ILLNESSOPEDIA

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Here you can look through thousands of and diseases, ailments, medical conditions and illnesses. You can find the symptoms. Read about any ailment's diagnosis and find medications that can be used and the correct treatments that are needed.

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Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments Starting from Letter A


  1. Absent T lymphocytes
    The deficiency or absence of T lymphocytes is a rare immuno-deficiency condition which is characterized by the lack of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the absence or depression of the function of the T cell. A mutation of the gene for ZAP-70 (tyrosine kinase which has notable effects on indicating through the T cell receptor) has been associated with this syndrome. T cells are cells that belong to a cluster of white blood cells which are known as the lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are responsible in cell-mediated immunity. They are distinguished from the other types of lymphocytes (the NK cells and the B cells) through the presence of a specific receptor on the surface of these cells. This receptor is called as T cell receptor or the TCR. The T abbreviation in T cell refers to thymus which is the primary organ in the development of the T cell. [read more]

  2. Abt-Letterer-Siwe Disease
    The Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease is a rare but rapidly progressive form of hystiocytosis. This condition is brought about by excessively high levels of hystiocytesin the bone marrow. This disease is difficult to treat, and is associated with diabetes insipidius. [read more]

  3. Acanthamoeba Infection
    Acanthamoeba refers to the microscopic and free-living ameba that is relatively found to be quite common in the environment. This ameba can cause a number of infections that affects human beings called acanthamoeba infection. [read more]

  4. Acanthocheilonemiasis
    Acanthocheilonemiasis is an uncommon tropical infectious illness which is caused by Acanthocheilonema perstans, a parasite. This parasite causes rashes of the skin, chest and abdominal pains, joint and muscle pains, lumps on the skin and also neurologic defects. This disease is often transmitted when small flies bite the victim and the bite has the parasite with it. The scientific name of the fly that transmits the ‘infectious bite' is A.Coliroides. Studies manifest that the white blood cell levels at elevated when the parasite is present in the human body. Acanthocheilonemiasis belongs to the parasitic diseases group which is called nematode or filarial diseases. This disease is often found in Africa only because the parasite is found abundantly on this region. Uganda, specifically, has had a lot of reported cases. A handful of patients were found in South America. Other names for this disease are Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans, Dipetalonema perstans, Mansonella perstans, and Dipetalonemiasis. [read more]

  5. Acanthocheilonemiasis Perstans
    Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans is a tropical contagious illness characterized by purities, pain in the chest and abdomen an enlarged spleen. This is a rare disease caused by the bit of flies known as A. coliroides that can be found in Africa. The disease can be treated by antibiotics and is diagnosed by laboratory tests showing elevated amounts of white blood cells. [read more]

  6. Acanthocytosis
    Acanthocytosis is a phenotype of the red cell which can be found in different fundamental conditions. Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome or Abetalipoproteinemia; and an acute disease of the liver (spur cell hemolytic anemia) are the most common conditions that can be associated with acanthocytosis. Acantha is a Greek word for thorn and it is fitting that it is given to name the spur cells that have projections of different sizes which are the acanthocytes. These cells appear to be contracted, irregular, and dense. The formation of these cells depends on the alteration of the fat composition and the fluidity of red cell's membrane. [read more]

  7. Acanthocytosis chorea
    The mean age of the start of chorea-acanthocystosis or ChAc is approximately at age 35. There are a few cases, though, where it can occur as early as the initial decade or it can be as late as the 70th year of life. It runs a persistent progressive course and it may end up as a major disability in just a few years. Some patients become dependent on wheelchairs or become bedridden just on the third decade. It is certain that the individual's life expectancy will be reduced; there are even cases of unexplained or sudden deaths when the patient goes through an epileptic seizure. The range of the patients' ages at death is at 28-61 years. [read more]

  8. Acanthocytosis-Neurologic Disorder
    Acanthocytosis-Neurologic disorder, also known as neuroacanthocytosis, is a rare automsomal recessive disorder. This disease is characterized by muscle degeneration due to uncontrolled muscle movements and dysfunctional red blood cells. This disease usually begins during early adulthood. [read more]

  9. Acanthosis nigricans
    Acanthosis Nigricans is a dermatological condition where the skin appears to be brown to black in color. It also appears to be poorly defined, often velvety and is considered to be a state of hyperpigmentation. This is usually present in the lateral and posterior folds of the groin, the neck, the axilla, the umbilicus, and also some other areas. The changes on the skin's pigment are the sole signs of acanthosis nigricans. It can be noticed that it appears very slowly (sometimes it can take months or years). It is very rare that the affected areas may itch. This condition can begin at any age but it is more evident among darker-skinned individuals. [read more]

  10. Acanthotic Nevus
    Acanthotic nevus is an alternate name for seborrheic keratosis. It is a rare skin disease that consists of discolored lesions that appear to be oily. Since these lesions seem to be stuck on the epidermis, they are sometimes mistaken for cancerous growths. Acanthotic nevus develops usually on people who are above the age of 40. Among the symptoms of this disease is itching, swelling of lesions as well as irritability. Surgical treatment may be needed to remove the lesions. [read more]

  11. Accessory pancreas
    Accessory pancreas is a medical condition that is rare and in which there are little clusters of pancreatic cells that are distinct from the pancreas. This condition could occur in the mesentery of small intestines, duodenal walls, the upper portion of the jejunum or, in its rarest form—in the stomach walls, spleen, ileum or gallbladder. Accessory pancreas was first observed and described in 1859 by Klob. [read more]

  12. Accutane Embryopathy
    Accutane embryopathy is a set of congenital defects incurred by an infant due to the mother's intake of the drug accutane. An infant with accutane embryopathy is borne with malformations in the face and internal organs and abnormalities in the central nervous system. Pregnant women are likewise advised not to take accutane during pregnancy, and as well consume vitamin A-rich foods to maintain healthy skin. [read more]

  13. Achalasia
    Achalasia also called esophageal achalasia; cardiospasm, achalasia cardiae; dyssynergia esophagus or esophageal aperistalsis; is an esophageal motility disease. This disorder manifests an impaired peristalsis of the smooth muscle level of the esophagus. Peristalsis is the term used to describe the muscular capability of the esophagus to make the food move down to the stomach). Also, a patient with achalasia has a lower esophageal sphincter or LES that cannot relax which is its normal response to swallowing. The most common form of this disorder is primary achalasia. This form has no recorded underlying cause. Esophageal cancer (Chagas disease in South America) could be a result of achalasia. [read more]

  14. Achard-Thiers syndrome
    The Achard Thiers syndrome, also called the Diabetic Bearded Woman syndrome or diabete des femmes a barbe, is a rare disease which occurs commonly among women who are in their postmenopausal stage. Its name was derived from the combination of the names of Joseph Thiers and Emile Achard. This is characterized by insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (an example is glucosuria) and also indications of excess in androgen. This syndrome has the combined features of Cushing syndrome and Adrenogenital syndrome. It is a form of virilizing disease which is adrenocortical in origin. And since androgen is excessive on this disease, the common manifestations are masculinization (the voice pitch is lowered) and menstrual disorders (the menstrual flow can be sparse or non-existent). There are also cases of growth of ‘manly hair' all over the body. The most common complication of this disorder is hirsutism. [read more]

  15. Acheiropodia
    Acheiropodia is a disorder that is autosomal recessive in nature and which results into hemimelia (or the lack of distal extremities formation). This is an inborn defect consisting of aplasia of the patient's feet and hands and also distal lower and upper extremities bilateral amputations. This disease is found almost solely in Brazil. Other terms for this disorder include Acheiropody, Horn Kolb syndrome and Aleijadinhos (the Brazilian kind). [read more]

  16. Achilles Tendinitis
    Achilles Tendinitis is inflammation ans irritation of the Achilles tendon usually resulting due to sudden increase in the intensity or frequency of exercise. [read more]

  17. Achilles Tendon Rupture
    The Achilles tendon rupture is the damage of the large and fibrous cord that naturally connects the lower leg to the heel bone. The person may initially hear a snap followed by a sharp pain at the back of the ankle as well as in the lower leg. Such injuries may be improved with home treatment. However, more often than not, a surgical repair is required. [read more]

  18. Acholuric Jaundice
    Acholuric jaundice is a form of jaundice in which there is no bile in the urine. This is hereditary disorder in which bililrubin was not able to produce bile pigments causing now yellowish color on the organs and the skin. [read more]

  19. Achondrogenesis
    Marco Fraccaro was the very first person to observe and record the description of achondrogenesis in the year 1952. Fraccaro used this name in description of a stillborn female who was afflicted with acute micromelia and apparent changes on her histological cartilage. This term was then coined to characterize many more acute kinds of chondrodysplasia among humans. The conditions were invariably lethal on pre and post births. When the 70's came, researchers have concluded that the disorder is a part of a heterogenous cluster of chondrodysplasias that are fatal to neonates. Histological and radiological measures have distinguished the achondrogenesis type 1 (which is the Fraccaro-Houston-Harris kind) and the type 2 (or the Langer-Saldino kind). 1983 marked a new radiological category of the disease (Types 1-4). This was done by Gorlin and Whitley and was adapted by the McKusick catalog. This classification describes types 1 and 2 as having similar femoral cylinder indeces (or Clfemur which is calculated as the length of the femur bone divided by the range of the width of the same bone. Both kinds have stellate elongated bones and crenated ilia. Both types 1 and 2 are characterized by several rib fractures. Type 3 has ribs that are non-fractured, mushroom-stemmed elongated bones, halberd ilia, and a Clfemur 2.8 to 4.9. The last type (type 4) has sculpted ilia, long bones that are well-developed, non-fractured ribs and Clfemur measured at 4.9 to 8.0. The late 80's was the time when mutations on the collagen II structure were depicted to cause achondrogenesis type 3 (which might also correspond to type 2). At present, only 3 variants of the disorder have been identified and they are type IA or the Houston-Harris type; type IB (or the Parenti-Fraccaro type); and type II (or the Langer-Saldino type). [read more]

  20. Achondroplasia
    Achondroplasia is a kind of autosomal disorder of the dominant genes which commonly causes dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs are short in stature and their average height when they reach adulthood is at 123 centimeters (about 4 feet and 0.6 inches) for females and 131 centimeters (about 4 feet and 3.8 inches) for males. [read more]



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