ILLNESSOPEDIA

Free Online Database Of Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments

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Here you can look through thousands of and diseases, ailments, medical conditions and illnesses. You can find the symptoms. Read about any ailment's diagnosis and find medications that can be used and the correct treatments that are needed.

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Diseases, Illnesses & Ailments Starting from Letter A


  1. Adenosine monophosphate deaminase
    Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMD) is a type of muscle-specific deficiency that is a common cause of many exercise-induced myopathy and is one of the most common causes of metabolic myopathy among human beings. [read more]

  2. Adenovirus Infection
    Adenoviruses are among the most common cause of respiratory illnesses. People who already have a compromised immune system can become more susceptible to developing more serious medical conditions when exposed to this type of virus. [read more]

  3. Adenylosuccinase Deficiency
    Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease that affects purine synthesis. Among the main features of this disease are slow development of psychomotor skills as well as epileptic seizures and autism. It can be detected by means of testing abnormal purine metabolites present in body fluids. There is no cure available yet for the disorder. [read more]

  4. Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a type of disorder of the purine metabolism that affects patients both behaviorally and biochemically. Patients afflicted with this disorder normally have autistic features and display some mild psychomotor delays. [read more]

  5. Adhesion
    An adhesion is a band of fibrous tissue that binds the unconnected anatomic surfaces, which are separated from each other. It develops commonly in the abdomen after trauma or injury. Sometimes it is a congenital defect like the obstruction of the intestine. [read more]

  6. Adhesive Capsulitis
    Adhesive capsulitis is also known as frozen shoulders, a condition that is characterized by the abnormal stiffness and pain on the shoulder joint area. As the condition progresses and worsens, the individual will experience a limited range of motion. This condition usually affects one shoulder at a time. [read more]

  7. Adie syndrome
    Adie syndrome, sometimes reffered to as Adie's Tonic Pupil or Holmes-Adies Syndrome is categorized as a neurological disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and the pupil of the patient's eye. It causes damage to the postganglionic fibers of the eye that is usually brought about by bacterial or viral infection. [read more]

  8. Adiposis dolorosa
    Adiposis dolorosa, is also known as Dercum's disease and Ander's disease, which is a type of a rare disease that is characterized by some multiple painful lipomas that usually arise in adult life. Among the individuals commonly afflicted with this disease are those who are also battling with obesity and occurs on both men and women. [read more]

  9. Adrenal cancer
    Adrenal cancer is a very rare disease that begins in the patient's adrenal glands, which is located on the top section of the kidneys. The tumors can rapidly increase the production of hormones. The good news is about 99% of adrenal tumors are non-cancerous and would not normally require any form of treatment when small in size. It does not produce any detectable symptoms which is why patients diagnosed with this disorder find out about this condition purely by accident in other examination for completely unrelated diseases. [read more]

  10. Adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) generally refers to several autosomal recessive medical conditions that are results from some biochemical pathway of the steroidogenesis of the cortisol from cholesterol by the patient's adrenal glands. Majority of these conditions involve lesser or greater production of sex steroids and can also greatly alter the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in affected individuals. [read more]

  11. Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenital, X-linked (Adrenal Hypoplasia)
    There are four types of congenital adrenal hypoplasia that have been recognized and they are the following: an X-linked type or the OMIM 300200 which is caused by a deletion or mutation of the AHCH gene or the DAX1 gene (found in the X chromosome dosage-receptive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital vital region). This type is often linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It might be a component of an adjacent deletion of chromosome (this may include congenital adrenal hypoplasia, OMIM 310200 or the Duchenne muscular dystrophy and OMIM 307030 or glyce3rol kinase deficiency; the second type is the autosomal recessive type and it is caused by a deletion or mutation of the gene which is responsible for coding for SF-1 or steroidogenic factor 1 on OMIM 184757 or chromosome 9q99. This type is also linked with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; The third type is an autosomal recessive type. This type has a vague etiology (or OMIM 240200); The fourth type of adrenal hypoplasia which is linked with the retardation of intrauterine growths, genital defects, and metaphysical dysplasia is the OMIM 300290 or the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphysical dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, genital defects) association. The X-linked type adrenal hypoplasia congenital is a disease which is mainly acquired by males. It usually involves several endocrine tissues of the body most especially the gmall glands above the kidneys or the adrenal glands. The characteristics that often manifest are a reduction in the function of the adrenal gland; hypoglycemia; dehydration, feeding difficulties; and shock. Other male patients might also be sexually underdeveloped. The females who are rarely affected also have adrenal insufficiency and a deficiency of sex hormones. [read more]

  12. Adrenal Incidentaloma
    An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass which is seen during the imaging for other causes that are non-adrenal related. This means that the lesion was discovered serendipitously. Adrenal incidentaloma is the most common adrenal disorder and it is found during 1-5% of CT scans for the abdomen. 5-10% of patients who are diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma have masses that are non-functioning (this is based on postmortem examinations). This disease affects both males and females with most of the incidentalomas being hormonally inactive and benign. There are only a few numbers of cases where adrenalectomy is required (and this is done only when the lesion becomes functioning and malignant). The diagnostic assessment often evaluates the hormonal activity of the lesion and if it is malignant. Assessment of functions require plasma dihydroepiadosterone; urinary catecholamines for 24 hours and metanephrines; a low dosage of a test of dexamethasone suppression; serum ACTH; standing serum renin to aldosterone ration for hypertension and hypokalemia. The evaluation of the danger of malignancy requires MRI or CT scans; on CT lesions that are malignant are not regular, non-homogeneous and have great attenuation; for lesions that are MRI malignant, an clear concentration on T2 weighed image; it may also be useful to have CT guided cytology; there is also a need to exclude paechromocytoma before this procedure; [read more]

  13. Adrenal Insufficiency
    There are two classifications for adrenal insufficiency and they are: primary and secondary. The primary adrenal insufficiency happens when the adrenal gland dysfunctions. The secondary adrenal insufficiency which is also named central adrenal insufficiency happens there is a lack of CRH secretion or the corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus; or it could be the lack of ACTH secretion which is the corticotropic hormone from the pituitary. The second type leads to adrenal cortex hypofunction. Further classifications include acquired and congenital. [read more]

  14. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
    Adrenocortical carcinoma also called as ACC or adrenal cortical carcinoma and adrenal cortex cancer is a cancer that is aggressive which originates from the cortex (a tissue that produces steroid hormones) of the adrenal gland. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a tumor that is rare with an incidence of 1-2 in every 1,000,000 individuals annually. ACC has a bimodal allocation by age (most of the cases cluster among children that are under the age of 6 and in adults at 30-40 years of age). ACC can result into many syndromes such as Cushing's syndrome, virilization, Conn syndrome, and feminization. It also commonly metastizes or invades neighboring tissues and the survival rate is estimated at only 20-35%. [read more]

  15. Adrenogenital Syndrome
    The more proper term for adrenogenital syndrome is congenital adrenal hyperplasia or CAH. This refers to numerous other autosomal recessive disor which result from biochemical paths of cortisol setoidogenesis from cholesterol done by the adrenal glands. Most number of these conditions could have lesser or greater sex steroid production and they can alter primary or secondary sex characteristic development among adults, children and infant patients. Only a few cases of people with CAH can be appropriated with intersex condition although this attracted the attention of the American public in the 90's and since then, there have been various accounts that have been circulated. It is estimated that 95% of CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Conditions Caused by CAH The most common conditions that are caused by adrenogenital syndrome are: ambiguous genitals (in some female patients wherein it can be initially hard to know the exact sex of the infant); salt-wasting that causes vomiting (which may lead to dehydration and eventually—death); the early appearance of pubice or the occurrence failure or the delay of puberty (including sexual infantilism); too much facial hair; virilization; irregular menstrual periods during the adolescent stage; infertility caused by anovulation; and hypertension. [read more]

  16. Adrenoleukodystrophy
    Adrenoleukodystrophy is also known as ALD, Sudanophilic leukodystrophy and Schilder's disease. This is a rare disorder that is inherited which often leads to progressive damage of the brain, adrenal gland failure and eventually, death. ALD belongs to a group of disorders that are inherited which are called Leukodystrophies. Leukodystrophies often progressively destroy the myelin (a complex fatty neutral tissue which insulates numerous nerves of the peripheral and central nervous systems). The absence of myelin intensifies destruction. Patients of this disorder have a missing essential protein called the transporter protein. The transporter protein is needed in carrying an enzyme (the one used in breaking down long chain fatty acid in a normal person's diet). A long chain fatty acid accumulation can bring about brain damage and adrenal gland damage. Usually, the patients of ALD are males who inherit the X-linked disorder. Leudodystrophies are not similar to demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis where the myelin is normally formed but is eventually lost through immunologic dysfunction or for other causes. [read more]

  17. Adrenomyodystrophy
    Adrenomyodystrophy is a rare genetic disease which is often characterized by chief adrenal insufficiency, acute psychomotor retardation, dystrophic myopathy, and an acutely swollen bladder which can result into death. [read more]

  18. Adult Onset Still's Disease
    Still's disease was first discovered as a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that is common among children but is now also discovered to have a few cases in adults. The adult type is called the adult onset Still's disease (or AOSD). AOSD was first described by an English doctor in 1971. The physician's name was Bywaters who is also famous for his work on the crush syndrome. There are varying theories as to the cause of Still's disease. There is a suggestion that it originated from a microbacterial infection. To this day, the cause of the illness remains unknown. It is more securely established that the disorder's pathogenesis is autoimmune. [read more]

  19. Adult Schizophrenia
    Adult Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most complex of all identified mental health disorders. It is characterized by a severe and chronic, often disabling disturbance of the person's brain that causes distorted thinking, unusual strange feelings and disturbed behavior and use of language. [read more]

  20. Agammaglobulinemia
    Agammaglobulinemia is also called hypogammaglobulinemia. It is the most ordinary type of primary immunodeficiency which accounts to about 50% of all the cases. The three major kinds can be defined as: early onset, late onset, and X-linked. It was only after more than 50 years since the clinical manifestation was first recorded in 1952 by a certain Bruton. He described that the defect on the molecule in XLA or X-linked agammaglobulinemia has been explicated. To honor Bruton, the responsible gene was named Btk which means Bruton tyrosine kinase. It is estimated that 90% of the patients with the early-onset kind of agammaglobulinemia and the lack of B cells have defects on their Btk genes. The late-onset type is often referred to as the CVID or Common Variable Immunodeficiency. The last type is the early-onset non-Bruton agammaglobuliemia with absent or just low serum immunoglobulin (or Ig). Most of the cases are representative of a very heterogenous group which includes Ig deficiency with an increase in immunoglobulin M or hyper-IgM syndrome. There are also some infants who have an initial reading of low Ig level which soon increases to the normal level. This is named as Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. Currently, the production of defective antibodies and the low circulation of a number of B cells were descriptive of some female infants and some males who do not have any Btk defects. These records imply the participation of other genes. [read more]



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