate, an inability to make distinction between right from left, and the inability to identify fingers. This illness can sometimes be confused with Gerstmann-Str? ussler-Scheinker disease, which is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. [read more]

  • Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
    Gerstmann-Str?ussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a rare, deadly neurodegenerative disease that affects people between ages 20 and 60. GSS is classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). [read more]

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Gestational diabetes mellitus or Gestational diabetes is a diabetis that women during their level of pregnancy acquire exhibiting high blood glucose. It is the glucose intolerance in any degree which is found during the pregnancy. The patient may have gotten the diabetes mellitus previously without knowing. It may have also been aquired during the time that they are pregnant. [read more]

  • Gestational Pemphigoid
    Gestational Pemphigoid or Pemphigoid Gestationis is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin by blisters for pregnant women during their second and third trimesters. It is not linked with herps virus though it was then called Herps Gestationis because of the blisters that appear in the skin. [read more]

  • Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
    Gestational trophoblastic disease is a group of many other diseases that are all involved with the abnormal growth of cells in the uterus. It does not grow from the cells of the uterus. These are rare but treatable tumors that start in the tissues and they develop after the conception when the egg fertilizes the sperm. There are four types of gestational trophoblastic disease: Hydatidiform mole, persistent/invasive trophoblastic disease, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumors. [read more]

  • Giant Axonal Neuropathy
    Giant Axonal Neuropathy is an uncommon, autosomal recessive neurogical syndrome that affects the neurofilaments and at the same time disorganizes it. A structural frame is being formed by the neurofilament to help characterize neurons shapes and sizes which are necessary for the nerve to function normally. [read more]

  • Giant Cell Arteritis
    Giant cell arteritis which is also called temporal arteritis is a disease the affects the blood vessels commonly the large and medium arteries in the head by inflammation. The name temporal artiritis come from the most involved vessel, which is the temporal artery. The giant cell arteritis was given because it reflects the type of inflammatory cell that is involved which can be seen on the biopsy. [read more]

  • Giant Platelet Syndrome
    Giant platelet syndrome, also known as Bernard-Soulier disease, is a disorder found in newborn infants. In this condition the blood platelets fail to stick to the walls to the blood vessels, affecting the ability to clot properly. It can be a cause for abnormal bleeding. [read more]

  • Giardia Infection
    Giardia infection is an intestinal infection characterized by stomach cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. [read more]

  • GIARDIA LAMBLIA
    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that causes the disease giardiasis. It thrives in the digestive system as cysts and cause infections in the intestinal tract. [read more]

  • Giardiasis
    Giardiasis is a condition wherein the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia resides in the digestive tract of both animals and humans. This condition also is the most common cause for gastroenteritis. [read more]

  • Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome
    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is one of the tic disorders, characterized by numerous physical tics, and at least one vocal tic. It is hereditary neuropsychiatric condition, which begins in early childhood. [read more]

  • Gingivitis
    Gingivitis, also known as inflammation of the gums, is a group of diseases that affect the gingival, or the gums. Its most common term, inflammation of the gums, is called so due to the occurrence when plaque or bacterial biofilms stick to the surfaces of the tooth. [read more]

  • Gingivostomatitis
    Gingivostomatitis is a condition similar to cold sores. This form of herpes is common among children. [read more]

  • Gittings Syndrome
    Gittings or Gitelman Syndrome is an inherited defect in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys. [read more]

  • Glaucoma
    Glaucoma is a group of diseases of the optic nerve involving loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy. Although intraocular pressure has a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma, there is no set threshold for intraocular pressure that causes glaucoma. [read more]

  • Glioblastoma
    Glioblastoma is a variety of central nervous system tumors, caused by glial cells. The brain is the most commonly affected area; however, the tumor can also occur in any other part of the central nervous system. [read more]

  • Glioblastoma multiforme
    Glioblastoma multiforme is the highest grade brain tumor, and is also the most aggressive and most common type. It is also the most malignant form of gliomas characterized by star-shaped cells, called astrocystoma tumors. [read more]

  • Gliomatosis cerebri
    Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare type of brain cancer. It is different from most brain cancers because the cancer causes a tumor, or a lump of the cancer cells. In gliomatosis cerebri, the cancer does not form a mass but forms threads of cancer cells that scatter around the brain. [read more]

  • Gliosarcoma
    Gliosarcoma is a malignant cancer and a glioblastoma consisting of gliomatous and sarcomatous components. Most gliomas do not show metastases outside the cerebrum however gliosarcoma being a rare type of glioma, have propensity to do so and are most commonly spreading through the blood to the lungs and liver including the lymph nodes (Beumont et. al. (2007). "Gliosarcoma with multiple extracranial metastases: case report and review of the literature". J. Neurooncology 83: 39-46). [read more]

  • Glossodynia
    Glossodynia, also known as burning mouth syndrome, is a condition wherein burning sensations affect the tongue, lips, or entire mouth. [read more]

  • Glucagonoma
    Glucagonoma is a tumor affecting the pancreas' alpha cells, causing extreme surplus production of the hormones insulin and glucagons. The malignant and fast-spreading nature of the disease affects these alpha cells, causing the overproduction of hormones. [read more]

  • Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency
    Glucocerebrosidase deficiency (also known as Gaucher's disease) is the most common of the lysosomal storage diseases. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, resulting to an accumulation of its substrate, the fatty substance glucocerebroside (also known as glucosylceramide). [read more]

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a hereditary recessive x-linked enzyme defect. The disease is presented by abnormally low levels of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The enzyme is metabolic and is particularly significant to red blood cell metabolism. It is also associated to favism, a disease resulting in a hemolytic reaction due to the ingestion of fava beans. [read more]

  • Glucose-galactose malabsorption
    Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a rare disease affecting the intestine lining, preventing it from absorbing galactose and glucose, which are simple sugars or monosaccharide. This in turn disturbs the digestive processes of those monosaccharides. [read more]

  • Glue Ear
    Glue ear is a medical condition where the middle ear is filled up with glue-like fluid rather than air. Because of this blockage hearing difficulties are experienced. [read more]

  • Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
    Glutaryl-Coa dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as Glutaric aciduria type 1 or Glutaric aciduria, is a hereditary disease characterized by the body's disability to completely metabolize lysine, tryptophan, and hydroxysiline, which are amino acids. This results in byproducts of the breakdown, including glutaryl-CoA, glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and glutaconic acid, and the accumulation of these can harm the brain. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type 1B
    Glycogen storage disease type 1B, also known as von Gierke's disease, is the most common form among the glycogen storage diseases. An enzyme glucose-6-phosphate deficiency is the cause of this, affecting the liver's ability in producing free glucose from gluconeogenesis and glycogen. This in turn, may result in hypoglycemia. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type 7
    Glycogen storage disease type 7, also called Phosphorofructokinase deficiency or Tarui's disease, is a metabolic disease characterized by a deficiency in the phosphorofructokinase enzyme. This in turn disturbs the function of the cells, including rhabdomyocytes and erythrocytes, to utilize carbohydrates for energy. The disease is autosomal recessive in nature, and may affect mammals apart from humans. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type V
    Glycogen storage disease type V is a glycogen storage disease characterized by a myophosphorylase deficiency. It is also known by the names muscle phosphorylase deficiency or McArdle's disease. [read more]

  • Glycogen storage disease type VII
    Glycogen storage disease type VII, also known as Tauri disease, affects only the muscle tissue. This is similar to GSD type V. [read more]

  • Glycosuria
    Glycosuria otherwise known as glucosuria is an osmotic diuresis due to excretion of too much glucose by the kidneys. [read more]

  • Goitre
    Goitre, sometimes spelled as goiter and also known as a bronchocele, is a condition characterized by a large thyroid gland, resulting in a swelling of the neck area. The swelling usually occurs right below the Adam's apple. The condition is more common among older adults and in women. [read more]

  • Gonadal dysgenesis
    Gonadal dysgenesis is a general term used to refer to conditions characterized by abnormal gonadal development. Most of these cases show “streak gonads” only. Gonadal dysgenesis causes infertility and inhibits normal sexual development. [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis Turner Type
    Turner type Gonodal Dysgenesis, otherwise known as Turner Syndrome or Ullrich syndrome, is a condition wherein the monosomy of X chromosome is the most ommon, making the female sexual characteristics though present are generally underdeveloped. It is said to occur in about one out of every 2500 female birth (National Institutes of Health (2004). Clinical Features of Turner syndrome). [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, XX Type
    XX Gonadal Dysgenesis is a type of female hypogonadism wherein no functional ovaries are present to induce puberty unlike those of normal girls whose karyotype is bound to be 46,XX. [read more]

  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, XY Female Type
    XY Female type Gonodal Dysgenesis otherwise known as the Swyer Syndrom is a type of female hypogonadism wherein there is no functional gonads present in the person to induce puberty unlike those of common normal girl. [read more]

  • Gorham's disease
    Gorham's disease, also known as Massive Osteolysis, is a rare congenital bone disorder characterized by the spread of vascular channels that are destructive to the bone matrix. Osteolysis, or vanishing of the bones, occurs as well as angiomatosis. [read more]

  • Gout
    Gout is a complex disorder that can affect anyone. Men are most likely to get gout than women are, but women become increasingly susceptible to gout after menopause. [read more]

  • Graft versus host disease
    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a commonly occurring side effect of allogeneic bone transplant or cord blood transplant wherein functional immune cells located in the transplanted marrow identify its recipient as a foreign body and attack. The disease can occur anywhere in the body but usually affected are the eyes, skin, stomach, and intestines. [read more]

  • Grand Mal Seizure
    A grand mal seizure (also called tonic-clonic seizure) features a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. This is the type of seizure most people picture when they think about seizures in general. [read more]

  • Granuloma annulare
    Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin condition consisting of raised, reddish or skin-colored bumps (lesions) that form ring patterns, typically on the hands and feet. [read more]

  • Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis
    Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. It is brought about by a certain specie of amoeba called Balamuthia mandrillaris. [read more]

  • Graves' disease
    Graves' disease, the most common type of hyperthyroidism, is a condition wherein the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to overproduce thyroxine. [read more]

  • Great vessels transposition
    Great vessels transposition is a general term referring to a group of congenital heart defects wherein the arrangement of any primary blood vessels are abnormal. The primary blood vessels affected could be any of the following: aorta, pulmonary veins, inferior or superior vena cava. [read more]

  • Greenberg Dysplasia
    Greenberg dysplasia, also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia is a rare lethal skeletal dysplasia. [read more]

  • Grippe
    Grippe is another name for the contagious infection called influenza. Influenza is a common medical condition in which patients suffer from colds, fever and chills. Complications may arise from influenza and can be a cause of death among children and adults. [read more]

  • Griscelli Disease
    Griscelli Disease, GS for brevity is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in the pigmentary dilution of the skin and the hair, the accumulation of the melanosome in melanocytes. It involves impairment of the lymphocyte function and the inability to produce normal levels of immunoglobulins (Griscelli C, Prunieras M. Pigment dilution and immunodeficiency: a new syndrome. Int J Dermatol. Dec 1978;17(10):788-91). [read more]

  • Gross Hematuria
    Gross hematuria is in contrast to microhematuria in which the blood is visible only under a microscope: there is so little blood that it is difficult to be seen without magnification. [read more]

  • Grover's disease
    Grover's disease is a common skin disorder that is presented by itchy red spots on the trunk. It usually occurs in men over the age of forty. [read more]

  • Growth delay, constitutional
    Constitutional growth delay is a condition wherein skeletal growth is delayed. It is the most common origin of pubertal delay and short stature. The condition affects children and teens, although they have no other physical abnormality except short stature. It occurs in both girls and boys although more frequently in boys. [read more]

  • Growth hormone deficiency
    Growth hormone deficiency is a disorder affecting the pituitary gland which is responsible for producing the growth hormone, among other hormones. The pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormones, resulting in slower growth than normal. Both children and adults are affected by the condition. [read more]

  • Growth Problems
    Growth problems, or the failure to thrive, are disorders some infants suffer from. These conditions must be given constant care and attention since they may lead to more severe conditions that may affect the infant's overall development. [read more]

  • Guillan-Barre syndrome
    Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a disorder affecting the body's immune system, causing it to attack part of the peripheral nervous system. GBS is autoimmune and acute in nature. GBS has many forms, although its most common form is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). [read more]

  • Gulf War Syndrome
    Also called as Gulf War Illness this is an illness reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War typified by symptoms including immune system disorders and birth defects. It has not always been clear whether these symptoms were related to Gulf War service of the occurrence if illness in Gulf War veterans in higher than comparable populations. [read more]

  • Gum Cancer
    Gum cancer is any abnormal growth that develops in the gum tissues. It is also called gingival cancer. [read more]

  • Gum Disease
    Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gums") (gingiva) around the teeth is a general term for gingival diseases affecting the gingiva (gums). As usually used, the term gingivitis refers to gingival inflammation induced by bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) adherent to tooth surfaces. [read more]

  • Hair-Pulling Disease
    Trichotillomania (or hair-pulling disorder) is a type of mental illness in which people have an irresistible urge to pull out their hair, whether it's from their scalp, their eyebrows or other areas of their body. Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves them with patchy bald spots on their head, which they may go to great lengths to disguise or cover. [read more]

  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
    Hairy cell leukemia is a slow-growing cancer characterized by overproduction of B cells in the bone marrow. These B cells, called lymphocytes, are a kind of white blood cell needed to fight infection. The bone marrow is unable to produce other types of normal cells as well, including platelets that heal bleeding, and red blood cells that carry oxygen. Hairy cell leukemia is a rare disease, constituting only 2% of all leukemia cases. [read more]

  • Hairy Leukoplakia
    Hairy leukoplakia is a distinct white, irregular-shaped plaque found on the side of the tongue. This lesion is common among patients with HIV. The lesions usually contain fungi, bacteria or viruses, but are not considered contagious. Hairy leukoplakia can be treated by controlling the spread of HIV. [read more]

  • Hairy Tongue
    Hairy tongue is a condition that affects both humans and animals, characterized by a darkening of the tongue, sometimes hair growth. A fungus causes the dark appearance on the tongue, although it is a harmless condition. Most common affected are the elderly, tobacco smokers, and users of antibiotics. [read more]

  • Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome
    Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue which causes severe and excessive bone resorption leading to osteoporosis. [read more]

  • Halitosis
    Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. [read more]

  • Hallermann Streff Syndrome
    Hallerman-Streiff syndrome is a genetic defect characterized by malformations in the craniofacial area, ocular abnormalities, dental deformities, skin atrophy and short stature. [read more]

  • Hallucination
    Hallucination is the term used to describe false perceptions towards one's senses; a person who hallucinates behaves in response to the things he sees and/or hears despite the fact that the things he perceives are not actually there. [read more]

  • Hallux Valgus
    Hallux valgus, also known as bunions, is a condition characterized by a structural deformity in the bone as well as the joint between the big toe and foot. This is a typically painful condition. The big toe may turn facing the second toe, a condition called displacement. The tissue around the joint area is tender and swollen. [read more]

  • Hammertoe
    A hammertoe is a toe that's curled because of a bend in the middle joint of a toe. [read more]

  • Hand Foot Mouth Disease
    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common disease characterized by mouth sores, fever, and rashes. Enteroviruses from the family Picornaviridae causes the disease. It is common in infants and children, and is moderately contagious. Contact with feces or mucus of an infected person can trigger contagion. [read more]

  • Harlequin Type Ichthyosis
    Harlequin type ichtyhysosis is a hereditary congenital skin disorder characterized by thick and cracking skin that splits apart due to thickening of the keratin layer. The skin contains reddish, diamond-shaped scales. It is the most severe form of congenital ichthyosis. Individuals with the condition are known as harlequins, harlequin babes, or harlequin fetuses. [read more]

  • Hartnup Disease
    Hartnup disease, also known as monkey disease or Hartnup's disorder, is an autosomal recessive disorder wherein the transport of neutral amino acids to the kidneys and small intestines is defective. Sufferers have a niacin deficiency as well as an inborn error of amino acid metabolism. [read more]

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease wherein the body's antibodies attack the thyroid cells. It is also known by the name chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. It is also the most common form of hyperthyroidism in the United States. [read more]

  • Hay-Wells Syndrome
    Hay-Wells syndrome otherwise known as ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplacia clefting syndrome is one of the type of ectodermal dysplasia (Index of Rare Diseases. National Organization for Rare Disorders. 20 Mar 2008). It thus affect tissues that arise from ectoderm especially that of the skin, hair and nails. [read more]

  • Head Lice
    Lice are tiny, wingless, parasitic insects that feed on the blood. Lice are easily spread — particularly by schoolchildren — through close personal contact and by sharing belongings. Head lice are those that develop on the scalp. They're easiest to see at the nape of the neck and over the ears. [read more]

  • Headache, cluster
    Cluster headache is a neurological disease characterized by extreme pain. The cyclical pattern of the pain, occurring in periods with spontaneous remissions, gives the disease its name. The “clusters” of frequent attacks can last anywhere from a few weeks to months. During remission periods, the headaches completely stop, although patterns differ from person to person. Remission periods can occur from months to a year. The condition can afflict anyone although it is more common in men and adults aged 20-40 years old. Attacks are classified into episodic or chronic. Episodic attacks are characterized by a higher frequency with longer remissions. Chronic attacks are characterized by frequent headaches that can last up to years. [read more]

  • Headache, Cluster
    Cluster headache is a neurological disease characterized by extreme pain. The cyclical pattern of the pain, occurring in periods with spontaneous remissions, gives the disease its name. The “clusters” of frequent attacks can last anywhere from a few weeks to months. During remission periods, the headaches completely stop, although patterns differ from person to person. Remission periods can occur from months to a year. The condition can afflict anyone although it is more common in men and adults aged 20-40 years old. Attacks are classified into episodic or chronic. Episodic attacks are characterized by a higher frequency with longer remissions. Chronic attacks are characterized by frequent headaches that can last up to years. [read more]

  • Headache, Ice Cream
    Ice cream headache is a form of brief, intense cranial pain or headache commonly associated with consumption (particularly quick consumption) of cold beverages or foods such as ice cream, slurpees, or margaritas. [read more]

  • Headache, Primary Cough
    Cough headaches are an unusual type of headache caused by coughing and other types of straining — such as sneezing, blowing the nose, laughing, crying, singing or bending over, and straining when having a bowel movement. [read more]

  • Headache, Sex
    Sex headache is a rare type of severe headache that occurs at the base of the skull before orgasm during sexual activity, including masturbation. [read more]

  • Headache, Thunderclap
    A thunderclap headache is a severe headache that occurs suddenly. Since it is sometimes a sign of a medical emergency, one should seek immediate medical attention for any headache that occurs suddenly and severely. [read more]

  • Headaches In Children
    Headaches in children are a common problem among children. But chronic headaches among children may be a sign of other underlying illness so this condition must be given immediate attention. [read more]

  • Heart Arrhythmias
    Heart rhythm problems (or arrhythmias) occur when the electrical impulses in the heart that coordinate the heartbeats don't function properly, causing the heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly. [read more]

  • Heart Attack
    A heart attack usually happens when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood through a coronary artery — a blood vessel that feeds blood to a part of the heart muscle. Interrupted blood flow to the heart can destroy a part of the heart muscle. [read more]

  • Heart block
    Heart block is a disease that affects the heart's electrical system. Signal from the upper to the lower chambers of the heart do not transmit. There are 3 degrees of heart block: first degree, second degree, and third, which is complete heart block. [read more]

  • Heart Failure
    Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), means the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Over time, conditions such as coronary artery disease or high blood pressure gradually leave the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently. [read more]

  • Heart situs Anomaly
    Heart situs anomaly otherwise known as Dextrocardia, is a condition where in the heart is located in the right side of the thorax whereby the apex is pointing to the right. It is characterized by the reversal of the normal position of the heart. [read more]

  • Heartburn
    Heartburn is a painful or burning sensation in the esophagus, just below the breastbone caused by regurgitation of gastric acid.The pain often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw. Heartburn is also known as one of the causes of chronic cough, and may even mimic asthma. Not considering its name, heartburn actually has nothing to do with the heart. It is because of a burning sensation of the breastbone where the heart is located although some heart problems do have a similar sensation to heartburn. [read more]

  • HEAT CRAMPS
    Heat cramps is the condition where muscles experience numbness and immobility as well as a stinging sensation that lasts for a short period of time. [read more]

  • Heat Exhaustion
    Heat exhaustion is one of the heat-related syndromes, which vary in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion to potentially life-threatening heatstroke. [read more]

  • Heat Rash
    Heat rash also called prickly heat or miliaria is a common condition in which areas of the skin itch intensely and often feel prickly or sting due to overheating. Heat rash is like tiny bumps surrounded by a zone of red skin. [read more]

  • Heat Stroke
    Heat stroke is also called as Hyperthermia it is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat that it can dissipate. [read more]

  • Heavy Metal Poisoning
    Heavy metal poisoning is poisoning through ingestion of heavy metals such as common transition metal such as copper, lead and zinc. These metals are a cause of environmental pollution (A Dictionary of Chemistry. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online.Oxford University Press). [read more]

  • Helicobacter Pylori
    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects various areas of the stomach and duodenum. [read more]

  • Heliophobia
    Heliophobia is the unfounded and irrational fear and avoidance of sunlight (Milbry, 1911. A Pocket Medical Dictionary). [read more]

  • Heller's Syndrome
    Heller's syndrome or (childhood disintegrative disorder) is a condition in which young children develop normally until age 3 or 4, but then demonstrate a severe loss of social, communication and other skills. [read more]

  • Hemangioblastoma
    Hemangioblastoma is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by benign brain tumors, usually occurring in the cerebellum. The tumors represent cysts, and contain small solid nodules inside. The small nodules contain abnormal blood vessels in a tangle. Hemangioblastomas are most commonly occurring in those ranging from 35 to 45 years old. [read more]

  • Hemangioma
    Hemangioma is a commonly occurring type of vascular anomaly, or a birthmark. They appear as abnormal lumps composed of blood vessels. The condition is a benign tumor that may either appear at birth or present itself later on in life and may be located anywhere in the body. In some cases, they occur internally. [read more]

  • Hemangioma Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
    Hemangio thrombocytopenia syndrome or HTS is a rare disease affecting infants characterized by a vascular tumor which causes low platelet count as well as bleeding problems. The condition is also known as Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. [read more]

  • Hematuria (Blood in Urine)
    Hematuria (blood in urine) is a condition characterized by the presence of blood in urine. It comes in two forms; gross hematuria (blood is visible to the naked eye) and microscopic hematuria (in which blood can only be detected in the laboratory). [read more]

  • Hemifacial Microsomia
    Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital disease wherein the lower half of the face is undeveloped. The parts most commonly affected are the mandible, ears, and mouth, and can affect either one side of the face or both. Hemifacial microsomia may lead to complications in breathing, as it may obstruct the trachea. [read more]

  • Hemihypertrophy
    Hemihypertrophy, properly referred to as hemihyperplasia, is the enlargement of one side of the body. [read more]

  • Hemimegalencephaly
    Hemimegalencephaly otherwise known as unilateral megancephaly is a medical condition that is characterized by the enlargement or abnormal growth of one-half of the brain. [read more]

  • Hemmorhagic Fever
    Hemmorhagic fever belongs to a group of viral hemmorhagic fevers (VHFs), which are human and animal diseases caused by any four RNA families: Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. [read more]

  • Hemochromatosis
    Hemochromatosis is a hereditary disease characterized by excessive absorption of dietary iron resulting in a pathologic increase on total body iron stores. Human, like virtually all animals, have no means to excrete excess iron. Excess iron accumulates in tissues and organs disrupting their normal function. [read more]

  • Hemoglobinuria
    Hemoglobinuria is a disease characterized by the presence of abnormally high hemoglobin concentrations in the urine. The free hemoglobins in the urine is caused by filtration from the kidney, causing urine to be reddish in color. [read more]

  • Hemolytic Disease Of The Newborn
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn, or erythroblastosis fetalis, is an alloimmune state wherein the IgG antibodies produced by a pregnant mother attack the red blood cells that circulate in the fetus. This condition causes reticulocytosis and anemia. This can be a dreaded disease and can lead to heart failure. [read more]

  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a condition affecting infants and children, characterized by low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), acute renal failure, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. [read more]

  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease affecting infants and young childen, but in some cases adolescents. It is characterized by the pathological findings of hemophagocytosis, jaundice, fever, and splenomegaly. HLH is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus, genetic, malignant, autoimmune diseases, as well as other viruses or fungal infections. [read more]

  • Hemorrhagiparous Thrombocytic Dystrophy
    Hemorrhagiparous thrombocytic dystrophy is commonly called Bernard-Soulier syndrome named after Dr. Jean Bernard and Jean Pierre Soulier. It is a severe bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of glycoprotein Ib (GpIb), which is important in clot formation. [read more]

  • Hemorrhoids
    Hemorrhoids are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. Hemorrhoids are actually the anatomical term for "'Cushions of tissue filled with blood vessels at the part of the rectum and the anus." However, the term has come into usual usage to indicate the condition described herein.q [read more]

  • Hendra Virus
    Hendra virus is a strain of virus under the Paramyxoviridae family. It was first described in 1994 during an outbreak of neurological and respiratory disease in humans and horses in the Hendra suburb of Brisbane, Australia. [read more]

  • Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP or anaphylactoid purpura) is a kind of blood vessel inflammation or vasculitis. [read more]

  • Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a condition wherein doses of heparin causes low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). The condition is a thrombotic disorder where there are high concentrations of thrombosis in the arteries. HIT usually occurs 4-14 days after the heparin administration. Heparin is administered during cardiovascular surgery. [read more]

  • Hepatic Encephalopathy
    Hepatic encephlopathy is a neuropsychological disorder causing chronic or acute liver failure. The liver failure results in an accumulation of toxic substances in the blood and would affect the brain cells, which healthy livers normally remove. Impairment of mental functioning is the main characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy. [read more]

  • Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease
    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked. It is sometimes due to a complication of high-dose chemotherapy undergone by a patient prior to a bone marrow transplant. [read more]

  • Hepatitis
    Hepatitis implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. The condition can be self limiting, healing on its own, or can progress to scarring of the liver tissue. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts not more than 6 months and chronic when it persists longer. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause the most cases of liver damage worldwide. [read more]

  • Hepatitis A
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis B
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis C
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis D
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. [read more]

  • Hepatitis E
    Hepatitis E is a kind of hepatitis in which the virus thrives in contaminated refuse and water. It exhibits almost the same conditions of other kinds of hepatitis. [read more]

  • Hepatitis, chronic autoimmune
    Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver marked by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rarely known cause of chronic hepatitis. Chronic means that the inflammation is long-term or persistent. The chronic inflammation slowly damages the liver cells which results in serious problems. [read more]

  • Hepatitis, Toxic
    Toxic hepatitis is liver inflammation that occurs when the liver is damaged by toxic chemicals, drugs or certain poisonous mushrooms. [read more]

  • Hepatoma
    Hepatoma is a cancer that affects the liver. It is the most common kind of liver cancer. [read more]

  • Hepatomegaly
    Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an abnormally enlarged liver. [read more]

  • Hepatorenal syndrome
    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) refers to acute renal failure that arises in the setting of cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure associated with portal hypertension, generally in the absence of other disease of the kidney. [read more]

  • Hereditary amyloidosis
    In medicine, amyloidosis refers to a group of conditions in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues, causing disease. A protein is amyloid if, because of an alteration in its secondary structure, it takes on a particular insoluble form, called the beta-pleated sheet. [read more]

  • Hereditary angioedema
    Angioedema, also known as Quincke's edema, is the rapid swelling (or edema) of the skin, mucosa and submucosal tissues. Aside from the common form, mediated by allergy, it has been reported as a side effect of some medications, specifically ACE inhibitors. [read more]

  • Hereditary ataxia
    The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders marked by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum arises. The hereditary ataxias are grouped by mode of inheritance and causative gene or chromosomal locus. [read more]

  • Hereditary coproporphyria
    Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is a form of hepatic porphyria linked with a deficiency of the enzyme coproporphyrinogen III oxidase. [read more]

  • Hereditary deafness
    Hereditary deafness is hearing loss that is passed down from parents to their children. This type of hearing loss may be inherited from one or both parents who may or may not possess a loss of hearing themselves. [read more]

  • Hereditary Deafness Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Hereditary deafness-retinitis pigmentosa, also known as Usher syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that features deafness and progressive loss of vision. This condition is due to the impairment of the auditory nerves to send sensory input to the brain. Hereditary deafness-retinitis pigmentosa has three types, and is categorized as an autosomal recessive disorder. [read more]

  • Hereditary elliptocytosis
    Hereditary elliptocytosis is a blood disorder in which a large proportion of the sufferer's erythrocytes (i.e. red blood cells) are elliptical instead of being biconcave disc-shaped. The disorder comes before haemolytic anaemia. [read more]

  • Hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia
    Hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia is a term used to describe a group of rare, genetically transmitted blood disorders marked by the premature destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes or RBCs). If the red blood cells cannot be replaced faster than they destroy themselves, anemia results. [read more]

  • Hereditary spherocytosis
    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically-transmitted form of spherocytosis, an auto-hemolytic anemia marked by the production of red blood cells that are sphere-shaped rather than donut-shaped, and therefore more prone to hemolysis. [read more]

  • Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome
    Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an inherited disease which leads to oculocutaneous albinism (decreased pigmentation), bleeding problems due to a platelet abnormality (platelet storage pool defect), and storage of an abnormal fat-protein compound (lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin). [read more]

  • Hermaphroditism
    Hermaphroditism (or Intersex) is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). [read more]

  • Hernia
    A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure, or portion of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained. The hernia had three parts: the orifice through which it herniates, the hernia sac, and its contents. [read more]

  • Hernia, Inguinal
    Inguinal hernias are protrusions of abdominal cavity contents through the inguinal canal. [read more]

  • Hernia, Umbilical
    Umbilical hernia is a congenital malformation, particularly common in infants of African descent, and more frequent in boys. [read more]

  • Herniated Disc
    The bones (vertebrae) that form the spine in your back are cushioned by small, spongy discs. These discs are healthy, they act as shock absorbers for the spine and maintain the spine flexible. [read more]

  • Herpangina
    Herpangina is the name of a painful mouth infection, typically with a fever. Even though the name sounds like herpes, almost all of the many viruses that cause it are coxsackieviruses or other enteroviruses and not herpesvirus. [read more]

  • Herpes
    Infection of the genitals is commonly known as herpes and predominantly occurs following sexual transmission of the type 2 strain of the virus (HSV-2). Oral herpes, colloquially called cold sores, is commonly caused by the type 1 strain of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). [read more]

  • Herpes Gestationis
    Herpes gestationis is a medical condition used to describe polymorphic vesicobullous eruption during pregnancy. [read more]

  • Herpes Simplex Virus, Orofacial
    Leading to the development of small and usually painful blisters on the skin of the mouth, lips, gums or lip area, herpes labialis is an infection caused by the herpes simples. The blisters are commonly called fever blisters or cold sores. [read more]

  • Herpes Simplex Virus, Sacral
    Sacral herpes simplex virus or also called genital herpes is an infection of the lower back and buttocks and is a common recurrent skin condition associated with infection of the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV infection usually appears as small sores or blisters around the nose, mouth, buttocks, lower back and the genitals, though infections can develop almost anywhere on the skin where these tender sores may come back periodically in the same sites. [read more]

  • Herpes viridae disease
    This is an infection by a member of the Herpesviridae family, a family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses; occurs in a wide variety of animals. [read more]

  • Herpes zoster
    Herpes zoster (or zoster), commonly known as shingles, is a viral disease marked by a painful skin rash with blisters in a limited area on one side of the body. [read more]

  • Herpetic keratitis
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis includes a wide variety of disease processes that HSV can cause in the human cornea. A variety of clinical manifestations of infectious and immunologic etiologies, such as neurotrophic keratopathy, infectious epithelial keratitis, necrotizing stromal keratitis, immune stromal keratitis (ISK), and endotheliitis, can affect all levels of the cornea. Although more common as a manifestation of recurrent HSV infection, HSV keratitis may also be detected during a primary infection. [read more]

  • Heterophobia
    Heterophobia is a term used to describe bias or discrimination against heterosexuals, particularly among homosexual or bisexual people; although, depending on one's views, it is also possible for a heterosexual to be heterophobic. [read more]

  • Hidradenitis suppurativa
    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic skin inflammation characterized by the presence of blackheads and one or more red, tender bumps (lesions). The lesions usually enlarge, break open and drain pus. Scarring may occur after several occurrences. [read more]

  • High Altitude Cerebral Edema
    High altitude cerebral edema, also known as “altitude sickness of mountaineers”, is a medical condition experienced when traveling to high altitudes. Because of the lack of oxygen in high elevations, some people experience hypoxia, extreme headache and weakness. [read more]

  • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
    High altitude pulmonary edema is another form of altitude sickness this time affecting the lungs. Unlike high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema refers to hypoxia itself, as oxygen can no longer be processed by the lungs. [read more]

  • High Cholesterol
    High Cholesterol is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. It is nearly related to the terms "hyperlipidemia" (elevated levels of lipids) and "hyperlipoproteinemia" (elevated levels of lipoproteins). [read more]

  • Hip Labral Tear
    The socket of the human hip joint known as acetabulum is naturally lined by some cartilage called labrum, which provides proper stability as well as cushioning for the hip joint. In the case of thehip labral tear, known as a hip labral tear or otherwise known as the acetabular labral tear can often arise from injury or because if some repetitive movements that cause the wear-and-tear on the hip joint, such as osteoarthritis. [read more]

  • Hirsutism
    Hirsutism is described as excessive and increased hair growth in women in locations where the occurrence of terminal hair normally is minimal or absent. [read more]

  • Histiocytosis X
    Eosinophilic granuloma, also known as pulmonary histiocytosis X (PHX) or pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis X (PLCH), is a rare interstitial lung disease that is epidemiologically related to tobacco smoking. It predominantly affects young adults, primarily occurring in the third or fourth decades of life. [read more]

  • Histoplasmosis
    Histoplasmosis, also called Darling's disease, is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Its symptoms vary greatly, but the disease mostly affects the lungs. [read more]

  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
    Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is a personality disorder marked by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood. [read more]

  • Hives
    Hives are also medically known as urticaria. It is characterized by batches of raised, reddish or whitish itchy welts that form in various sizes. Normally, the hives go away for a few weeks or even less but have the tendency to recur frequently. In most cases of chronic hives, a cause is never clearly identified. In some cases, the condition may be related to an underlying autoimmune disorder — when your body becomes allergic to itself. Chronic hives can also be linked to other health problems such as thyroid disease or lupus. While the underlying cause of chronic hives is usually not identified, treatment can help with symptoms. For many people, a combination of antihistamine medications provides the best relief. [read more]

  • Hoarding
    Hoarding is the exaggerated collection of items that seem to have limited or no value, such as newspapers or trash, along with the inability to discard them. Hoarding creates such cramped living conditions that whole rooms may be filled to capacity, and homes may be left with only narrow pathways winding through stacks of clutter. [read more]

  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to utilize the vitamin biotin effectively. This disorder is classified as a multiple carboxylase deficiency, a group of disorders marked by impaired activity of certain enzymes that depend on biotin. [read more]

  • Holoprosencephaly
    Holoprosencephaly is a disorder caused by the failure of the prosencephalon (the embryonic forebrain) to adequately divide into the double lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. This results in a single-lobed brain structure and severe skull and facial defects. In majority of cases of holoprosencephaly, the malformations are so severe that babies die before birth. In less severe cases, babies are born with normal or near-normal brain development and facial deformities that may affect the noce, eyes, and upper lip. [read more]

  • Holt-Oram syndrome
    Holt-Oram syndrome is a disorder that affects bones in the arms and hands and may also cause heart problems in patients. [read more]

  • Homocystinuria
    Homocystinuria is an inherited disorder in which the body cannot process certain building blocks of proteins (amino acids) properly. [read more]

  • Hookworm
    The hookworm is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. There are two species of hookworms commonly infect humans, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. [read more]

  • Hordelum
    A sty (hordeolum) is a red, painful lump on the edge or inside of the eyelid that may look like a boil or a pimple. Often a sty is filled with pus. As it swells in size, the sty may make it difficult for the person to see clearly because he can't fully open his eye. [read more]

  • Horner's syndrome
    Horner's syndrome is a clinical syndrome resulting from damage to the sympathetic nervous system. It is also known as Bernard-Horner syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy. [read more]

  • Horseshoe kidney
    Horseshoe kidney (also called renal fusion) is a congenital disorder, affecting about 1 in 400 people, in which a person's two kidneys fuse together to form a horseshoe-shape during development in the womb. [read more]

  • Hot Flashes
    Hot flashes, or hot flushes, are the sudden passing of warm feelings from the face going down to the other parts of the body, including the hands and feet. This is commonly experience by women undergoing menstruation, pre-natal situations and menopause. [read more]

  • Hot Tub Rash
    Hot tub rash, with other common names like barber's itch, folliculitis, or hot tub folliculitis may sound more like a bad joke than a skin disorder, but an infection of the hair follicles is not a laughing matter. Scarring and permanent hair loss might be the result in severe cases and even mild folliculitis can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. [read more]

  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis
    Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a rare infectious disease that is part of a group of diseases known as the Human Ehrlichioses. The Ehrlichioses are infectious diseases caused by bacteria in the "Ehrlichia" group. Several forms of Human Ehrlichial infection have been described including Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE), Sennetsu Fever, and Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME). Though caused by different strains of Ehrlichia bacteria, the disorders are all marked by similar symptoms. [read more]

  • Human Head Lice
    These are parasitic insects that are tiny and wingless that resides and feed on blood from the scalp. Head lice are a very common problem that affects children and can be a major nuisance in the household. [read more]

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that can result to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. [read more]

  • Human Parvovirus B19 infection
    Human Parvovirus B19, a species of parvovirus that infects humans, is linked with the development of several different autoimmune diseases including dematomyositis, mixed connective tissue diseases, a lupus-like illness, a serologically negative (negative RA factor test) form of arthritis, granuloma annulare, autoimmune thyroid disease, autoimmune schizophrenia, and various forms of vasculitis, including Henoch Schonlein purpura, Kawasaki disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, and polyarteritis nodosa. The development of autoimmune conditions following Human Parvovirus B19 arises in people of all ages and occurs more frequently in females. Autoimmune disease development is also known to appear in adults exposed to children with fifth disease [read more]

  • Human T Cell lymphotropic Virus (HTLV)
    HTLV causes T-cell leukaemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be engaged in certain demyelinating diseases that includes tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV is described as a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus. [read more]

  • Hunchback
    Kyphosis (or hunchback) is a forward rounding of the upper back. Some rounding is normal, but the term "kyphosis" typically refers to an exaggerated rounding, more than 40 to 45 degrees. [read more]

  • Hunt's Syndrome
    Hunt's syndrome is a rare form of progressive cerebellar dyssynergia mainly marked by intention tremor and often associated with convulsions and myoclonic epileptic jerks. [read more]

  • Hunter syndrome
    Hunter syndrome is an inherited metabolic disorder that arises when an enzyme the body needs to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans, or mucopolysaccharides, is either missing or malfunctioning. [read more]

  • Huntington's Chorea
    Huntington's chorea is a disease causing certain of the brain's nerve cells to waste away. It is also called huntington's disease. [read more]

  • Huntington's disease
    Huntington's disease (HD), known as Huntington's chorea and chorea maior, is a rare genetic neurological disorder inherited by an estimated one person per 10,000 people of Western European descent, varying geographically, down to one per 1,000,000 of Asian and African descent. [read more]

  • Hurler syndrome
    Hurler syndrome, also called mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), Hurler's disease and gargoylism, is a genetic disorder that results in the deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides in the lysosomes. In the absence of this enzyme, a buildup of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate occurs in the body. Symptoms appear during childhood and early death can take place due to organ damage. [read more]

  • Hurthle cell Cancer
    Hurthle cell cancer (or HCC) is a relatively rare and extremely aggressive type of cancer that occurs in the thyroid gland, the gland responsible for secreting hormones that are essential in regulating the metabolism. [read more]

  • Hydatidiform mole
    A hydatidiform mole (or hydatid mole, mola hytadidosa) is an anomalous growth containing a nonviable embryo which implants and proliferates within the uterus. [read more]

  • Hydatidosis
    Echinococcosis, also called hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, unilocular hydatid disease or cystic echinococcosis, is a potentially fatal parasitic disease that can affect many animals, including wildlife, commercial livestock and humans. [read more]

  • Hydranencephaly
    Hydranencephaly is a rare condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are missing and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid. [read more]

  • Hydrocele
    A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle that leads to swelling of the scrotum, the loose bag of skin underneath the penis. [read more]

  • Hydrocephalus
    Hydrocephalus is a term derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water, and "cephalus" meaning head, and this condition is sometimes known as "water in the brain". People with this condition have abnormal collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. [read more]

  • Hydronephrosis
    Hydronephrosis is swelling (dilation) of the urine-collecting structures of one or both kidneys because of the obstruction of urine flow from the kidney. This can hinder kidney function. Hydronephrosis is not a specific disease, but a sign of an underlying problem. [read more]

  • Hydrophobia
    Hydrophobia, also known as aquaphobia, is an abnormal and persistent fear of water. Aquaphobia is a specific phobia that concerns a level of fear that is beyond the patient's control or that may interfere with daily life. People may suffer from aquaphobia in a lot of ways and may experience it even though they realize the water in an ocean, a river, or even a bathtub poses no imminent threat. They may avoid such activities as swimming and boating, or they may avoid swimming in the deep ocean despite having mastered basic swimming skills. This anxiety commonly extends to getting wet or splashed with water when it is least expected or being pushed or thrown into a body of water. [read more]

  • Hydroxyapatite Crystal Disease
    Hydroxyapatite crystal disease is an inflammation of the joints due to the crystallization of the hydroxyapatite mineral in the bones. [read more]

  • Hyper IgE Syndrome
    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a heterogeneous kind of disorders presented by recurring staphylococcal infections, eczema-like rashes, lung infections and high levels of the IgE antibody in the blood serum. It is sometimes known as Job-Buckley syndrome. [read more]

  • Hyper-IgD Syndrome
    Hyper-IgD syndrome is an uncommon inherited disorder wherein an individual has high immunoglobulin D that causes recurring attacks of fever and chills that onsets during the first year of life. The attacks typically last four to six days, which may be accompanied by other symptoms like abdominal pain, skin rash, and joint pain. The frequency and severity of the attacks vary significantly from one case to another. These episodes can be triggered through physiologic stress, for instance minor trauma or vaccination. [read more]

  • Hyperactive Sexual Desire Disorder
    Hypersexuality is the desire to engage in human sexual behavior at a level high enough to be considered clinically significant. Hypersexuality is marked by a debilitating need for frequent genital stimulation which, once achieved, may fail to result in the expected long-term sexual—or emotional—satisfaction. This dissatisfaction is what is believed to encourage the increased frequency of sexual stimulation, as well as additional physiological and neurological symptoms. [read more]

  • Hyperadrenalism
    Hyperadrenalism, more commonly known as Cushing's Syndrome, is an endocrine abnormality marked by the presence of high cortisol levels in the blood. Hyperadrenalism is also often called hypercortisolism or hyperadrenocorticism. Its more familiar moniker, “Cushing's Syndrome”, is attributed to Harvey Cushing, an American physician who is credited for its discovery and consequent study. According to the results of Cushing's studies, the disease is characterized by abnormal fat deposition. It also occurs commonly in dogs and domestic horses. In particular, Cushing's syndrome occurs when the adrenal cortex is invaded with a tumor and particularly deficient ACTH levels. [read more]

  • Hyperammonemia
    Hyperammonemia, also known as hyperammonaemia, is a type of metabolic defect marked by high levels of ammonia in the blood. Hyperammonemia can be a fatal condition which can easily lead to encephalopathy and eventual death. [read more]

  • Hyperandrogenism
    Hyperandrogenism is an endocrine disorder that occurs in women, affecting roughly 10% of the female population. Occurring among all races and nationalities, this hormonal defect is known as the leading cause of infertility worldwide. The more popular form of this hormonal disorder is Hyperandrogenic Chronic Anovulation, more commonly known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). [read more]

  • Hypercalcaemia
    Hypercalcaemia (sometimes spelled Hypercalcemia) is a disorder characterized by elevated levels of calcium in the blood. Hypercalcaemia may be asymptomatic. It can, however, indicate the presence of other diseases; therefore, a diagnosis is needed if it persists. [read more]

  • Hypercholesterolemia
    Literally, Hypercholesterolemia means “high blood cholesterol”. Characterized by elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood, Hypercholesterolemia is not a disease per se, but a metabolic dysfunction which may be indicative of other diseases as well as contribute to several other forms of disease. Hypercholesterolemia is strongly correlated with “hyperlipidemia”, marked by high lipid levels, and “hyperlipoproteinemia", marked by high lipoprotein levels. A rare genetic form of this disorder is known as familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition occurring in families where members cannot properly metabolize cholesterol. [read more]

  • Hyperchylomicronemia
    Hyperchylomicronemia, also known as hyperlipidemia or hyperlipoproteinemia, is characterized by elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. This lipid/lipoprotein abnormality, which is common in the general population, poses a high risk of developing into a cardiovascular disease because of the presence of high levels of cholesterol. Some forms of Hyperchylomicronemia may also lead to acute pancreatitis. [read more]

  • Hypercortisolism
    Hypercortisolism is a condition that arises from an excess of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Sometimes called hypercortisolism, Cushing's syndrome can occur when the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys, make too much cortisol. It may also develop if the person is taking high doses of cortisol-like medications (corticosteroids) for a prolonged period. [read more]

  • Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is an uncommon blood disease process wherein the bone marrow generates steadily elevated ‘eosinophil' count over a prolonged period of time causing damage to the tissue or organ. The syndrome may affect any part of one's body, but mostly affects the heart, nervous system, and the skin. [read more]

  • Hyperexplexia
    Hyperexplexia is an uncommon inherited disorder in which infants show a heightened startle reflex or reaction. The onset of the disease is soon after birth, and is characterized by rigidity or stiffness and supposition of flexed fetal placement. This startle reflex is sometimes joined by ‘acute generalized hypertonia' that causes an individual to suddenly fall like a stiff log onto the ground. Other names for this disease include ‘startle disease', Kok disease, and stiff baby syndrome. [read more]

  • Hyperglycinemia (Nonketotic)
    Hyperglycinemia (nonketotic) is an innate metabolism error that's distinguished by the build up of huge quantities of amino acid glycine in urine, blood, and especially in the CSF or cerebrospinal fluid. This metabolic block happens in the transformation of glycine into tinier molecules. The disorder comes in several forms: classic form, infantile form, mild-episodic form, late-